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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1893 - 1894
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  • Nanoscale Materials: How Small is Big

    Page(s): 1895 - 1897
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  • Scanning the issue - Special Issue on Aviation Information Systems

    Page(s): 1898 - 1901
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  • Evolution of the Global Navigation SatelliteSystem (GNSS)

    Page(s): 1902 - 1917
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the worldwide set of satellite navigation constellations, civil aviation augmentations, and user equipment. This paper reviews the current status and future plans of the elements of GNSS as it pertains to civil aviation. The paper addresses the following satellite navigation systems: the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS), Russian GLONASS, European Galileo, Chinese Compass, Japanese Quasi Zenith Satellite System, and Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System. The paper also describes aviation augmentations including aircraft-based, satellite-based, ground-based, and ground-based regional augmentation systems defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Lastly, this paper details typical user equipment configurations and civil aviation applications of GNSS including navigation, automatic dependent surveillance, terrain awareness warning systems, and timing. View full abstract»

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  • Worldwide Vertical Guidance of Aircraft Based on Modernized GPS and New Integrity Augmentations

    Page(s): 1918 - 1935
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (983 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the 2020 time frame, the Global Positioning System (GPS) will be fully modernized, and other satellite navigation systems will be operational. With an additional layer of fault detection, these systems will provide vertical guidance worldwide. This capability will be born of three important technologies. First and foremost, avionics will receive signals on two frequencies: L1/E1 and L5/E5a. This frequency diversity will do much to obviate the impact of ionospheric storms that troubles aviation use of GPS today. Secondly, a multiplicity of data broadcasts will be available to convey integrity information from the ground to the airborne users. These will include the navigation satellites themselves, geostationary satellites, and possibly terrestrial transmitters. However, the most important change will be the most subtle. The fault monitoring burden will be split between the aircraft and the supporting ground systems in a new way relative to the fault-detection techniques used in 2008. This new integrity allocation and the associated architectures are the subject of this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and Operational Use of Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBASs)—A Component of the Future Air Traffic Management System

    Page(s): 1936 - 1957
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses a satellite navigation augmentation system designed for use by aviation. The ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) was originally developed as a precision approach and landing aid. This paper describes the GBAS concept, discusses the system architecture, and discusses ground and airborne equipment that compose the system. This paper also describes typical operational use of the system and the experience gained during early implementations. Advantages over the current instrument landing system technology are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Navigation, Interference Suppression, and Fault Monitoring in the Sea-Based Joint Precision Approach and Landing System

    Page(s): 1958 - 1975
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The United States Navy seeks the capability to land manned and unmanned aerial vehicles autonomously on an aircraft carrier using GPS. To deliver this capability, the Navy is developing a navigation system called the Sea-Based Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS). Because standard GPS is not sufficiently precise to land aircraft on a shortened, constantly moving runway, Sea-Based JPALS leverages dual-frequency, carrier-phase differential GPS navigation. Carrier phase measurements, derived from the sinusoidal waveforms underlying the GPS signal, are very precise but not necessarily accurate unless the user resolves the ambiguity associated with the sinusoid's periodicity. Ensuring the validity of ambiguity resolution is the central challenge for the high-integrity, safety-critical JPALS application. Based on a multi-year, multi-institution collaborative study, this paper proposes a navigation and monitoring architecture designed to meet the guidance quality challenge posed by Sea-Based JPALS. In particular, we propose a two-stage navigation algorithm that meets the aggressive integrity-risk requirement for Sea-Based JPALS by first filtering a combination of GPS observables and subsequently exploiting those observables to resolve the carrier ambiguity. Because JPALS-equipped aircraft may encounter jamming, we also discuss interference mitigation technologies, such as inertial fusion and array antennas, which, with appropriate algorithmic modifications, can ensure integrity under Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) conditions. Lastly, we recommend a fault monitoring strategy tailored to the two-stage navigation algorithm. Monitoring will detect and isolate rare anomalies such as ionosphere storms or satellite ephemeris errors which would otherwise corrupt ambiguity resolution and positioning in Sea-Based JPALS. View full abstract»

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  • Feedback Model of Air Transportation System Change: Implementation Challenges for Aviation Information Systems

    Page(s): 1976 - 1991
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1806 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The U.S. air transportation system faces substantial challenges in implementing new aviation information systems to meet future demand. These challenges need to be understood and addressed in order to successfully meet future system needs. This paper uses a feedback model to describe the processes by which system change occurs. In addition, key issues in the dynamics of system change, with particular emphasis on stakeholder cost-benefit dynamics, and safety approval processes are identified. Overcoming stakeholder barriers and ensuring efficient safety approval and certification process are key enablers to the successful implementation of aviation information systems into the air transportation system. The implementation of automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast and integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the air transportation system are discussed as examples of current technology-dependent system changes. View full abstract»

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  • Secure Operation, Control, and Maintenance of Future E-Enabled Airplanes

    Page(s): 1992 - 2007
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    Commercial aviation is at the threshold of the era of the e-enabled airplane, brought about by the convergence of rapidly expanding worldwide data communication infrastructures, network-centric information processing, and commoditized lightweight computational hardware. With advanced avionics, processing, and wireless communication capabilities, the e-enabled airplane can revolutionize the current air transportation system. However, the use of unregulated information technology and wireless technologies introduces vulnerabilities that can be exploited to provide unauthorized access to the onboard aviation information systems and impede their operation. The emerging security threats are not covered by current aviation guidance, and regulations, hence, remain to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of security of the e-enabled airplane with applications such as electronic distribution of loadable software and data, as well as future directions such as wireless health monitoring, networked control, and airborne ad hoc networks. View full abstract»

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  • Airborne Communication Networks for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Page(s): 2008 - 2027
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1917 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the role of meshed airborne communication networks in the operational performance of small unmanned aircraft systems. Small unmanned aircraft systems have the potential to create new applications and markets in civil domains, enable many disruptive technologies, and put considerable stress on air traffic control systems. We argue that of the existing networked communication architectures, only meshed ad hoc networking can meet the communication demands for the large number of small aircraft expected to be deployed in future. Experimental results using the heterogeneous unmanned aircraft system are presented to show that meshed airborne communication is feasible, that it extends the operational envelope of small unmanned aircraft at the expense of increased communication variability, and that net-centric operation of multiple cooperating aircraft is possible. Additionally, the ability of airborne networks of small unmanned aircraft to exploit controlled mobility to improve performance is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Graceful Degradation of Air Traffic Operations: Airspace Sensitivity to Degraded Surveillance Systems

    Page(s): 2028 - 2039
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The introduction of new technologies and concepts of operation in the air transportation system is not possible unless they can be proven not to adversely affect the system operation under not only nominal but also degraded conditions. In extreme scenarios, degraded operations due to partial or complete technological failures should never endanger system safety. Many past system evolutions, whether ground-based or airborne, have been based on trial and error, and system safety was addressed only after a specific event yielded dramatic or near-dramatic consequences. Future system evolutions, however, must leverage available computation, prior knowledge, and abstract reasoning to anticipate all possible system degradations and prove that such degradations are graceful and safe. This paper is concerned with the graceful degradation of high-density structured arrival traffic against partial or complete surveillance failures. It is shown that for equal performance requirements, some traffic configurations might be easier to handle than others, thereby offering a quantitative perspective on these traffic configurations' ability to ldquogracefully degrade.rdquo To support our work, we also introduce a new conflict resolution algorithm aimed at solving conflicts involving many aircraft when aircraft position information is in the process of degrading. View full abstract»

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  • Intent-Based Probabilistic Conflict Detection for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Page(s): 2040 - 2059
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    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is a proposed transformation of air traffic operations to meet future growth. Under the NextGen, aircraft are expected to perform air traffic management tasks such as flight plan changes, trajectory prediction, and conflict detection. We propose a trajectory prediction algorithm for the NextGen that utilizes an aircraft dynamics model to account for changes in aircraft flight modes. This model is useful for short-term trajectory prediction and is able to account for the correlation in prediction errors due to aircraft maneuvers. We also utilize verified or inferred intents of aircraft to improve the trajectory prediction in the long term. We then propose a computationally efficient analytical algorithm to compute the conflict probability between any pair of maneuvering or nonmaneuvering aircraft. We demonstrate the computational efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm through various illustrative air traffic scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Optimization in Traffic Flow Management

    Page(s): 2060 - 2080
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    Traffic flow management (TFM) allocates the various airport, airspace, and other resources to maintain an efficient traffic flow consistent with safety. TFM is a complex area of research involving the disciplines of operations research, guidance and control, human factors, and software engineering. Hundreds of human operators make TFM decisions that involve tens of thousands of aircraft, en route air traffic control centers, the Federal Aviation Administration's System Command Center, and many airline operation centers. This paper provides an overview of how TFM decisions are made today and challenges facing the system in the future, and reviews modeling and optimization approaches for facilitating system-wide modeling, performance assessments, and system-level optimization of the national airspace system in the presence of both en route and airport capacity constraints. View full abstract»

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  • A Study of Tradeoffs in Scheduling Terminal-Area Operations

    Page(s): 2081 - 2095
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2064 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The terminal area surrounding an airport is an important component of the air transportation system, and efficient terminal-area schedules are essential for accommodating the projected increase in air traffic demand. Aircraft arrival schedules are subject to a variety of operational constraints, such as minimum separation for safety, required arrival time-windows, limited deviation from a first-come first-served sequence, and precedence constraints. There is also a range of objectives associated with multiple stakeholders that could be optimized in these schedules; the associated tradeoffs are evaluated in this paper. A dynamic programming algorithm for determining the minimum cost arrival schedule, given aircraft-dependent delay costs, is presented. The proposed approach makes it possible to determine various tradeoffs in terminal-area operations. A comparison of maximum throughput and minimum average delay schedules shows that the benefit from maximizing throughput could be at the expense of an increase in average delay, and that minimizing delay is the more advantageous of the two objectives in most cases. A comprehensive analysis of the tradeoffs between throughput and fuel costs and throughput and operating costs is conducted, accounting for both the cost of delay (as reported by the airlines) and the cost of speeding up when possible (from models of aircraft performance). View full abstract»

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  • Convex Formulations of Air Traffic Flow Optimization Problems

    Page(s): 2096 - 2112
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    The problem of regulating air traffic in the en route airspace of the National Airspace System is studied using a Eulerian network model to describe air traffic flow. The evolution of traffic on each edge of the network is modeled by a modified Lighthill-Whitham-Richards partial differential equation. The equation is transformed with a variable change, which makes it linear and enables us to use linear finite difference schemes to discretize the problem. We pose the problem of optimal traffic flow regulation as a continuous optimization program in which the partial differential equation appears in the constraints. We propose a discrete formulation of this problem, which makes all constraints (the discretized partial differential equations, boundary, and initial conditions) linear. Corresponding linear programming and quadratic programming based solutions to this convex optimization program yield globally optimal solutions to various air traffic management objectives. The proposed method is applied to the maximization of aircraft arrivals and minimization of delays in the arrival airspace due to exogenous capacity reductions. The corresponding linear and quadratic programs are solved numerically using CPLEX for a benchmark scenario in the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center. Several computational aspects of the method are assessed-in particular, accuracy of the numerical discretization, computational time, and storage space required by the method. View full abstract»

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  • Lump-Sum Markets for Air Traffic Flow Control With Competitive Airlines

    Page(s): 2113 - 2130
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    Air traffic flow control during adverse weather conditions is managed by the Federal Aviation Administration in today's air traffic system, although it is the individual airlines that are in the best position to assess the costs of disruptions to scheduled operations. To improve the efficiency of resource allocation, a market mechanism is proposed that enables airlines to participate directly in the flow control decision-making process. Since airlines can be expected to behave strategically, a lump-sum market mechanism is used for which existence of a Nash equilibrium and a bound on the worst case efficiency loss have been shown for agents that anticipate the effects of their own bids on resource prices. The convergence properties of this mechanism are studied for a two-player game with linear utilities, which reveals that restricting the airline bid update step-size can result in a wider range of stable bidding processes. The mechanism is then applied to an air traffic flow control scenario for multiple airports in the northeastern United States, which demonstrates the feasibility of performing market-based resource allocation within the time horizon for reliable weather predictions. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Vannevar Bush

    Page(s): 2131 - 2133
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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Page(s): 2134 - 2135
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  • 2008 Index Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 94-96

    Page(s): 2136 - 2194
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE information for authors

    Page(s): 2195 - 2196
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  • IEEE Potentials is looking for article submissions

    Page(s): C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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North Carolina State University