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Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): c1
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  • List of Contributors

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): nil1
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  • A System for Programming and Controlling Sensor-Based Robot Manipulators

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1726 KB)  

    This paper describes an approach to programming and controlling robot manipulators which facilitates the use of sensory information. Robot actions are specified by declaring software servo processes which control the robot's various degrees of freedom. These servo processes can involve position, orientation, force, and torque information from the robot itself, or data from external sensors. Robot tasks are programmed by dynamically modifying the servo processes or by changing set points to these processes. Condition monitors, which have access to program and sensory information, detect the completion of program steps. View full abstract»

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  • Boundary Location from an Initial Plan: The Bead Chain Algorithm

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 8 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    A new boundary finding method is described and applied to a problem in morphometric cytology. The method is shown to offer several advantages over existing boundary locating techniques. Some experimental results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Restoration of a Feature Closed Class of Two-Dimensional Images

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 14 - 24
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    A restoration principle is proposed and demonstrated for a feature closed class of two-dimensional images. Any member of this class of images can be represented as an intersection of unions of half planes in R2. Images with corners as well as images with continuous curvature can be generated under this algebraic representation. All resulting images have a well-defined interior and a nonintersecting boundary. Knowledge that the image to be restored comes from this closed class of images allows for an image restoration algorithm that is superior to a point-thickening algorithm. The proposed restoration algorithm produces a restored image that lies within the image to be restored. For a random sample of n points known to lie within the image to be restored, the expected value of the residual area for the image with corners is of order (In n/n) and is proportional to the number of outside corners. For images with continuous curvature, the residual area is of order 1/¿n and is proportional to a geometric constant associated with the curvature of the boundary. The restoration algorithm offers insight into the consideration of the shape of the boundary in image restoration. View full abstract»

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  • Markov Random Field Texture Models

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 25 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (272)  |  Patents (3)
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    We consider a texture to be a stochastic, possibly periodic, two-dimensional image field. A texture model is a mathematical procedure capable of producing and describing a textured image. We explore the use of Markov random fields as texture models. The binomial model, where each point in the texture has a binomial distribution with parameter controlled by its neighbors and ``number of tries'' equal to the number of gray levels, was taken to be the basic model for the analysis. A method of generating samples from the binomial model is given, followed by a theoretical and practical analysis of the method's convergence. Examples show how the parameters of the Markov random field control the strength and direction of the clustering in the image. The power of the binomial model to produce blurry, sharp, line-like, and blob-like textures is demonstrated. Natural texture samples were digitized and their parameters were estimated under the Markov random field model. A hypothesis test was used for an objective assessment of goodness-of-fit under the Markov random field model. Overall, microtextures fit the model well. The estimated parameters of the natural textures were used as input to the generation procedure. The synthetic microtextures closely resembled their real counterparts, while the regular and inhomogeneous textures did not. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Cluster Size, Dimensionality, and the Number of Clusters on Recovery of True Cluster Structure

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 40 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2100 KB)  

    An evaluation of four clustering methods and four external criterion measures was conducted with respect to the effect of the number of clusters, dimensionality, and relative cluster sizes on the recovery of true cluster structure. The four methods were the single link, complete link, group average (UPGMA), and Ward's minimum variance algorithms. The results indicated that the four criterion measures were generally consistent with each other, of which two highly similar pairs were identified. The tirst pair consisted of the Rand and corrected Rand statistics, and the second pair was the Jaccard and the Fowlkes and Mallows indexes. With respect to the methods, recovery was found to improve as the number of clusters increased and as the number of dimensions increased. The relative cluster size factor produced differential performance effects, with Ward's procedure providing the best recovery when the clusters were of equal size. The group average method gave equivalent or better recovery when the clusters were of unequal size. View full abstract»

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  • Classification by Thresholding

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 48 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1874 KB)  

    A procedure is given which substantially reduces the processing time needed to perform maximum likelihood classification on large data sets. The given method uses a set of fixed thresholds which, if exceeded by one probability density function, makes it unnecessary to evaluate a competing density function. Proofs are given of the existence and optimality of these thresholds for the class of continuous, unimodal, and quasi-concave density functions (which includes the multivariate normal), and a method for computing the thresholds is provided for the specifilc case of multivariate normal densities. An example with remote sensing data consisting of some 20 000 observations of four-dimensional data from nine ground-cover classes shows that by using thresholds, one could cut the processing time almost in half. View full abstract»

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  • Gray Level Image Processing by Cellular Logic Transforms

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 55 - 58
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    The cellular logic transform has been used extensively in the analysis of bilevel images generated by thresholding gray level images. Now, by a process of gray level resynthesis, it is shown to be useful in gray level image processing. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Computation of the Focus of Expansion

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 58 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5680 KB)  

    Optical flow carries valuable information about the nature and depth of surfaces and the relative motion between observer and objects. In the extraction of this information, the focus of expansion plays a vital role. In contrast to the current approaches, this paper presents a method for the direct computation of the focus of expansion using an optimization approach. The optical flow can then be computed using the focus of expansion. View full abstract»

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  • Segmentation by Texture Using Correlation

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 64 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
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    The correlation coefficients are used for segmentation according to texture. They are first evaluated on a set of square regions forming two levels of the quadratic picture tree (or pyramid). If the coefficients of a square and its four children in the tree are similar, then that region is considered to be of uniform texture. If not, it is replaced by its children. In this way, the split-and-merge algorithm is used to achieve a preliminary segmentation. It is followed by a grouping algorithm using the correlation coefficients and the region adjacency graph, plus a small region elimination step. The latter regions are grouped according to their gray level because texture cannot be defined reliably on very small regions. Examples of implementation on four pictures are included. View full abstract»

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  • On Edge Detection of X-Ray Images Using Fuzzy Sets

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 69 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6606 KB)  

    The effectiveness of the theory of fuzzy sets in detecting different regional boundaries of X-ray images is demonstrated. The algorithm includes a prior enhancement of the contrast among the regions (having small change in gray levels) using the contrast intensification (INT) operation along with smoothing in the fuzzy property plane before detecting its edges. The property plane is extracted from the spatial domain using S, ¿ and (1 ¿) functions and the fuzzifiers. Final edge detection is achieved using max or min operator. The system performance for different parameter conditions is illustrated by application to an image of a radiograph of the wrist. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Quadtrees for Image Segments

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 77 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    Quadtrees are compact hierarchical representations of images. In this paper, we define the efficiency of quadtrees in representing image segments and derive the relationship between the size of the enclosing rectangle of an image segment and its optimal quadtree. We show that if an image segment has an enclosing rectangle having sides of lengths x and y, such that 2N-1 × max (x, y) ¿ 2N, then the optimal quadtree may be the one representing an image of size 2N × 2N or 2N+1 × 2N+1. It is shown that in some situations the quadtree corresponding to the larger image has fewer nodes. Also, some necessary conditions are derived to identify segments for which the larger image size results in a quadtree which is no more expensive than the quadtree for the smaller image size. View full abstract»

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  • Application of a Multilayer Decision Tree in Computer Recognition of Chinese Characters

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 83 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1319 KB)  

    A multistage classifier with general tree structure has been developed to recognize a large number of Chinese characters. A simple and efficient method of classifying the characters was achieved by choosing the best feature at each stage of the tree. The features used are Walsh coefficients obtained from two profiles of a character projected onto the X-Y orthogonal axes. Some algorithms for aligning the characters were compared and one of them was adopted in this recognition scheme. A high recognition rate of about 99.5 percent was obtained in an experiment with more than 3000 different Chinese characters. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Speedup Bounds for Parallel Alpha-Beta Search

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 89 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (821 KB)  

    In this paper we investigate the ``mandatory-work-first'' approach to parallel alpha-beta search first proposed by Akl, Barnard, and Doran. This approach is based on a version of alpha-beta search without deep cutoffs and a two-stage evaluation process, the second stage of which is often pruned. Our analysis shows that for best-first ordering on the lookahead tree, this approach provides greater speedup than the Palphabeta tree-splitting technique, and that for worst-first ordering, mandatory work first provides only slightly worse speedup than Palphabeta. View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical Structures and Complexities of Parallel Isometric Languages

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 92 - 99
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    The relationship between parallel isometric array languages and sequential isometric array languages is examined. Their hierarchical structures are investigated and a hierarchy is established by introducing parallel context-free array languages (PCFAL), derivation bounded array languages (DBAL), linear array languages (LAL), and extended regular afray languages (ERAL). It is interesting to find that some fundamental aspects that hold in one-dimensional string languages do not hold in their two-dimensional counterparts. Some parsing techniques are also explored. It is shown that while parallel parsing grammars may be simpler to write and parallel processing usually takes less time than sequential ones, the nature of parallel parsing is very complicated. Finally, several future research topics concerned with parallel isometric array languages including their complexities, hierarchical structures, and application to pattern recognition are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Fisher Discriminant Analysis and Factor Analysis

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 99 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    We show that information on the inherent structure of multidimensional data derived from a factor analysis procedure is equivalent to information obtained by Fisher discriminant analysis techniques, provided certain conditions, usually required in the factor analysis model, are satisfied. The results advocate the use of a factor analysis approach when Fisher discriminant analysis is not applicable, such as, for instance, in clustering problems. View full abstract»

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  • Segmenting Dot Patterns by Voronoi Diagram Concavity

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 104 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    This correspondence defines a signed distance, called ``internal concavity,'' on paths of the Voronoi diagram of a dot pattern. An algorithm using internal concavity to segment dot patterns is described. The segmentation algorithm produces subsets of the Dirichlet tessellation (Delaunay triangulation) of the dot pattern. View full abstract»

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  • Packing Volumes by Spheres

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 111 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3515 KB)  

    In this note we present an algorithm for packing spheres in an arbitrary shaped volume. This algorithm is similar to Blum's transform in that it fits spheres into a volume, but it is different in that it fits only tangential spheres, and thereby the data reduction is larger than by Blum's transform. The spheres are of variable radii, which enables us to achieve a hierarchy of intrinsic volume properties, i.e., from gross to more detailed. The result of this algorithm is a graph where the nodes are the centers of spheres and the arcs are the connections between two tangent spheres. Analysis of computational complexity and the time and error considerations are provided. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 117 - 118
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  • Information for authors

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 119
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  • Call for Papers

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 120
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  • List of Contributors

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): nil2
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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) is published monthly. Its editorial board strives to present most important research results in areas within TPAMI's scope.

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Editor-in-Chief
David A. Forsyth
University of Illinois