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Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 1982

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • List of Contributors

    Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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  • Automated Visual Inspection: A Survey

    Page(s): 557 - 573
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    This paper surveys publications, reports, and articles dealing with automated visual inspection for industry. The references are organized according to their contents: overview and discussions, rationales, components and design considerations, commercially available systems, applications. A number of applications and their inspection methodologies are discussed in detail: the inspection of printed circuit boards, photomasks, integrated circuit chips. Other inspection applications are listed as a bibliography. A list of selectively annotated references in commercially available visual inspection tools is also included. View full abstract»

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  • Attributed Programmed Graph Grammars and Their Application to Schematic Diagram Interpretation

    Page(s): 574 - 582
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    Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The task is in either case to extract a description from an input diagram. View full abstract»

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  • A Mathematical Model for Computer Image Tracking

    Page(s): 583 - 594
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    A mathematical model using an operator formulation for a moving object in a sequence of images is presented. Time-varying translation and rotation operators are derived to describe the motion. A variational estimation algorithm is developed to track the dynamic parameters of the operators. The occlusion problem is alleviated by using a predictive Kalman filter to keep the tracking on course during severe occlusion. The tracking algorithm (variational estimation in conjunction with Kalman filter) is implemented to track moving objects with occasional occlusion in computer-simulated binary images. View full abstract»

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  • Organization of Relational Models for Scene Analysis

    Page(s): 595 - 602
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    Relational models are commonly used in scene analysis systems. Most such systems are experimental and deal with only a small number of models. Unknown objects to be analyzed are usually sequentially compared to each model. In this paper, we present some ideas for organizing a large database of relational models. We define a simple relational distance measure, prove it is a metric, and using this measure, describe two organizational/access methods: clustering and binary search trees. We illustrate these methods with a set of randomly generated graphs. View full abstract»

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  • Stable Matching Between a Hand Structure and an Object Silhouette

    Page(s): 603 - 612
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    A method is proposed which determines the possible ways to grasp an object, defined by its silhouette. This method is quite general and versatile: the geometry of the object is arbitrary and a large class of grippers is allowed; no a priori information is needed, except the parameters of the gripper, and so the method applies, in particular, to all the automatic prehension problems when the object and/or its orientation are unknown. Suitable segmentation and parametrization of the silhouette yields an explicit solution and a very fast and simple algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Convex Digital Solids

    Page(s): 612 - 618
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    A definition of convexity of digital solids is introduced. Then it is proved that a digital solid is convex if and only if it has the chordal triangle property. Other geometric properties which characterize convex digital regions are shown to be only necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for a digital solid to be convex. An efficient algorithm that determines whether or not a digital solid is convex is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Convexity, Straightness, and Convex Polygons

    Page(s): 618 - 626
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    New schemes for digitizing regions and arcs are introduced. It is then shown that under these schemes, Sklansky's definition of digital convexity is equivalent to other definitions. Digital convex polygons of n vertices are defined and characterized in terms of geometric properties of digital line segments. Also, a linear time algorithm is presented that, given a digital convex region, determines the smallest integer n such that the region is a digital convex n-gon. View full abstract»

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  • An Algebraic Description of Painted Digital Pictures

    Page(s): 627 - 634
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    An algebraic system for binary digital pictures has already been described, along with the definition of the four arithmetic rules. In this paper, an extension of the binary algebraic system to a 2n-valued one is first proposed. It then becomes evident that this extended algebraic system satisfies several properties including those of a ring. An example of a 2n-valued model, an eight-valued algebraic system, is introduced and applied to painted digital pictures. Pictorial operations such as multiple arrangement, enlargement, differentiation, integration, and color changes are then dealt with by the combinations of the four arithmetic rules. View full abstract»

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  • An Algebraic Approach to the Generation and Description of Binary Pictures

    Page(s): 635 - 641
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    An algebra is proposed for compactly generating and describing binary pictures such as textures and graphics. Four arithmetic operations, differentiation, and integration of such pictures are defined using pictorial constants and rational polynomials. Examples for these operations are illustrated. View full abstract»

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  • Shape Measurement of Curved Objects Using Multiple Slit-Ray Projections

    Page(s): 641 - 646
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    A method for the shape measurement of curved objects has been developed using multiple slit-ray projections and a turntable. The object is placed on a computer-controlled turntable and irradiated by two directed slit-ray projectors. An ITV camera takes a line image of the reflection from the object, and a computer calculates the space coordinates of the object surface. By using multiple projections, the total shape measurement of the object surface is attained accurately. View full abstract»

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  • Some Accuracy and Resolution Aspects of Computer Vision Distance Measurements

    Page(s): 646 - 649
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    The distance between an object and stereo vision sensors can be measured using image processing and known system parameters. A detailed distance measurement synthesis procedure to meet system specifications is presented and illustrated with an example. An error analysis shows that error is proportional to distance. System parameters such as separation between sensor elements, sensor focal length, and sensor array dimensions are related in the design and error equations presented. The main desired design goal is to establish the smallest image sensor array size which will meet system operating specifications. Minimum and maximum distance, object height, optic parameters, scene shift, and sensor array parameters are related. View full abstract»

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  • A Geometrical Approach to Polygonal Dissimilarity and Shape Matching

    Page(s): 649 - 654
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    Two geometrical measures have been proposed to quantify the dissimilarity between two irregular polygons. These measures capture the intuitive notion of the dissimilarity between shapes and are related to the minimum value of the intersecting area of the polygons on superposing one on the other in various configurations. A more easily computable measure of dissimilarity, referred to as the minimum integral square error between the polygons, has also been proposed, and using the latter measure pattern classification, has been performed. Experimental results involving the classification of the noisy boundaries of the four Great Lakes, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, using this measure, have been presented. View full abstract»

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  • A String Correction Algorithm for Cursive Script Recognition

    Page(s): 655 - 663
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    This paper deals with a method of estimating a correct string X from its noisy version Y produced by a cursive script recognition system. An accurate channel model that allows for splitting, merging, and substitution of symbols is introduced. The best estimate X is obtained by using a dynamic programming search which combines a known search strategy (stack decoding) with a trie structure representation of a dictionary. The computational complexity of the algorithm is derived and compared with that of a method based on the generalized Levenshtein metric. Experimental results with the algorithm on English text based on a dictionary of the 1027 most commonly occurring words are described. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Algorithm for Nonparametric Probability Density Estimation

    Page(s): 663 - 666
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    A fast algorithm for the well-known Parzen window method to estimate density functions from the samples is described. The computational efforts required by the conventional and straightforward implementation of this estimation procedure limit its practical application to data of low dimensionality. The proposed algorithm makes the computation of the same density estimates with a substantial reduction of computer time possible, especially for data of high dimensionality. Some simulation experiments are presented which demonstrate the efficiency of the method. They indicate the computational savings that may be achieved through the use of this fast algorithm for artificially generated sets of data. View full abstract»

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  • A Species Classifier of Sea Creatures Compiled on the Basis of Their Echo Sounder Signals

    Page(s): 666 - 671
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    Species recognition of sea creatures is very important and is still a difficult task in the assessment of oceanic biological resources by hydroacoustic methods and in optimum selective industrial fishing. Trials have shown that recognition by means of the subjective estimation of echo sounder records and sample hauls is not yet fully satisfactory [1]. In this correspondence a classifier of sea creature species is described. The essential efforts have been made to find efficient procedure of distinguishing features selection. As a result the classifier operates on the basis of an observation vector whose components have been developed in a special way. These components are the central moments of consecutive samples of a few realizations of echo signal envelopes. From the point of view of the observation vector, the classifier is based on simple linear theory. In practice the described classifier can be realized with the aid of the rather uncomplicated microprocessor-based circuits. The chosen distinguishing features concem to exceptional complicated nature of the biological targets. Obtained results indicate that the classifier may also be very useful in the recognition of objects belonging to many nonbiological classes. View full abstract»

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  • A Method for Computing the Partial Singular Value Decomposition

    Page(s): 671 - 676
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    A method for computing the partial singular value decomposition of a matrix is described. The method is appropriate to problems where the matrix is known to be of low rank and only the principal singular vectors are of interest. The technique is simple, easy to implement in integer arithmetic, and places modest memory requirements. The convergence properties of the algorithm are investigated analytically and by simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Augmented Relaxation Labeling and Dynamic Relaxation Labeling

    Page(s): 676 - 682
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    Current implementations of relaxation labeling are homogeneous, where each pixel is in an identical relationship to a static neighbor set. These systems maintain the iterative probabilistic labeling but use a nonhomogeneous dynamic neighborhood to establish a local consistency. Neighborhoods are created at each iteration through the broadcasting and reception of label information according to semantically established broadcasting patterns for each label. Augmented relaxation labeling is a two stage process which contains a separate relaxation stage with a top-down direction capability for specific pixel label updating. Dynamic relaxation is a one step process where every pixel label is updated through the dynamic neighborhoods. Both labeling processes are demonstrated on simple line drawings. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum Likelihood Methods in Vowel Recognition: A Comparative Study

    Page(s): 683 - 689
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    Vowel classification accuracy is studied using a generalized maximum likelihood ratio method. It is shown that two simplifying assumptions can reduce computation times by as much as a factor of five while producing practically no change in recognition accuracy. The two simplifying assumptions remove cross correlation terms and produce an Euclidean distance discriminant function. The vowels are taken from 350 multisyllabic isolated words spoken by five male speakers. The vowels occur in a variety of preand postconsonantal contexts. The recognition scores obtained for vowels are 83 percent. The effect of grouping of similar vowels on recognition scores is found to be marginal. The high back and high front vowels show better recognition scores (92-94 percent). In general, recognition performance for individual vowels follows a definite trend with respect to. the vowel diagram. A reasonable similarity is observed between confusion matrix and the distribution of vowels in first and second formant frequency (F1 F2) plane. View full abstract»

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  • 1982 Index - IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. PAMI-4

    Page(s): 690 - 697
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  • [Advertisement]

    Page(s): 698
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  • Call for Papers

    Page(s): 699
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) is published monthly. Its editorial board strives to present most important research results in areas within TPAMI's scope.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
David A. Forsyth
University of Illinois