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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial

    Page(s): 3
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  • Dynamics of Lightning Discharge During Return Stroke

    Page(s): 4 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Generalized lightning traveling-current-source return-stroke model (GTCSM) has been used to calculate the conductivity of the channel corona sheath and to examine the radiated lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) during the return stroke. By using a two-layer cylindrical model of the lightning channel, the connection between the channel sheath conductivity and the channel discharge function is derived. The conductivities of the corona sheath for different channel line charge density distributions are calculated and compared with the predictions of transmission-line type of models. It is concluded that the GTCSM and the transmission line model (TLM) predict similar values of the corona sheath conductivity during the return-stroke process along the bottom portion of the channel on the order of 10 muS/m. However, the time for achieving more or less constant value of the corona sheath conductivity is about 200 ns for the GTCSM, about two orders of magnitude smaller than that for the TLM. Different line charge distributions along the bottom portion of the channel are analyzed, and corresponding waveforms of the radiated LEMP are calculated. The GTCSM eliminates completely all shortcomings of the ldquoengineeringrdquo traveling-current-source type of return-stroke models concerning the current discontinuities and the discontinuities of the current derivative at the place of the return-stroke wave front. Obtained results show good matching with the measured data for far distances (bipolar structure of the field derivative) as well as for very close distances from the strike point (monopolar structure of the field derivative). The presence of the upward connecting leaders from the elevated object and their influence on the line charge distribution along the bottom portion of the channel is considered. Given results provide better understanding of the channel corona sheath dynamics based on the remote measurements of the radiated LEMP as well as on the measured electric an- - d magnetic field waveforms in the immediate vicinity of the lightning channel. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of CsI Coating of Carbon Fiber Cathodes on the Microwave Emission From a Triode Virtual Cathode Oscillator

    Page(s): 15 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (678 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss the effects of cesium iodide (CsI) coating of carbon fiber cathodes on the microwave emission from a triode virtual cathode oscillator. As compared with the uncoated cathode, the CsI-coated carbon fiber cathode significantly improved the diode performance and, most notably, lengthened the microwave pulse, from 150 to 200 ns. The light emission from the diode, the diode perveance, and the diode gap change were introduced to explain the observed extension of microwave pulse. After CsI coating, the carbon fiber cathode exhibited the absence of strong plasma, a slow plasma expansion velocity, and an almost unchanged diode gap during the main voltage pulse. It was found that heavy plasma ions, slow plasma expansion velocities, and long microwave pulses tend to be closely tied. These results show that, given a proper diode design, the carbon fiber cathodes with CsI coating have great promise for generating long-pulse microwave radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Bifrequency Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Oscillator

    Page(s): 23 - 29
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    A novel idea of azimuthal partition to generate high power microwave (HPM) with two frequencies in a single device is put forward for the first time in this paper. According to this idea, a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) that could generate HPM with two stable and separate frequencies is designed. To distinguish this new device from a traditional MILO, it is named bifrequency MILO (BFMILO) in this paper. The high-frequency characteristics of BFMILO are investigated, and it is simulated through 3-D PIC codes. The results of particle simulation are presented: Employing an electron flow of 420 kV and 38 kA, an L-band BFMILO can generate about 1.3 GW of HPM with two frequencies. They are 1.27 and 1.49 GHz, respectively. The power efficiency is about 8.1%. The amplitude difference of the spectrum between the two frequencies is about 0.4 dB. In addition, preliminary experimental results are also presented: When the input voltage is 420 kV and the current is about 34 kA, a BFMILO can generate over 620 MW of HPM. The two frequencies are 1.26 and 1.45 GHz, respectively. The power efficiency is over 4.3%. This paper preliminarily proves the feasibility that BFMILO can generate HPM with two frequencies, and this pointed out a new direction of HPM investigations. View full abstract»

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  • Large Signal Calculation and Simulation of the Admittance of an Electron Beam in Double-Gap Coupling Cavity

    Page(s): 30 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A model is constructed to evaluate the electronic conductance of an electron beam in double-gap coupling cavity resonator. The electronic conductance is studied both analytically and numerically. The analytical expression for the electronic conductance is derived based on the nonlinear space-charge wave theory, and it is also presented as a function of modulation coefficient in detail. It is shown that the analytic results of electronic conductance are in reasonable agreement with the numerical simulations. In addition, the simulated results of the beam susceptance are also given, and the results show that the change of susceptance with modulation coefficient is very small. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Subterahertz and Terahertz Gyrodevices at IAP RAS and FIR FU

    Page(s): 36 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (777 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The maximal frequency of radiation higher than 1 THz has been recently obtained in pulse gyrotrons both at IAP (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and FIR (Fukui, Japan). CW generation at a 2.2-kW power level is radiated from a 300-GHz gyrotron and used for technological applications. New gyrotrons demonstrate single-mode operation at the second cyclotron harmonic with a frequency of 395 GHz in the CW regime with a power of 100 W and at the third harmonic with frequencies of 371-414 GHz in 10-mus pulses with power of 10-20 kW. Methods of selective excitation of higher cyclotron harmonics, frequency multiplication, and smooth frequency tuning in terahertz gyrotrons are also discussed in the review. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Power Microwave Plasma Conductivity

    Page(s): 44 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (687 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasma conductivity is of general interest for both fundamental research and specific applications. For this purpose, plasma equivalent impedance and complex conductivity are measured at 2.2 GHz, at pressures between 1 and 103 mbar, as a function of microwave power in a slot-type resonator, predominantly capacitively coupled to plasma. The plasma impedance is self-adjusting, maintaining a quasi-constant microwave amplitude. The sign of the imaginary part of the impedance (or conductivity) depends on pressure and, consequently, on electron density. The reactive part becomes significant if the Debye length is comparable with the size of the resonator and the plasma frequency is close to the microwave driving frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Experiments on Matching Vacuum Transmission Lines to Loads

    Page(s): 50 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To efficiently connect a high-current-density load to a magnetically insulated vacuum transmission line, we require that the regularity of the electron flow be conserved. Regularity, i.e., Brillouin flow, can be preserved by keeping the invariants of the motion constant along the flow and requiring that small changes in these be adiabatic. It is shown that by matching the vacuum impedances of the various transmission line sections and assuring smooth transition between them, Brillouin flow of sheath electrons continues almost unperturbed to the load without losses. This idea is numerically demonstrated for a new type of diode which we name Brillouin diode. View full abstract»

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  • A Model for Barium Oxide Depletion From Hollow Cathode Inserts

    Page(s): 58 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a chemical model to predict barium oxide depletion from hollow cathode insert will be developed. This model is based on the knowledge of the ternary diagram that describes the BaO-CaO-Al2O3 system and takes also into account the diffusive motion of barium oxide inside the insert. A comparison between numerical and experimental data is made to determine the diffusion coefficient inside the insert. The diffusion coefficient found presents an Arrhenius trend with activation energy similar to the one of barium oxide evaporation. A 2-D model is used to demonstrate how the temperature profile along the insert is a key parameter to calculate barium depletion. This is the first model the authors are aware of that includes both the complex chemistry of the BaO-CaO-Al2O3 system and the diffusion motion of BaO from the insert core to the surface. View full abstract»

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  • Prepulse Suppression on a High-Power Electron Beam Accelerator Using a Dielectric Cathode Holder

    Page(s): 67 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intense gigawatt relativistic electron beam generation studies were carried out with a Perspex cathode holder. Purpose of the dielectric cathode holder was to minimize the prepulse voltage across the diode. The typical electron beam parameter was 180 kV, 26 kA, 100 ns, with a few hundreds of ampere per square centimeter current density. It was found that corrugated Perspex of length ges35 mm can eliminate the prepulse voltage but affects the rise time of the diode voltage. The diode voltage and current waveforms were analyzed with the bipolar space-charge limited flow model. The anode and cathode plasma expansion velocities were calculated using the perveance data. The plasma expands at 5.1 cm/mus for 18-mm anode-cathode gap and the plasma velocity increases for larger gap. Inserting a dielectric at the cathode holder could be a very effective method to reduce prepulse voltage at the electron beam diode, but it increases the rise time of the diode voltage and reduces the effective electron beam pulsewidth. The prepulse voltage reduces significantly (les10%) when an inductance is added to the charging circuit of the Blumlein line. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral Analysis of the Plasma in Low-Power Laser/Arc Hybrid Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    Page(s): 76 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The previous work indicated that there were interactions between laser beam and arc plasma in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. In order to study the interactions, the spectra of plasmas in tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and hybrid laser/TIG welding of magnesium alloy are acquired, and the differences between them are analyzed. In hybrid welding, the intensities of emission spectra of Mg I and Mg II are much stronger than in TIG welding, while those of Ar I and Ar II are a little weaker than in TIG welding. The temporal characterizations of the sensitive lines of Ar I, Ar II, Mg I, and Mg II are studied to investigate the effect of laser beam on arc plasma. In addition, the influence of laser power on the welding quality is investigated, and it is found that the threshold value of laser power which can improve the welding quality is 50-70 W in hybrid welding. Finally, the electron temperature and electron density of welding plasma are estimated, and the interaction between laser and arc is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Deuteron Energy Distribution From Neutron Diagnostics in a Plasma-Focus Device

    Page(s): 83 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fast neutrons from deuteron-deuteron fusion reactions were used for a study of fast deuterons in the PF-1000 plasma-focus device. The energy spectrum of neutrons was determined by the time-of-flight method using ten scintillation detectors positioned downstream, upstream, and side-on the experimental facility. Neutron energy-distribution functions enabled the determination of axial and radial components of energy of deuterons producing the fusion neutrons, as well as a rough evaluation of the total energy distribution of all fast deuterons in the pinch. It was found that the total deuteron energy-distribution function decreases with the deuteron energy more slowly than the tail of the Maxwellian distribution for 1-2-keV deuterons. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Different Wire Configurations in Underwater Electrical Explosion

    Page(s): 88 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The results of a study of shock wave (SW) generation by means of underwater electrical wire explosion with different exploding wire configurations and two high-current microsecond and submicrosecond timescale generators are presented. By using aperiodical generator discharge, a ~85% and ~15% of the stored electrical energy was transferred to the exploding wire and energy of the generated water flow, respectively. The energy of the water flow is distributed between its internal (~25%) and kinetic (~75%) energies. It was shown that the exploding wire zigzag configuration, confinement of the SW propagation region, and an increase in the rate of the energy deposition into the exploding wire allow one to increase the SW pressure ges10 times that attained with microsecond timescale straight wire explosion. The averaged thermophysical properties of nonideal and weakly degenerated plasma formed as a result of the wire explosion were obtained and summarized. View full abstract»

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  • The Effective Conductivity and the Induced Transmembrane Potential in Dense Cell System Exposed to DC and AC Electric Fields

    Page(s): 99 - 106
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Studying electric potential distribution on the cell membrane and electric conductivity gives us an insight into the effects of the electric field on cells and tissues. Since cells are always surrounded by other cells, we studied how their interactions influence the induced transmembrane potential (TMP) and the effective conductivity in dense cell systems. We numerically and analytically studied the effect of cell organization on the induced TMP and the effective conductivity by organizing cells into simple-cubic, body-centered cubic, and face-centered infinite cubic lattices. We analyzed the general relation between the local quantities (electric field and the induced TMP) and the effective properties such as effective conductivity. We demonstrated that the effective conductivity mainly depends on cell volume fraction, while the induced TMP is affected by cell volume fraction as well as cell ordering. We show that in contrast to some reported results, the phenomenological effective medium theory (EMT) equations cannot be used to determine the local quantities (e.g., the induced TMP) in dense cell systems, whereas the effective properties (e.g., conductivity) can be readily analyzed with EMT equations. We further derive an analytical approximation for the induced TMP in dense cell system exposed to dc and ac electric fields, where dominant factors, which govern the local electric field and the induced TMP, are cell volume fraction and cell ordering. The presented theoretical analysis can be extended also to high frequencies or random distribution of cells. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Water-Vapor Plasma Excited by Microwaves as Ultraviolet Light Source

    Page(s): 107 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The potential of using water-vapor plasmas excited by microwaves as a ultraviolet (UV) light source has been investigated by using various pressures and input powers. The UV irradiation power increased and saturated at a pressure range dependent on the input power. On the other hand, other visible and infrared emissions corresponding to four atomic lines, i.e., the Balmer series of hydrogen at 486.1 nm ( Hbeta) and 656.3 nm (Halpha) and oxygen atoms at 777.2 and 844.6 nm, were clearly decreased with an increase in the total gas pressure. It was found that pressures (1.4-2.0 kPa) near the saturated water-vapor pressure were found to give the most intense UV irradiation. With a vapor pressure of 1.6 kPa and a total microwave power of 300 W, the power density of UV (Gammauv) was measured to be 10.5 muWmiddotcm-2 at a distance of 30 cm from the center of the discharge tube as measured through an optical viewing port on the cavity discharge applicator. This value for (Gammauv) is comparable to that for a mercury lamp. However, the (etauv) efficiency was estimated to be considerably lower than that of a mercury lamp. View full abstract»

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  • Heating Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharges for Direct Medical Treatment

    Page(s): 113 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several variations of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been developed for nondamaging living-tissue sterilization and blood coagulation. This so-called floating electrode DBD (FE-DBD) has been shown by histology to not damage the treated tissue. Nevertheless, preliminary experiments show that a person who touches the FE-DBD can feel the discharge action. Some of these unpleasant sensations are related to the thermal effects of the plasma. These thermal effects and other important parameters of the discharge are strongly dependent on the electrical properties of the discharge, i.e., driving voltage and waveform shape. In this paper, we first employed sinusoidal driving waveform for medical applications. After that, in order to increase the uniformity and decrease the temperature, we employed a microsecond-pulsed waveform system with a few microsecond pulse durations. Both plasma systems have been analyzed and compared for thermal effects and temperature of the discharge in order to determine the possibilities to control the heating effect with driving waveform. View full abstract»

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  • The Interaction of a Direct-Current Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Air Plasma With Bacteria

    Page(s): 121 - 127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A direct-current cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet (PMJ) based on the microhollow cathode discharge design is used to inactivate six types of bacteria within a small well-defined area on a large Petri dish. We show that the PMJ is very effective in inactivating bacteria in their vegetative state as well as in the spore state within the area of plasma exposure. We also observed that bacteria in their vegetative state were inactivated efficiently outside the area of direct plasma exposure. Different bacteria responded differently to an increase in the plasma exposure (dose). Lastly, we observed two types of colony forming unit (CFU) distributions after plasma treatment; one distribution is diffusionlike with a gradual increase of the surviving CFU as one moves radially away from the area of direct plasma exposure, and the other distribution shows an essentially uniform reduction in surviving CFU across the entire Petri dish. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Model of an Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cell

    Page(s): 128 - 134
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model of the typical dielectric barrier plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure, structured as an equivalent electric circuit whose elements are identified with, and deducted from, the main influential variables of the process, namely, the applied gas, the geometry of the reactor, the breakdown parameters, as well as the power supply associated to the dielectric barrier discharge cell. Considering a parallel-plate reactor and a high-voltage sinusoidal power supply, an electrical comprehensive Simulink/MATLAB model has been developed in order to reveal the interaction between these two elements. The main components of this discharge model are as follows: (1) a double dielectric capacitance; (2) a voltage-controlled current source; and (3) a gas capacitance associated to the ionized gas. A sinusoidal voltage of up to 15 kV peak to peak at frequencies of 12.5 and 47 kHz has been applied to the discharge electrodes. The electrical model is based on the power law proposed by Roth, which defines the V-I behavior during the discharge startup. A series of simulations has been carried out in order to estimate the total current and voltage consumed during each discharge and to identify those parameters which are not measurable during the process. Finally, both the experimental and simulated voltage and current results in helium, argon, and nitrogen, as well as their Q-V graphics, are shown, and a comparison between them is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Emission Characteristics of a Weak Discharge in Reset Period of Plasma Display Panels

    Page(s): 135 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional IR emission characteristics of a weak discharge in the reset period were investigated with the specially fabricated 3-D test panel which has a glass prism instead of one flank of a closed wall in AC PDP. Based on the 3-D images of the IR emissions measured in the reset period, the IR emissions from the cathode electrodes were not observed all through the rising and falling ramp reset period. During the falling ramp reset period, the emissions from the X and Ay electrodes, which work as anodes, were seen. Moreover, it was observed that the address obviously discharge occurs between the Y and a part of address (Ax) electrode. These results were experimentally confirmed with the 6-in 3-D plasma display panel. View full abstract»

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  • SIMS/ARXPS—A New Technique of Retained Dopant Dose and Profile Measurement of Ultralow-Energy Doping Processes

    Page(s): 139 - 145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1041 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A newly developed surface analysis technique, which combines secondary ion mass spectrometry with angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, was used to achieve more accurate results of the retained impurity doses and profiles for ultralow-energy implants, including conventional beamline implant and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). Using this method, it has been found that the B2H6 (diborane) PIII demonstrates thicker native oxide and much more B dose loss during rapid thermal processing and surface-cleaning treatments than conventional beamline ion implantation, due to the higher surface B concentration. In order to match the electrical parameters of the device, PIII must consider higher nominal dose to compensate the B loss. View full abstract»

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  • First Application of Cellular Nonlinear Network Methods to the Real-Time Identification of Hot Spots in JET

    Page(s): 146 - 152
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to qualify materials and develop integrated scenarios for ITER, Joint European Torus (JET) is going to operate with a new wall consisting of beryllium in the main chamber and tungsten in the divertor. These new materials will require particular care when the machine operates, considering that they are much more vulnerable than the present combination of graphite and stainless steel. Early detection of hot spots, which are regions of the first wall where the temperature approaches dangerous levels, is considered one essential element in the safety strategy. In this paper, cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) are applied to the task of detecting hot spots in the infrared images of JET wide-angle camera. The ability of the CNNs to process the pixels of the images in parallel makes this technology a very good candidate for this task. Various algorithms are presented, which can locate the hot regions in any part of the image with a temporal resolution on the order of 60 ms, which is considered adequate for safety purposes at JET. In addition to the frame-by-frame static identification of the hot spots, their evolution in time is also followed to determine if they approach dangerous parts of the vacuum vessel. The potential of the CNNs would therefore allow for the implementation of alternative protection strategies, such as following the increase and displacement of the hot spots inside the entire vacuum vessel and identifying particles dropping into the plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Image Analysis: A Tool for Optical-Emission Characterization of Partial-Vacuum Breakdown

    Page(s): 153 - 158
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power devices and systems operating in partial vacuum are susceptible to partial discharges, corona, or volume discharges. In this paper, we present an image-analysis technique and its results for optical-emission characterization of a breakdown initiation. The example set for demonstration is breakdown events under a 20-kHz unipolar sinusoidal applied field for a point-to-point electrode geometry at partial vacuum in helium. The voltage and current waveforms along with the light-emission data are collected. The results of the image-analysis technique used to obtain the R/G/B emission characteristics of the breakdown events as a function of time, location, and pressure are presented. The images obtained by a standard 30-ft/s video camera are used for analysis to characterize the progress of the breakdown. View full abstract»

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  • Restoration of the Pure Dynamic Optogalvanic Signals in Ne Hollow Cathode Discharge

    Page(s): 159 - 163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamic optogalvanic signals (OGSs) from optical transitions corresponding to the Ne I 533.08-nm and Ne I 540.05-nm spectral lines are registered in Ne/Ca and Ne/Mn hollow cathode discharges. A direct deconvolution procedure has been developed for restoring the true OGS from the one registered. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
tps-editor@ieee.org
Phone:505-988-5751
Fax:505-988-5751 (call first)