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Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 1965

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • 115-kV Cable Crossings of Puget Sound

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 737 - 745
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4957 KB)  

    Two 115-kV submarine cable crossings were recently completed by Puget Sound Power and Light Company under deep channels of Puget Sound. One was 14 100 feet long with a maximum depth of 720 feet. The other was 6400 feet long with a maximum depth of 388 feet. Laying directly from the factory reels proved satisfactory for the shorter crossing, but trouble was experienced with the cables of the deeper crossing. Here, there was kinking on a steep downhill slope. This was discovered at a depth of 350 feet, by means of a submersible television. The cables were raised and repaired by making up a flexible splice capable of laying tensions and passage over drum and sheave. They have been in continuous successful operation since November 1962. View full abstract»

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  • 115-kV Submarine Cable Crossing of Puget Sound

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 746 - 755
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3033 KB)  

    115-kV lengths of oil-filled submarine cable were manufactured. Tests on samples from the center of 12 800-foot lengths were equal to tests on short lengths. Oil flow tests conducted in the factory and field tests of oil pressure are compared with calculated data. A flexible splice for emergency use was designed and tested. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Dependency of Viscosity, Power Factor, and Ion Content of Electrical Insulating Oils

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 756 - 761
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB)  

    Viscosity and dielectric loss of insulating liquids have been recognized as exponential functions of temperature; however, sufficient coordinated proof was previously unavailable. This study correlates and analyzes the theoretical predictions with available experimental results and, also, clarifies the importance of the concept of the ion content of insulating liquids as an indication of electrical purity and insulating quality, as proposed by Whitehead. The evidence that temperature increases the ion content and decreases the effectiveness of an insulating liquid, and the relationships between them, are practical tools for electrical design considerations. The postulation that the viscosity, power factor, and ion content of an insulating liquid originates from an identical mechanism relating to temperature may open up new approaches for further research leading to a better understanding of dielectric loss in liquid insulators. View full abstract»

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  • The Short-Time Transient Temperature Rise of Self-Contained Oil-Filled Cable Systems with Particular Reference to Oil Demands

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 761 - 770
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3004 KB)  

    The determination of the short-time transient temperature rises of self-contained oil-filled cable systems, which is a necessary part of the calculation of their oil demands and pressures, requires finding the roots of an equation involving Bessel functions. Families of curves are presented from which the roots may be obtained by simple calculations for any given cable system, together with other necessary parameters. These parameters, when substituted in the equations presented, yield the unit transient temperature rises and oil demands and, also, the maximum oil demand when dropping a sustained load of a determined critical value. View full abstract»

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  • A Study of Corona Discharge Rate and Energy Loss in Spark Gaps

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 770 - 779
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4396 KB)  

    A study was carried out on the corona discharge rate and energy loss occurring within artificial cavities. An air gap with metallic electrodes was utilized to simulate the ionization sources within a cable. The corona discharge rates, obtained with varying gap spacings under different vapor pressures, showed marked deviations from the idealized behavior. thhe calculated tangent ¿ values, in terms of the pulsed corona energy loss for the tested cable-cavity combinations, were found to agree reasonably with those determined experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Cement-Fly-Ash Concrete Mixtures for Underground Conduit Construction

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 780 - 788
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    Concrete mixes that are especially applicable to underground conduit-line construction are evaluated. Concretes in-herently release free lime which, in sufficient concentration, is corrosive to lead cable sheaths. Varying amounts of fly ash were used in trial concrete mixes, and the resulting reduction in free lime release was measured. A calcium lignosulfonate type of dispersing agent was added to some mixes, and concrete thermal resistivities for various mixes are reported. The effects of extremely wet and dry conditions, as limiting cases for thermal resistivity, are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Shield Design on Performance of Aerial Cable

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 788 - 795
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3586 KB)  

    Lightning and other surges have been a major problem on aerial cable systems connected to open-wire lines. In 1957, an experimental cable line with variation in shield construction was installed in an area with high lightning incidence. This paper reports the service and test record of the line. In seven years, the line has suffered 19 test failures and one service failure. These failures occurred first and most frequently on cables having relatively high shield impedance. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Oil-Cooling in High-Pressure Oil-Filled Pipe-Cable Circuits

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 795 - 806
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2638 KB)  

    Circulation of oil in pipe-type feeders has been employed, to a limited extent, to accomplish either of the following two objectives: 1) temperature-averaging to minimize the effect of unknown hot-spot zones, or 2) an increase in circuit capacity above the self-cooled level. This paper reports, in two sections, on both types of application, which were initiated in 1952 and carried out subsequently on an increasing scale. Particular attention is givein to a large program of 138-and 345-kV pipe-type feeder installations. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Soil Thermal Characteristics

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 807 - 814
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2035 KB)  

    In 1962, the Association of Edison Illuminating Companies and the Insulator Power Cable Engineers Association sanctioned 10°C higher conductor temperatures for use in rating calculations by utilities having thorough knowledge of the thermal characteristics of the soil in which a particular cable is to be installed. A 2-stage sampling scheme is described for obtaining such knowledge with a minimum amount of time and effort. The first stage consists of a qualitative identification of the types of soil which occur throughout the cable route. The second stage comprises a series of tests on a prescribed number of soil samples. This procedure yields an upper value of soil thermal resistivity for a given percentile of the soil at a specific confidence level. View full abstract»

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  • Discharge-Resistant Characteristics of the Polyethylenes for Wire and Cable

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 815 - 825
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (10589 KB)  

    Surface discharge phenomena associated with unshielded nonmetallic sheathed power cables, particularly in the 3000- to 15 000-volt classifications, have been the subject of considerable research. These cables have induced surface voltages which are responsible for surface leakage currents and associated surface discharges, which combine to form a phenomenon generally referenced as surface-tracking, particularly in the presence of wetted surface contaminants. Unpigmented polyethylenes are highly resistant to surface tracking. However, when formulated for protection from sunlight and weathering, the discharge resistance may be materially reduced. This paper describes the development and evaluation of discharge-resistant thermoplastic or chemically cross-linked polyethylenes. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Size and Location of Shunt Capacitors on Distribution Feeders

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 825 - 832
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1271 KB)  

    The reactive power flow in utility systems produces losses which utility engineers try to keep at a minimum with the installation of capacitor banks. Load flow studies usually furnish a good indication of where they will render maximum benefit. In many instances, they can be installed on primary feeders. A study is made of the optimum location, size, and timing of capacitor banks on feeders with uniformly distributed loads and randomly distributed variable spot loads to evaluate the reduction in costs of active and reactive losses where voltage regulation is no problem. A new simplifying principle is established, taking moments of the loads with respect to feeder resistances or reactances. The equations developed can be used in preparing computer programs for capacitor applications. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Station Radio Noise Sources on Transmission-Line Noise Levels

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 833 - 838
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1287 KB)  

    A method is presented for calculating the radio noise level of a transmission line where the radio noise generation is produced by corona on station apparatus. Propagation of the radio noise energy is described by a set of noninteracting transmission modes. Field factors which transfer line voltages to electric-field values at the ground level are presented as modal quantities. Two specific examples are computed for an extra-high-voltage line and station arrangement. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Performance of Unbalanced Insulation in Double-Circuit Transmission Lines

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 839 - 846
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1927 KB)  

    This paper presents a practical design for unbalanced insulation of transmission lines and describes lightning performances on 70- and 140-kV lines. The basic practice of unbalanced insulation is to install one circuit at a higher insulation level than another circuit in order to eliminate double-circuit flashover. The effectiveness of this design was demonstrated by laboratory tests and field experiences. Double-circuit flashover should be considerably decreased when the unbalanced insulation line is properly designed. View full abstract»

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  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1965 , Page(s): 847 - 849
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 1985. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion and IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, and IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Full Aims & Scope