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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Blank page [back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial

    Page(s): 2 - 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Threshold Voltage and On–Off Ratio Tuning for Multiple-Tube Carbon Nanotube FETs

    Page(s): 4 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (478 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we demonstrate postprocessing techniques to adjust the threshold voltage (Vt) and on-off ratio (ION/IOFF) of multiple-tube carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs). These postprocessing techniques open up an additional degree of freedom to further tune individual CNFETs in addition to various device synthesis and processing techniques. We demonstrate proof-of-concept experiments and fully characterize their design spaces and tradeoffs. The techniques, threshold voltage setting and on-off ratio tuning, were able to adjust the threshold by as much as 2 V and tune the on-off ratio across 5times103 to times105. In addition,Vt setting could be used as an analysis tool to infer the Vt distribution of grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These tuning techniques, combined with processes such as doping, will enable high-performance multiple-nanotube devices. View full abstract»

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  • Gate-Induced Image Force Barrier Lowering in Schottky Barrier FETs

    Page(s): 10 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we analyze the gate-induced image force barrier lowering in a 45-nm-gate-length ultra-thin-body silicon-on-insulator structure by using 2D full-band self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo simulation with both tunneling current and thermal emission current. Results show that gate-induced barrier lowering has a very significant influence on the drive current. The influence of gate voltage, Schottky barrier height, spacer and channel doping concentration is also investigated and a theoretical analysis is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Electrode–Molecule Interface Effects on Molecular Conductance

    Page(s): 16 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (527 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interaction of an organic molecule with metal electrodes possessing various work functions and atomic species is investigated by ab initio calculations. The results indicate that the chemical nature of the atomic species of the electrode and interface geometry elicit significant changes in both the physical structure and electronic properties at distances as great as 1 nm from the interface. Also, the metal electrodes having similar work functions contacting the same molecule give rise to different transmission profiles, thereby leading to widely varying I-V characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Heterogeneous Two-Level Logic and Its Density and Fault Tolerance Implications in Nanoscale Fabrics

    Page(s): 22 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most proposed nanoscale computing architectures are based on a certain type of two-level logic family, e.g., AND-OR, NOR-NOR, NAND-NAND, etc. In this paper, a new fabric architecture that combines different logic families in the same nanofabric is proposed for higher density and better defect tolerance. To achieve this, we apply very minor modifications on the way of controlling nanogrids, while the basic manufacturing requirements remain the same. The fabric that is based on the new heterogeneous two-level logic yields higher density for the applications mapped to it. We find that it also improves the efficiency of fault tolerance techniques as it significantly simplifies the designs. In addition, we found that it enables voting at nanoscale that can improve fault tolerance further. A nanoscale processor is implemented for evaluation purposes. We found that compared with an implementation on a Nanoscale Application-Specific IC (NASIC) fabric with one type of two-level logic, the density of this processor improves by up to 52% by using the heterogeneous logic. Furthermore, the yield is improved by 15% at 2% defective transistors and by 147% at 5% defect rates. Detailed analysis on density and yield is provided. The approach is applicable in grid-based fabrics in general, e.g., it can be used in both NASIC and hybrid semiconductor/nanowire/molecular (CMOL) designs. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon Nanotube Quantum Capacitance for Nonlinear Terahertz Circuits

    Page(s): 31 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, analog circuit applications of a nonlinear carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum capacitance such as frequency doublers and mixers are proposed. We present a balanced circuit implementation and derive the transconductance conversion gain for the nonlinear CNT quantum capacitor circuit. The balanced topology results in robust circuit performance that is insensitive to extrinsic capacitances and parasitic resistances, and is immune to the resistance of metallic nanotubes that may be in the channel. The ballistic quantum capacitance is useful up to several terahertzs (THzs), making it suitable for low-noise THz sources. Additionally, the fundamental bandwidth and performance limitations imposed by the quantum conductance and inductance are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Circuit-Level Performance Benchmarking and Scalability Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Transistor Circuits

    Page(s): 37 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (873 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show great promise as extensions to silicon CMOS due to their excellent electronic properties and extremely small size. Using a Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNFET) SPICE model, we evaluate circuit-level performance of CNFET technology in the presence of CNT fabrication-related nonidealities and imperfections, and parasitic resistances and capacitances extracted from the CNFET circuit layout. We use Monte Carlo simulations using the CNFET SPICE model to investigate the effects of three major CNT process-related imperfections on circuit-level performance: 1) doping variations in the CNFET source and drain regions; 2) CNT diameter variations; and 3) variations caused by the removal of metallic CNTs. The simulation results indicate that metallic CNT removal has the most impact on CNFET variation; less than 8% of CNTs grown should be metallic to reduce circuit performance variation. This paper also presents an analytical model for the scalability of CNFET technology. High CNT density (250 CNTs/mum) is critical to ensure that performance (delay and energy) gains over silicon CMOS are maintained or improved with shrinking lithographic dimensions. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Identification, and Control of a Flexure-Based XY Stage for Fast Nanoscale Positioning

    Page(s): 46 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (770 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design, identification, and control of a novel, flexure-based, piezoelectric stack-actuated XY nanopositioning stage are presented in this paper. The main goal of the design is to combine the ability to scan over a relatively large range (25times25 mum) with high scanning speed. Consequently, the stage is designed to have its first dominant mode at 2.7 kHz. Cross-coupling between the two axes is kept to -35 dB, low enough to utilize single-input--single-output control strategies for tracking. Finite-element analysis (FEA) is used during the design process to analyze the mechanical resonance frequencies, travel range, and cross-coupling between the X- and Y-axes of the stage. Nonlinearities such as hysteresis are present in such stages. These effects, which exist due to the use of piezoelectric stacks for actuation, are minimized using charge actuation. The integral resonant control method is applied in conjunction with feedforward inversion technique to achieve high-speed and accurate scanning performances, up to 400 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Tracking Control of a Nanopositioner Using Complementary Sensors

    Page(s): 55 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Piezoelectric tube actuators are widely used in atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) for nanoscale positioning. There has been a consistent effort to increase the scan speed of these actuators using feedback control techniques. A feedback controller requires a measurement of the scanner's deflection, which is often provided by a capacitive sensor. Such measurements are corrupted by sensor noise, typically in the order of 20 pm/ radicHz rms. Over a bandwidth of 10 kHz, this translates into an rms noise of 2 nm, clearly inadequate for applications that require subnanometer positioning accuracy, e.g., STM. In this paper, we illustrate how the strain voltage induced in a free electrode of the scanner can be used as an additional displacement signal. The noise level corresponding to the strain signal is about three orders of magnitude less than that of a capacitive sensor, making it an ideal choice for nanopositioning applications. However, it cannot be used for dc and low-frequency measurements. A two-sensor-based controller is designed to use the capacitive sensor signal at low frequencies, and the strain displacement signal at high frequencies. By limiting the capacitive sensor feedback loop bandwidth to less than 100 Hz, the rms value of the noise is reduced to well below 1 nm. For almost the same noise level, the two-sensor-based control structure achieves a closed-loop bandwidth of more than three times that of the single-sensor-based controller. View full abstract»

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  • Alternate State Variables for Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices

    Page(s): 66 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (994 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We provide an outlook of some important state variables for emerging nanoelectronic devices. State variables are physical representations of information used to perform information processing via memory and logic functionality. Advances in material science, emerging nanodevices, nanostructures, and architectures have provided hope that alternative state variables based on new mechanisms, nanomaterials, and nanodevices may indeed be plausible. We review and analyze the computational advantages that alternate state variables may possibly attain with respect to maximizing computational performance via minimum energy dissipation, maximum operating switching speed, and maximum device density. View full abstract»

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  • Multimodal Electrothermal Silicon Microgrippers for Nanotube Manipulation

    Page(s): 76 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1018 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microgrippers that are able to manipulate nanoobjects reproducibly are key components in 3-D nanomanipulation systems. We present here a monolithic electrothermal microgripper prepared by silicon microfabrication, and demonstrate pick-and-place of an as-grown carbon nanotube from a 2-D array onto a transmission electron microscopy grid, as a first step toward a reliable and precise pick-and-place process for carbon nanotubes. View full abstract»

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  • AC Magnetic-Field-Induced Heating and Physical Properties of Ferrite Nanoparticles for a Hyperthermia Agent in Medicine

    Page(s): 86 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    AC magnetic-field-induced heating, cytotoxicity, and bio-related physical properties of two kinds of spinel ferrite nanoparticles, soft (NiFe2O4) and hard (CoFe2O4), with different mean particle sizes were investigated in this paper to confirm the effectiveness for an in vivo magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia agent in biomedicine. AC magnetically induced heating temperature of the nanoparticles measured both in a solid and an agar state at different applied magnetic fields and frequencies clarified that the maximum heating temperature of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles is much higher than that of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. In addition, it was demonstrated that solid-state NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with 24.8 and 35 nm mean particle size exhibited a promisingly high heating temperature (21.5degC-45degC) for a hyperthermia agent in the physiologically tolerable range of the ac magnetic field with less than 50 kHz of applied frequency. According to the magnetic and physical analysis results, the superior ac magnetically induced heating performance of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was primarily due to their higher magnetic susceptibility (permeability) that directly induces a larger magnetic minor hysteresis loop area at the low magnetic field. Cytotoxicity test results, quantitatively estimated by methylthiazol tetrazolium bromide test method, verified that uncoated NiFe2O4, chitosan-coated NiFe2O4, and CoFe2O4 showed a noncytotoxicity, which is clinically suitable for a hyperthermia agent application. View full abstract»

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  • Directed Metallization of Single-Enzyme Molecules With Preserved Enzymatic Activity

    Page(s): 95 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method for the fabrication of molecular, water-soluble, and biologically active enzyme-metal hybrids was designed and its feasibility demonstrated. The method is based on the display of nucleation sites directing a subsequent electroless deposition of palladium and other metals to the enzyme's surface. The process is carried out under mild physiological conditions, enabling the preservation of enzymatic activity and water solubility. The feasibility of the new method was demonstrated by using the enzyme glucose oxidase and palladium combination as the first model system. The glucose oxidase-palladium hybrid thus obtained retained their solubility and enzymatic glucose oxidation capabilities. Hybrids immobilized on platinum electrodes exhibited ldquonanowiringrdquo and effective direct electron transfer from the enzyme catalytic site to the electrode. The new enzyme-metal hybrids thus obtained may be readily incorporated into miniaturic biosensors and biochips, used as novel antibacterial agents or as markers for improved in vivo imaging. Furthermore, the methodology developed may be readily extended to a series of metal coatings on the surface of biologically active proteins. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Cost and Highly Heat Controllable Capacitorless PiFET (Partially Insulated FET) 1T DRAM for Embedded Memory

    Page(s): 100 - 105
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    A body-tied partial-insulated FET (PiFET) one-transistor (1T) DRAM having good heat immunity for embedded memory is proposed in this paper. PiFET structure using partially insulated oxide (PiOX) formed on bulk wafer can act as a 1T DRAM by applying a negative back bias. The memory shows a good ldquo0rdquo-state retention characteristic due to reduced electric field and heat dissipation path. The body-tied PiFET provides a wider design window and flexibility to control retention characteristics than does silicon on insulator (SOI) FET. To evaluate the improvement of retention characteristics, we suggest a new retention degradation mechanism of 1T DRAM. In this paper, we suggest the possibility of 1T DRAM's fabrication having good heat immunity. View full abstract»

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  • Mobility and Effective Electric Field in Nonplanar Channel MOSFETs

    Page(s): 106 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The universal relationship of effective carrier mobility (mueff ) versus effective perpendicular electric field (E eff ) in the channel was studied in nonplanar channel (NPC) mosfets. In general, E eff is determined by bulk charge density ( Q B), inversion charge density ( Q i), and eta . The variable eta was shown to have a dependence on channel structure and was extracted from several NPC mosfets, such as pure double-gate (DG), gate-all-around (GAA), and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) Fin mosfet s. We derived E eff expressions for the NPC mosfets for a given channel doping concentration. It was shown that large parasitic source/drain (S/D) resistance should be corrected to obtain accurate mueff. In the GAA structure, extracted eta decreased with increasing radius of the body wire. Width weight sum was applied to extract eta in the SOI FinFETs that consist of DG and GAA structures. From the mueff versus E eff relation obtained by the C- V method, we could verify the validity of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • A 2-Bit Recessed Channel Nonvolatile Memory Device With a Lifted Charge-Trapping Node

    Page(s): 111 - 115
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    A novel 2-bit recessed channel nonvolatile memory device is proposed in this paper. Physically separated two charge-trapping nodes are lifted up to achieve large sensing margin in highly scaled memory devices. A successful 2-bit/cell operation with effective suppression of second bit effect is achieved by adopting the lifted charge-trapping node scheme. In addition, the effect of the source/drain junction depth on memory operation characteristics is investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Upper Bound of Power Dissipation in QCA Circuits

    Page(s): 116 - 127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a field-coupled computing paradigm. States of a cell change due to mutual interactions of either electrostatic or magnetic fields. Due to their small sizes, power is an important design parameter. In this paper, we derive an upper bound for power loss that will occur with input change, even with the circuit staying at respective ground states before and after the change. This bound is computationally efficient to compute for large QCA circuits since it just requires the knowledge of the before and after ground states due to input change. We categorize power loss in clocked QCA circuits into two types that are commonly used in circuit theory: switching power and leakage power. Leakage power loss is independent of input states and occurs when the clock energy is raised or lowered to depolarize or polarize a cell. Switching power is dependent on input combinations and occurs at the instant when the cell actually changes state. Total power loss is controlled by changing the rate of change of transitions in the clocking function. Our model provides an estimate of power loss in a QCA circuit for clocks with sharp transitions, which result in nonadiabatic operations and gives us the upper bound of power expended. We derive expressions for upper bounds of switching and leakage power that are easy to compute. Upper bounds obviously are pessimistic estimates, but are necessary to design robust circuits, leaving room for operational manufacturing variability. Given that thermal issues are critical to QCA designs, we show how our model can be valuable for QCA design automation in multiple ways. It can be used to quickly locate potential thermal hot spots in a QCA circuit. The model can also be used to correlate power loss with different input vector switching; power loss is dependent on the input vector. We can study the tradeoff between switching and leakage power in QCA circuits. And, we can use the model to vet different designs of the - - same logic, which we demonstrate for the full adder. View full abstract»

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  • Nanoscale PtSi Tips for Conducting Probe Technologies

    Page(s): 128 - 131
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method to improve the conduction and wear properties of nanometric conducting tips by forming silicides of Pt at the tip apex is presented. Tips with PtSi apexes are fabricated in conjunction with standard Si tips. Wear measurements are carried out on both tip types of similar geometries, and a one-on-one comparison between Si and PtSi at the nanoscale is shown for the first time. Both the wear properties on tetrahedral amorphous carbon and the conduction on Au of the PtSi tip apexes are shown to be superior to the Si tips. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on Nanoelectric Device Interfaces to Biomolecules and Cells

    Page(s): 132
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (139 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology information for authors

    Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (34 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Kang L. Wang
University of California, Los Angeles
420 Westwood Plaza
Rm 66-147C, Engineering IV
Los Angeles, CA  90095-1594  90095-1594  USA
eic@tnano.org