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American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1919

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): nil2
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  • Officers and Board of Directors 1918-1919

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  • Standing Committees

    Page(s): ii - v
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  • Institute representatives

    Page(s): vi
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  • Contents

    Page(s): vii - viii
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  • Aeronautics in the United States, 1918

    Page(s): 1 - 62
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    Major General George O. Squier, Chief Signal Officer of the United States Army, reviews in this address the development of Military Aeronautics in the United States up to the date of the armistice, 11 November 1918. The US War Department's first heavier-than-air flying machine was produced approximately ten years ago, but for the eight years that followed, the development lagged - in fact less than a million dollars was appropriated for aeronautics in the entire eight years. Then under the pressure of war, the US by necessity plunged into a gigantic aircraft program??and the accomplishments today are numbered by the score. The Liberty Engine, acknowledged now to be the standard for the world, was produced; an industry new to the US was developed, and other tremendous strides taken in the science of aerial navigation. View full abstract»

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  • Welding Mild Steel

    Page(s): 63 - 111
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    The probability that welding could, with advantage, be more widely used in ship construction than had heretofore been the case, led to the formation, in 1917, of a Welding Committee, which at first was conducted under the auspices of the Standards Committee of the Institute. The Welding Research Sub-Committee, formed in 1918, was a sub-committee of the Metallurgical and Electrical Sections of the Engineering Division of the National Research Council, and the Welding Committee, (under the chairmanship of Professor C. A. Adams) came under the direction of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. The paper is in large part based on the work done by the Welding Research Sub-Committee up to January of this year. View full abstract»

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  • Welding as a Process in Ship Construction

    Page(s): 113 - 119
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    The paper points to the necessity for a reduetion in the cost of shipbuilding, and as riveting is one of the most expensive items of construction the substitution of welding for riveting would decrease the cost of construction considerably. A brief review is given of what has been done in substituting welding for riveting, and to the limited extent to which electric welding has been tried it has been found successful. Lloyd's Register is prepared to classify electrically-welded vessels subject to certain provisions, but shipbuilders have not as yet adopted welding to a large extent for the reason, in the author's opinion, that they know that welds are lacking in uniformity and it is impossible to tell when a joint is good or bad. The author believes that the correct method of approaching the problem of olectric welding is first to obtain workmen who are thoroughly trained and skilled and the suggestion is made that only certified men should be employed at this work. From the welding of minor parts the process could be advanced to more important members until eventually a ship would be produced in which both the processes of welding and riveting would be utilized in whatever proportions would attain maximum economy of construction. View full abstract»

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  • Fusion in Arc Welding

    Page(s): 121 - 177
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    Although welding literature is replete with discussions of applications, little information is available descriptive either of non-destructive inspection methods or of the process of metallic electrode are welding. This paper calls attention to such characteristics as penetration and overlap, peculiar to this process, which facilitate visual inspection and discusvses briefly the effect of are length, welding procedure, electrode material, are current and electrode diameter upon these characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • The General Equations of the Electric Circuit-III

    Page(s): 191 - 260
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    In the usual theory of transients the assumption is made, that resistance, inductance, capacity and conductance are constant. This however, is not correct, and as the result thereof, it was not possible to theoretically investigate, and numerically calculate the dissipation of high-frequency disturbances, the flatening of the wave fronts of impulses, the rounding off of steep waves, etc., with the time and the distance of travel, and there-from to determine the distance, to which the danger from such disturbances extends, and to investigate the conditions of line construction, which limit the danger zone of such phenomena to the smallest local extent. In the following, two of the foremost causes of change of the line constants with the equivalent frequency are investigated, the unequal current distribution in the conductor, and the electric radiation from the conductor, and shown, that within the range of frequencies which may be met in industrial circuits, the effective resistance of the conductor, and its attenuation constant, may increase more than a million fold. Equations of the line constants as function of the equivalent frequency are derived, and applications thereof made to a few problems: (1) The laws of conduction of high-frequency currents, such as produced by lightning discharges and similar disturbances, and the conclusions resulting therefrom on the nature of the conductor. (2) The decay of high-frequency sine waves in transmission lines. (3) The attenuation of rectangular waves. (4) The flattening of the wave front of steep impulses. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Work of Sub-Committee on Wave Shape Standard of the Standards Committee

    Page(s): 261 - 303
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    The paper gives a review of the work donie during the past three years by a sub-committee of the Standards Committee of the Institute appointed to make recommendations for changes in the Institute's ruiles regarding the wave shape of alternators. After a very careful consideration of the question and a large amount of experimental work the Sub-Committee last spring made recommendations that for the present the ten per cent deviation rule should be retained without change (except in wording), and that trial use should be made of a supplementary wave shape factor. The new factor, based on the relation between voltage wave shape and interfering effect in telephone circuits, when power and telephone lines parallel each other, is called the ``telephone interference factor.'' The committee invites the broadest discussion and trial use of the new factor. No attempt will be made to decide upon limiting values of the factor until after wide experience shall have been obtainled in its use, and the committee will welcome assistance on the part of any interested in collecting information to this end. View full abstract»

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  • Radio Telephony

    Page(s): 305 - 343
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    This paper is divided into two parts. The first part describes the development of the art of radio telephony by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and the Western Electric Company to the accomplishment of Trans-Atlantic telephony, followed by demonstrations of the use of radio telephony between ships and of methods of connecting radio and wire telephone systems. This first part covers work principally of an engineering research nature, the most important problems being the development of systems of generation, modulation, transmission and reception of radio telephone signals. The second part is concerned almost entirely with the work of producing radio telephone and allied apparatus for the Army and Navy in the late war. The major problem of the second part was the design of light and compact sets which could be produced rapidly and in large numbers, for the main features of the generating, modulating and receiving systems were already well understood. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of the Transient Oscillations of Electrical Networks and Transmission Systems

    Page(s): 345 - 427
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    The purpose of this research was to make a broad theoretical study of transient phenomena with a view to developing methods of calculation directly applicable to engineering problems. The investigation starts with the problem of formulating the current in an electrical network or transmission system in response to a suddenly applied e.m.f. of arbitrary form. A simple formula is derived which expresses this current in terms of two independent functions: one, the applied e. m. f. expressed as a time function, and the other a characteristic function of the constants and connections of the system, this latter being termed the ``indicial admittance'' of the system. A knowledge of the ndicial admittance, therefore, completely determines the behavior of the system to all types of applied voltages including both transient and steady states. A systematic investigation of methods for solving and computing the indicial admittance follows, in the course of which original solutions for transmission and artificial lines are derived and a new method involving integral equations is developed. This latter is particularly well adapted to handle the difficult problein of taking into account the effects of terminal impedances in transmission systems. View full abstract»

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  • Telephone Circuits with Zero Mutual Induction

    Page(s): 429 - 488
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    The paper deals with the reduction of inductive interference in telephone circuits. Various relative positions of two or more circuits, in which the mutual inductance is zero, and the mutual capacitance unbalance is approximately zero, are discussed. The most important case is that when the two wires of one circuit occupy opposite ends of one diagonal of a square, and the other circuit, the ends of the other diagonal. A phantom formed on circuits so related is nearly immune from external induction. Several forms of construction embodying this arrangement, and built largely with standard parts, are illustrated. In these forms, about one third of the inductive relations of each physical circuit are with circuits in a position for approximately zero mutual inductance. The form of phantom transposition used automatically balances the circuits not so related. Calculations and tentative designs are presented to show that the use of these forms of construction will give greatest refinement of balance against induction from power circuits, and possibly also against cross-talk, increased flexibility in coordinating with the variations in exposure to power circuits, a simplification of the transpositions system, fewer transposition poles and transpositions, and when desired, the realization of a part of these advantages with the lead compressed into less than the normal space. The improvement is greatest in the phantoms. Adverse factors are the increased sensibility to cross-talk due to variations in sag, and the slightly increased capacitance of the phantoms. View full abstract»

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  • Ionization of Occluded Gases in High-Tension Insulation

    Page(s): 489 - 536
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    This paper deals with the ionization of occluded gases in solid insulation from the standpoint that these gas spaces are the weakest part of an insulation design and should receive first consideration. The stress at which ionization starts in different types of built-up insulation, such as used in cables and coils, is measured and from these measurements a safe working stress determined. The paper brings out, more than anything else, the importance of reducing the gas spaces to a minimum size, and using materials of the lowest possible permittivity, since the higher the permittivity the greater the stress on the gas spaces If an insulation design is worked at a stress so high that internal ionization occurs it should be considered as ``over-stressed'' and its life will certainly be shortened. Just how much it will be shortened depends upon such factors as; type of insulation used, degree of over-stressing, looseness and porosity, etc. Roughly, the life of an over-stressed design is anywhere from six months to six years, judging from numerous tests made. This shows that the damage is very gradual. View full abstract»

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  • The Dielectric Strength of Air Films Entrapped in Solid Insulation and a Practical Application of the Problem for Alternator Coils and Cables

    Page(s): 537 - 575
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    It is of theoretical importance, as well as of practical importance in design, to be able to predetermine the dielectric strength of air films or bubbles entrapped in solid insulation. If such films are over-stressed the solid insulation may be damaged by chemical action, local heating, mechanical action etc., due to corona. An experimental investigation was made of the strength of air films of various thicknesses between glass plates. In the arrangement used, the breakdown of the air or the starting point of corona could be readily observed. Tests were also made of the dielectric strength of air films between other solid insulations. It was found that the dielectric strength of air films between insulations was practically the same as the dielectric strength of air films between conductors. The second part of the paper is devoted to the practical application of the data to the design of armature coils and cables, and several specific examples are given. View full abstract»

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  • Abnormal Voltages within Transformers

    Page(s): 577 - 620
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    Mathematical analysis is made of a rectangular wave impinging upon a transformer winding and quantitative values deduced of the resulting internal voltage stresses in terms of transformer constants. It is shown that the conclusions also apply in part to abrupt impulses and approximate idea is given of the reaction of a transformer to high frequencies. The difference between operating transformer with isolated and grounded neutral is shown. Energy losses are not considered in the mathematics although the manner in which the results are affected is pointed out. Finally, theoretical results are compared with impulse and high-frequency tests made in the laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • Some Possibilities of Steam Railroad Electrification as Affecting Future Policies

    Page(s): 621 - 649
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    Electricity fills every requirement of railroad service, but as it involves a large investment, electrification has proceeded slowly. Electrification has also been retarded because the problem has been largely considered one of replacing the steam locomotive by the electric locomotive whereas in reality the problem is much broader. It really offers a fundamentally different method of train propulsion because the limitations of the steam locomotive disappear and the strictly limited motive power is replaced by one that is practically unlimited, thereby opening up manv possibilities in the methods of railroad operation. While there are a number of different systems of electric traction all of the systems have many features in common and the possibility of unlimited electric power is a characteristic of them all. A brief review is given of electrified sections of railways showing the advantages which have been realized in both the freight and passenger service. Existing electrifications have been operated for a sufficient lengtlh of time so that operating statistics are now available, and any proposed undertaking may therefore be predicated on established facts. While electrification will greatly increase track capacity, there is a large railroad mileage which alreadv has more than sufficient capacity, in which case electrification would not be justified. On the other hand, there are so many cases where its advantages are clear and conclusive that when the railroads are able to finance their required electrification it will test the capacity of the electric factories of the country to serve them. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Theory of the Telephone Receiver

    Page(s): 651 - 699
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    The theory of the telephone receiver here offered is based upon the motional impedance circle which has been published in various chapters during the last few years. The new theory, which is stated under definite limitations, is a further development; taking into account the m. m. f. produced by the vibration of the diaphragm in the permanent magnetic field. The motional power is thus shown to be derived partly from the testing alternating current and partly from changes in power expended in the magnetic circuit. The motional impedance circle may therefore also be regarded as a power circle, with components along three different axes of reference. View full abstract»

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  • The Absolute Measurement of the Intensity of Sound

    Page(s): 701 - 723
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    This paper includes a description of a series of acoustical researches extending over a period of twenty-eight years. The properties of vibrating bodies and the subject of elastic hysteresis are discussed. Two fundamentally important instruments for the absolute measurement of sound have been developed and the theory given. The first is the standard of sound, called the phone, which is capable of reprodueing at any time a sound of the simplest character and which permits the output of sound to be measured in watts of energy. The second is an instrument called the phonometer for measuring a sound in absoluate measure. This instrument is now practically as sensitive as the human ear. Two essential features are the small damping of the vibrating system which results in extreme sensitiveness, but at the same time in great selectiveness, and the capacity for being tuned. Each of these instruments is fitted with a variable volume resonator and tuning over a range of about two octaves is accomplished by varying the volume of the resonator and by changing the tension of the wires to which the piston is attached. The determination of the space distribution of sound and of the effect of disturbing bodies, and the measurement of the reflecting coefficient of surfaces have been accomplished. The phonotrope is a third instrument designed and used to find the direction of a source of sound, for example a fog signal. View full abstract»

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  • Present Status of Industrial Lighting Codes

    Page(s): 725 - 765
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    In order to protect workers from accident and eye-strain, industrial lighting codes have been adopted in four states and in Federal establishments. Similar action is under consideration in several other states and there is prospect of extension through-out the country. Investigation and experience indicate the need of government regulation of factory lighting. When adopted by industrial commissions under authority granted by Legislatures, the codes become in effect state law. Variations in the codes as adopted are less than might appear, some features beingexperimental. The existing codes correspond in essentials to the Illuminating Engineering Society code, on which they are based. Mandatory regulations are necessarily limited in function to the assuring of safety. Higher standards are essential for efficient production. Popular education in which electrical and illuminating engineers can cooperate, is an important feature of future development. View full abstract»

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  • Utilizing the Time Characteristics of Alternating Current

    Page(s): 767 - 781
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    By the invention of a very small, simple and reliable self-starting synchronous motor, in conjunction with convenient means for regulating the average frequency of an alternating circuit, there has been developed a new field of usefulness for electric power. It is now feasible to drive all kinds of timing devices such as clocks, graphic instrument movements, time recorders, etc., directly from the lighting circuits. Remarkable accuracy is obtained, and the amount of care is minimized by the elimination of winding and regulating. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperation

    Page(s): 783 - 793
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