IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence

Issue 2 • March 1986

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • List of Contributors

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Computer Society publications [inside front cover]

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Image Analysis Using Multigrid Relaxation Methods

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):129 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (205)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6258 KB)

    Image analysis problems, posed mathematically as variational principles or as partial differential equations, are amenable to numerical solution by relaxation algorithms that are local, iterative, and often parallel. Although they are well suited structurally for implementation on massively parallel, locally interconnected computational architectures, such distributed algorithms are seriously hand... View full abstract»

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  • Image Structure Representation and Processing: A Discussion of Some Segmentation Methods in Cytology

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):140 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5879 KB)

    Image processing methods (segmentation) are presented in connection with a modeling of image structure. An image is represented as a set of primitives, characterized by their type, abstraction level, and a list of attributes. Entities (regions for example) are then described as a subset of primitives obeying particular rules. Image segmentation methods are discussed, according to the associated im... View full abstract»

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  • On Edge Detection

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):147 - 163
    Cited by:  Papers (476)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4123 KB)

    Edge detection is the process that attempts to characterize the intensity changes in the image in terms of the physical processes that have originated them. A critical, intermediate goal of edge detection is the detection and characterization of significant intensity changes. This paper discusses this part of the edge detection problem. To characterize the types of intensity changes derivatives of... View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Edge Detector Design I: Parameter Selection and Noise Effects

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):164 - 177
    Cited by:  Papers (51)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3323 KB)

    This paper comments on the optimality of the Laplacian of a Gaussian edge detection filter which localizes edges through zero crossings in the filtered image. The arguments of both Marr and Hildreth, and Dickey and Shanmugam are reviewed to establish that the filter is optimal in the sense of maximizing output image energy near edge features. This filter's principal advantage over other edge detec... View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Edge Detector Design II: Coefficient Quantization

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):178 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1323 KB)

    A companion paper describes the design and implementation of the Laplacian of a Gaussian edge detection filter which localizes edges through zero crossings in the filtered image. Accuracy in the presence of noise has been found to be proportional to the square root of the filter's standard deviation. Digital implementation of any continuous filter requires sampling and coefficient quantization. Th... View full abstract»

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  • ANGY: A Rule-Based Expert System for Automatic Segmentation of Coronary Vessels From Digital Subtracted Angiograms

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):188 - 199
    Cited by:  Papers (100)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6661 KB)

    This paper details the design and implementation of ANGY, a rule-based expert system in the domain of medical image processing. Given a subtracted digital angiogram of the chest, ANGY identifies and isolates the coronary vessels, while ignoring any nonvessel structures which may have arisen from noise, variations in background contrast, imperfect subtraction, and irrelevent anatomical detail. The ... View full abstract»

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  • Collision Detection for Moving Polyhedra

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):200 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (135)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2901 KB)

    We consider the collision-detection problem for a three-dimensional solid object moving among polyhedral obstacles. The configuration space for this problem is six-dimensional, and the traditional representation of the space uses three translational parameters and three angles (typically Euler angles). The constraints between the object and obstacles then involve trigonometric functions. We show t... View full abstract»

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  • Mesh-Oriented Line Drawings Theory (MOLD Theory)

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):210 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4128 KB)

    In this paper, we describe a new model of bilevel digital images of line drawings. The key idea is that the constraints of generating the line drawings are available to select patterns which are considered to be a certain local appearance of line drawings. Concretely, when a bilevel digital image of line drawings is observed by 3 × 3 pixels' unit mesh, the patterns occurring in the unit mesh are ... View full abstract»

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  • Digital Image Registration Using Projections

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):222 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5387 KB)

    In many application fields (e.g., aerospace and biomedical image processing), one has to deal with a sequence of images whose observation is made difficult by unpredictable relative movements of the camera and the scene. In order to obtain a stable display, the displacement of each image in the sequence with respect to one chosen as a reference must be preliminarily determined. This would usually ... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Synthesis of Gaussian Filters by Cascaded Uniform Filters

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):234 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (64)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1763 KB)

    Gaussian filtering is an important tool in image processing and computer vision. In this paper we discuss the background of Gaussian filtering and look at some methods for implementing it. Consideration of the central limit theorem suggests using a cascade of ``simple'' filters as a means of computing Gaussian filters. Among ``simple'' filters, uniform-coefficient finite-impulse-response digital f... View full abstract»

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  • A Test of the Gaussian-ness of a Data Set Using Clustering

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):240 - 247
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1842 KB)

    The properties of the ``magnifying glass'' method of clustering are discussed. These properties, which include unbiased and consistent estimation of the mean for Gaussian distributions and biased and inconsistent estimation of the mean for non-Gaussian distributions, lead to the development of a technique for testing data to determine whether or not it is Gaussian. An example of a non-Gaussian dis... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Implementation of the Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Algorithms

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):248 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (251)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2537 KB)

    This paper reports the results of a numerical comparison of two versions of the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithms. In particular, we propose and exemplify an approximate fuzzy c-means (AFCM) implementation based upon replacing the necessary ``exact'' variates in the FCM equation with integer-valued or real-valued estimates. This approximation enables AFCM to exploit a lookup table approach... View full abstract»

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  • Relaxation Labeling with Learning Automata

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):256 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2533 KB)

    Relaxation labeling processes are a class of mechanisms that solve the problem of assigning labels to objects in a manner that is consistent with respect to some domain-specific constraints. We reformulate this using the model of a team of learning automata interacting with an environment or a high-level critic that gives noisy responses as to the consistency of a tentative labeling selected by th... View full abstract»

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  • Encoding of Line Drawings with a Multiple Grid Chain Code

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):269 - 276
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1190 KB)

    The multiple grid(MG) chain code which uses four different square grids is proposed to encode line drawings. The main processes adopted in the code are: 1) a grid selection algorithm which allocates quantization points only to the vicinity of the course of a line drawing, 2) labeling rule on quantization points which makes the frequency of some codes larger than that of other codes, and 3) quantiz... View full abstract»

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  • Best Linear Unbiased Estimators for Properties of Digitized Straight Lines

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):276 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1343 KB)

    This paper considers the problem of measuring properties of digitized straight lines from the viewpoint of measurement methodology. The measurement and estimation process is described in detail, revealing the importance of a step called ``characterization'' which was not recognized explicitly before. Using this new concept, BLUE (Best Linear Unbiased) estimators are found. These are calculated for... View full abstract»

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  • One-Dimensional Scan Selection for Two-Dimensional Signal Restoration

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):282 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB)

    The problem of m-D filtering using sequential scanning is considered. It is shown that the optimal causal filter and the performance measure depend on the scan selected. Examples show that this effect can be significant. Possible techniques to select a suitable scan are analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • On the Local Optimality of the Fuzzy Isodata Clustering Algorithm

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):284 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (715 KB)

    The convergence of the fuzzy ISODATA clustering algorithm was proved by Bezdek [3]. Two sets of conditions were derived and it was conjectured that they are necessary and sufficient for a local minimum point. In this paper, we address this conjecture and explore the properties of the underlying optimization problem. The notions of reduced objective function and improving and feasible directions ar... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) is published monthly. Its editorial board strives to present most important research results in areas within TPAMI's scope.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Sven Dickinson
University of Toronto
e-mail: sven@cs.toronto.edu