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Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1984

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): c1
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  • List of Contributors

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): nil1
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  • Some Recent Results in Heuristic Search Theory

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 1 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3599 KB)  

    The paper summarizes recent analytical investigations of the mathematical properties of heuristics and their influence on the performance of common search techniques. The results are reported without proofs together with discussions of motivations and interpretations. The highlights include the following: the optimality of A*; relations between the precision of the heuristic estimates and the average complexity of the search; comparisons of the average complexities of A* and BACKTRACKING; procedures for comparing and combining nonadmissible heuristic functions; the influence of the weight w (in f = (l - w) g + wh) on the complexity of A*; the pruning power of alphabeta, SSS*, and SCOUT; the effect of successor ordering on search complexity, and the effect of search depth of the quality of decisions in game-playing. View full abstract»

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  • Uniqueness and Estimation of Three-Dimensional Motion Parameters of Rigid Objects with Curved Surfaces

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 13 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (291)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3541 KB)  

    Two main results are established in this paper. First, we show that seven point correspondences are sufficient to uniquely determine from two perspective views the three-dimensional motion parameters (within a scale factor for the translations) of a rigid object with curved surfaces. The seven points should not be traversed by two planes with one plane containing the origin, nor by a cone containing the origin. Second, a set of ``essential parameters'' are introduced which uniquely determine the motion parameters up to a scale factor for the translations, and can be estimated by solving a set of linear equations which are derived from the correspondences of eight image points. The actual motion parameters can subsequently be determined by computing the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a 3×3 matrix containing the essential parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Curvature and Tangential Deflection of Discrete Arcs: A Theory Based on the Commutator of Scatter Matrix Pairs and Its Application to Vertex Detection in Planar Shape Data

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 27 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3783 KB)  

    This paper introduces a new theory for the tangential deflection and curvature of plane discrete curves. Our theory applies to discrete data in either rectangular boundary coordinate or chain coded formats: its rationale is drawn from the statistical and geometric properties associated with the eigenvalue-eigenvector structure of sample covariance matrices. Specifically, we prove that the nonzero entry of the commutator of a piar of scatter matrices constructed from discrete arcs is related to the angle between their eigenspaces. And further, we show that this entry is-in certain limiting cases-also proportional to the analytical curvature of the plane curve from which the discrete data are drawn. These results lend a sound theoretical basis to the notions of discrete curvature and tangential deflection; and moreover, they provide a means for computationally efficient implementation of algorithms which use these ideas in various image processing contexts. As a concrete example, we develop the commutator vertex detection (CVD) algorithm, which identifies the location of vertices in shape data based on excessive cummulative tangential deflection; and we compare its performance to several well established corner detectors that utilize the alternative strategy of finding (approximate) curvature extrema. View full abstract»

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  • A Piecewise Linear Approximation Based on a Statistical Model

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 41 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1291 KB)  

    A statistical model is introduced and then, based on it, a piecewise linear approximation algorithm of linear computational complexity is presented. The advantages of the algorithm are proved experimentally in small sample cases and theoretically in the large sample case. The paper is closed with a discussion on some possible extensions. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Correlation Method for Scale-and Translation-Invariant Pattern Recognition

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 46 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2967 KB)  

    A size- and position-invariant description of an image function can be obtained via the absolute value of the Mellin transform of its Fourier amplitude spectrum. If the transform is implemented on a digital computer via a discrete Fourier-Mellin transform, these exact invariances are not preserved due to sampling-and border-effects. In this paper these effects are discussed, and an alternative correlation method is proposed. The method consists of calculating the normalized absolute magnitude of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the image function (which gives invariance to translation and multiplicative amplitude changes) and a subsequent logarithmic distortion in x- and y- direction, which converts scaling to translation. Two such transforms are compared by calculating the normalized Euclidean distances between both for all possible relative shifts along the main diagonal. If, for some shift, the distance has a minimum below a similarity threshold, the underlying image functions will probably differ only by translation and scaling. The magnitude of this shift is related to the scale factor between the objects. Good separation between similar and nonsimilar objects is possible if two size criteria imposed by the DFT are met: the total object size must not exceed N/4 (N is the number of image points in each dimension), and object details have to be larger than about 4 image points. As a consequence, N increases with object complexity and desired scale range. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Step Edges from Zero Crossing of Second Directional Derivatives

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 58 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (285)  |  Patents (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6264 KB)  

    We use the facet model to accomplish step edge detection. The essence of the facet model is that any analysis made on the basis of the pixel values in some neighborhood has its final authoritative interpretation relative to the underlying gray tone intensity surface of which the neighborhood pixel values are observed noisy samples. With regard to edge detection, we define an edge to occur in a pixel if and only if there is some point in the pixel's area having a negatively sloped zero crossing of the second directional derivative taken in the direction of a nonzero gradient at the pixel's center. Thus, to determine whether or not a pixel should be marked as a step edge pixel, its underlying gray tone intensity surface must be estimated on the basis of the pixels in its neighborhood. For this, we use a functional form consisting of a linear combination of the tensor products of discrete orthogonal polynomials of up to degree three. The appropriate directional derivatives are easily computed from this kind of a function. Upon comparing the performance of this zero crossing of second directional derivative operator with the Prewitt gradient operator and the Marr-Hildreth zero crossing of the Laplacian operator, we find that it is the best performer; next is the Prewitt gradient operator. The Marr-Hildreth zero crossing of the Laplacian operator performs the worst. View full abstract»

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  • Extremes in the Complexity of Computing Metric Distances Between Partitions

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 69 - 73
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    Day [3] describes an analytical model of minimum-length sequence (MLS) metrics measuring distances between partitions of a set. By selecting suitable values of model coordinates, a user may identify within the model that metric most appropriate to his classification application. Users should understand that within the model similar metrics may nevertheless exhibit extreme differences in their computational complexities. For example, the asymptotic time complexities of two MLS metrics are known to be linear in the number of objects being partitioned; yet we establish below that the computational problem for a closely related MLS metric is NP-complete. View full abstract»

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  • Testing for Uniformity in Multidimensional Data

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 73 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3167 KB)  

    Testing for uniformity in multidimensional data is important in exploratory pattern analysis, statistical pattern recognition, and image processing. The goal of this paper is to determine whether the data follow the uniform distribution over some compact convex set in K-dimensional space, called the sampling window. We first provide a simple, computationally efficient method for generating a uniformly distributed sample over a set which approximates the convex hul of the data. We then test for uniformity by comparing this generated sample to the data by using Friedman-Rafsky's minimal spanning tree (MST) based test. Experiments with both simulated and real data indicate that this MST-based test is useful in deciding if data are uniform. View full abstract»

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  • K-Means-Type Algorithms: A Generalized Convergence Theorem and Characterization of Local Optimality

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 81 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (128)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2053 KB)  

    The K-means algorithm is a commonly used technique in cluster analysis. In this paper, several questions about the algorithm are addressed. The clustering problem is first cast as a nonconvex mathematical program. Then, a rigorous proof of the finite convergence of the K-means-type algorithm is given for any metric. It is shown that under certain conditions the algorithm may fail to converge to a local minimum, and that it converges under differentiability conditions to a Kuhn-Tucker point. Finally, a method for obtaining a local-minimum solution is given. View full abstract»

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  • EMERGE-A Data-Driven Medical Decision Making Aid

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 87 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1748 KB)  

    EMERGE is an expert system designed as a medical decision making aid. It is machine-independent, and is implemented in standard Pascal. It has modest memory requirements, and can operate on a microcomputer. EMERGE is rule-based, and its initial application is the analysis of chest pain in the emergency room. The knowledge base is maintained separately from the consultation program. Thus the application area can be changed without any modification to the software. This paper describes the control structures and rule searching procedures used in EMERGE. View full abstract»

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  • Planning Collision-Free Paths for Robotic Arm Among Obstacles

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 91 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1287 KB)  

    A theory for planning collision-free paths of a moving object among obstacles is described. Using the concepts of state space and rotation mapping, the relationship between the positions and the corresponding collision-free orientations of a moving object among obstacles is represented as some set of a state space. This set is called the rotation mapping graph (RMG) of that object. The problem of finding collision-free paths for an object translating and rotating among obstacles is thus transformed to that of considering the connectivity of the RMG. Since the connectivity of the graph can be solved by topological methods, the problem of planning collision-free paths is easily solved in theory. Using this theory, a topological method for planning collision-free paths of a rod-object translating and rotating among obstacles is presented. If a nonrigid robotic arm is viewed as a composite rod with some degrees of freedom, the planning of collision-free paths of a robotic arm can be solved in a similar way to a rod. View full abstract»

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  • Diffuse Edge Fitting and Following: A Location-Adaptive Approach

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 96 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2901 KB)  

    The detection and tracing of edges of varying diffusion is a problem of importance in image analysis. In particular, it is of interest for the segmentation of meteorological and physiological pictures where the boundaries of objects are possibly not well defined or are obscured to a varying extent by noise. We present an edge detection and line fitting procedure which ascribes a direction, a measure of gradient, and quality of fit to the edge within a square segment of a controlled size or ``scope.'' To detect and fit edges to diffuse objects the scope is adaptively altered based on the confidence of fit to permit tracing of the object's boundary. We discuss predictor-corrector procedures for performing this edge tracing where predicted and calculated lines and confidences are used to generate a better fitting line. The performance of the procedures is demonstrated using both synthetic and satellite meteorological images. View full abstract»

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  • Fourier Coding of Image Boundaries

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 102 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (850 KB)  

    A transform coding scheme for closed image boundaries on a plane is described. The given boundary is approximated by a series of straight line segments. Depending on the shape, the boundary is represented by the (x-y) coordinates of the endpoints of the line segments or by the magnitude of the successive radii vectors that are equispaced in angle around the given boundary. Due to the circularity present in the data, the discrete Fourier transform is used to exactly decorrelate the finite boundary data. By fitting a Gaussian circular autoregressive model to represent the boundary data, estimates of the variances of the Fourier coefficients are obtained. Using the variances of the Fourier coefficients and the MAX quantizer, the coding scheme is implemented. The scheme is illustrated by an example. View full abstract»

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  • A Syntactic Approach for Handwritten Mathematical Formula Recognition

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 105 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1336 KB)  

    Mathematical formulas are good examples of two-dimensional patterns as well as pictures or graphics. The use of syntactic methods is useful for interpreting such complex patterns. In this paper we propose a system for the interpretation of 2-D mathematic formulas based on a syntactic parser. This system is able to recognize a large class of 2-D mathematic formulas written on a graphic tablet. It starts the parsing by localization of the ``principal'' operator in the formula and attempts to partition it into subexpressions which are similarly analyzed by looking for a starting character. The generalized parser used in the system has been developed in our group for continuous speech recognition and picture interpretation. View full abstract»

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  • A Similarity Measure Between Patterns with Nonindependent Attributes

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 111 - 115
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    A generalized version of a set-theoretical measure for obtaining similarities between patterns with nonindependent attributes is presented. The dependence here is given by the pairwise correlation. Since the proposed measure needs no assumption of attribute independence, the resulting similarity values can reflect directly the relationships between the attributes. View full abstract»

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  • Nonparametric Data Reduction

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 115 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (693 KB)  

    A nonparametric data reduction technique is proposed. Its goal is to select samples that are ``representative'' of the entire data set. The technique is iterative and is based on the use of a criterion function and nearest neighbor density estimates. Experiments are presented to demonstrate the algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Game Theoretical Pattern Recognition: Application to Imperfect Noncooperative Learning and to Multiclass Classification

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 118 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1068 KB)  

    This paper studies in theory, and gives a solution to, the following concerns which may eventually be simultaneous: 1) obtain alternative classification decisions, ranked by some decreasing order of class membership probabilities; 2) imperfect teacher at the learning stage, or effects of labeling errors due to unsupervised learning by clustering; 3) noncooperative teacher, manipulating the a priori class probabilities; 4) unknown a priori class probabilities. These requirements are taken into account by considering a game between the recognition system and the teacher, in a game theoretical framework. Both players will ultimately select ``mixed strategies,'' which are probability distributions over the set of N alternative pattern classes, determined for each feature vector to be classified. This solution concept is interpreted in terms of the requirements 1)-4); numerical algorithms, as well as numerical examples are given with their solutions. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on Sugihara's Claim

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 122 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)  

    This correspondence debates a theorem formulated by K. Sugihara in a recent publication. The theorem deals with the mathematical structures of line drawings, and serves as a basis for a substantial part of the paper. This note claims that the theorem as formulated is not valid. The claim is substantiated by a counterexample. View full abstract»

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  • Information for authors

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 124
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 125 - 126
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  • Content Announcement

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 127
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Content Announcement

    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 128
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The IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) is published monthly. Its editorial board strives to present most important research results in areas within TPAMI's scope.

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Editor-in-Chief
David A. Forsyth
University of Illinois