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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 3530
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (86 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Comparative Analysis of Methods for Isochronous Magnetic-Field Calculation

    Page(s): 3531 - 3538
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Accurate magnetic fields are needed for defining the operation of a multipurpose cyclotron as well as for designing other parts of the machine, as an input parameter. The quality of an isochronous magnetic field is evaluated by the closeness of the obtained ion gyration frequency to its required value. The commonly used method of isochronous field calculation for sector focused cyclotrons was Gordon's procedure. The incorporation of the gyration frequency criterion in isochronous field calculation has grown with the increase of the computer speed. We suggest a highly accurate method for the isochronous magnetic field calculation based on the gyration frequency adjustment. View full abstract»

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  • Physics Analysis Tools for the CMS Experiment at LHC

    Page(s): 3539 - 3543
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The CMS experiment is expected to start data taking during 2008, and large data samples, of the peta-bytes scale, will be produced each year. The CMS Physics Tools package provides the CMS physicist with a powerful and flexible software layer for analysis of these huge datasets that is well integrated in the CMS experiment software. C++ generic programming is used to allow simple extensions of analysis tools. A core part of this package is the Candidate Model providing a coherent interface to different types of data. Standard tasks such as combinatorial analyses, generic cuts, MC truth matching and constrained fitting are supported. Advanced template techniques enable the user to add missing features easily. We explain the underlying model, certain details of the implementation and present some use cases showing how the tools are currently used in generator and full simulation studies as preparation for analysis of real data. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Normalization Algorithms on the Analysis of Bragg Peak Profiles

    Page(s): 3544 - 3549
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A study has been performed to evaluate the effect of normalization criteria applied to the comparison of depth dose profiles relevant to proton therapy applications. The results suggest that the widely used criterion of rescaling dose profiles based on the Bragg peak height (or on the dose value at any specific depth) affects the outcome of the goodness-of-fit tests. A normalization procedure consisting of rescaling dose profiles according to the respective integral is demonstrated to be a more robust method. View full abstract»

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  • Monte Carlo Simulation of a ^{198} Au Thin Foil: The Response of a 4\pi \beta \hbox {-} \gamma Detector

    Page(s): 3550 - 3555
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed of the decay of a 198Au solid source within a 4pibeta- gamma coincidence detector. Calculations of the proportional counter efficiency to both beta and gamma emissions are simulated. A comparison of results obtained using the MCNP-5 and Geant4 simulation packages indicates that Geant4 better evaluates the K correction to the coincidence equation than MCNP-5 predictions. This difference can be accounted for in terms of how the codes handle the physical interactions occurring in the foil and surrounds. View full abstract»

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  • The ATLAS Event Builder

    Page(s): 3556 - 3562
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three-level trigger system, which, at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2), reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to ~ 3 kHz. At this rate, the Event Builder collects the data from the readout system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the Event Filter (EF). The EF is the third trigger level and its aim is to achieve a further rate reduction to ~ 200 Hz on the permanent storage. The Event Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via a gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs, and substantial fractions of the Event Builder and EF PCs have been installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which is capable of going beyond the required data rates and bandwidths for event building for the ATLAS experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Pulse Shape Acquisition From the Focal Plane Detector of MAGNEX Spectrometer

    Page(s): 3563 - 3570
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We applied the digital pulse shape acquisition to the read out of the anode pads of the focal plane detector of the MAGNEX spectrometer in order to measure the position coordinates using digital signal processing. View full abstract»

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  • Application of High-Energy Photon CT System With Laser-Compton Scattering to Non-Destructive Test

    Page(s): 3571 - 3578
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A computed tomography (CT) system using high-energy monochromatic photons is one of the best choices for non-destructive tests, to detect flaws or defects in manufactured items for the purpose of improving quality control, and quality assurance. We have developed such a CT system based on laser-Compton X-rays, which were generated with an electron accelerator and a laser beam. Using 10 MeV laser-Compton X-rays, an experimental study for non-destructive tests of concrete specimens with computed tomography were performed. We successfully obtained CT images. View full abstract»

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  • Ecological Interface Design in the Nuclear Domain: An Application to the Secondary Subsystems of a Boiling Water Reactor Plant Simulator

    Page(s): 3579 - 3596
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2318 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Accident investigations have revealed that unanticipated events are often precursors of major accidents. Unfortunately, conventional approaches to interface design for complex systems do not explicitly support problem solving during unanticipated events. Ecological Interface Design (EID) is a theoretical framework for designing computer interfaces that explicitly aims to support worker adaptation, especially during unanticipated events, leading to more robust user interfaces. However, limited verification and validation research in representative settings is impeding the adoption of the EID framework in the nuclear domain. This article presents an example by applying EID to the secondary side of a boiling water reactor plant simulator. The interface designers constructed abstraction hierarchy, causal, and part-whole models to acquire pertinent knowledge of the work domain and designed five ecological displays to represent the plant processes. These displays are analytically shown to contain visualization properties that could support monitoring and diagnosing unanticipated events in accordance to the claims of the EID framework. The analytical evaluation of the visualization features of the displays also illustrates that the EID framework could be applied to improve current verification practice. A companion article reports an empirical evaluation of these ecological displays to validate whether these properties could enhance operator performance. View full abstract»

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  • Ecological Interface Design in the Nuclear Domain: An Empirical Evaluation of Ecological Displays for the Secondary Subsystems of a Boiling Water Reactor Plant Simulator

    Page(s): 3597 - 3610
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1206 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Laboratory studies have shown that ecological interfaces can enhance operator performance in process control. However, limited verification and validation studies in representative settings are impeding the adoption of the Ecological Interface Design (EID) framework in the nuclear domain. A companion article presents an application of EID to the secondary side of a boiling water reactor plant simulator, demonstrating that the framework can lead to display features and verification criteria relevant to supporting operators in both anticipated and unanticipated situations. This article presents an empirical study as a first step towards the validation of EID in the nuclear domain. The results suggest that ecological displays have a marked advantage in supporting operator performance during monitoring for unanticipated events as compared to mimic-based displays. The ecological displays did not support operator performance differently for other types of tasks. This study provides supporting or validation evidence that EID is effective at a scale and level of complexity that is representative of nuclear power plant operations. The implications for introducing ecological displays into NPP control rooms are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced Neural Network Based Fault Detection of a VVER Nuclear Power Plant With the Aid of Principal Component Analysis

    Page(s): 3611 - 3619
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1014 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a neural network based fault diagnosing approach which allows dynamic fault identification. The method utilizes the principal component analysis (PCA) technique to dramatically reduce the problem dimension. Such a dimension reduction approach leads to faster diagnosing and allows a better graphical presentation of the results. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, two methodologies are used to train the neural network (NN). At first, a training matrix composed of 15 variables is used to train a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) with resilient backpropagation (RP) algorithm. Employing the proposed method, a more accurate and simpler network is designed where the input size is reduced from 15 to 6 variables for training the NN. In short, the application of PCA highly reduces the network topology and allows employing more efficient training algorithms. The developed networks use, as input, a short set (in a moving temporal window (MTW)) of recent measurements of each variable avoiding the necessity of using starting events. The accuracy, generalization ability and reliability of the designed networks are verified using 10 simulated events data from a VVER-1000 simulator. Noise is added to the data to evaluate robustness of the method, and the method again shows to be effective and powerful. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum Detection Efficiency in Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiodes

    Page(s): 3620 - 3625
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (554 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fabrication of silicon shallow junction photodiodes is a relevant topic for the detection of blue and near ultraviolet weak photon fluxes. In this paper we present a simple model to calculate the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (GMAP) as a function of the dead layer thickness above the junction depletion layer. A comparison between calculated and experimental data is also presented. Moreover, by using the same model, an analysis of the QDE at 420 nm wavelength of conventional GMAPs based on shallow N+-P and P+-N junctions is given. View full abstract»

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  • New Approach for the Prediction of CCD Dark Current Distribution in a Space Radiation Environment

    Page(s): 3626 - 3632
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Commercial Off-The-Shelf Charge Coupled Devices were irradiated with protons at energies ranging from 17 MeV to 200 MeV. Evolution of the dark current distribution during irradiation is discussed. A general method is presented to predict the increase of both mean dark current and associated non-uniformity after a monoenergetic proton irradiation. The results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental outputs. The model is then used to assess the dark signal degradation of a device exposed to a multienergetic proton beam. Again, the predictions are shown to be consistent with the experimental data. This makes possible the assessment of the dark signal distribution of a device exposed to a real space environment. View full abstract»

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  • Radiation Effects on InGaN Quantum Wells and GaN Simultaneously Probed by Ion Beam-Induced Luminescence

    Page(s): 3633 - 3637
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (323 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    InGaN quantum well structures on GaN epilayers were exposed to 500 keV alpha particles to fluences above 1014 cm2 to probe the relative radiation tolerance of the epilayer and wells. Performance was estimated by the intensity of ion-beam induced luminescence. Two separate types of quantum well structures emitted at 470 and 510 nm prior to irradiation, and only small wavelength shifts were observed even with the highest alpha fluences. Complementary cathodoluminescence experiments showed that luminescence in the quantum wells is strongly influenced by charges injected deep into the GaN epilayer. The 500 keV alpha penetration depth was ~ 1 mum, so that defects were created at a faster rate in GaN compared to InGaN as alpha particles slowed and stopped within a minority carrier diffusion length of the quantum wells. However, the rate of luminescent decay was similar for both materials. Taken together with the cathodoluminescence data, this ion-beam induced luminescence comparison indicates that the quantum well luminescence decay rate is dominated by radiation-induced defects in the GaN epilayer. InGaN quantum wells are then demonstrated to be not more than a factor of ten more radiation sensitive than GaN, and may be substantially less sensitive than this upper bound. View full abstract»

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  • Short Strips for the sLHC: A P-Type Silicon Microstrip Detector in 3-D Technology

    Page(s): 3638 - 3642
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. With respect to the LHC, large improvements in radiation hardness are required. In this paper, we investigated the expected radiation hardness of the 3-D-design, where rows of 3-D-columns are etched in substrate material and joined together to form strips. To investigate the feasibility of 3-D silicon strip detectors (SSD) for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3-D single type column (3-D-STC) strip detectors with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The modules were tested with a beta source setup before and after irradiation to sLHC fluences with 26 MeV protons. We report on the performance of these 3-D-modules, compare it to the results prior to irradiation, and draw conclusions about options for using 3-D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC. View full abstract»

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  • A Fieldable-Prototype, Large-Area, Gamma-Ray Imager for Orphan Source Search

    Page(s): 3643 - 3653
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have constructed a unique instrument for use in the search for orphan sources. The system uses gamma-ray imaging to ldquosee throughrdquo the natural background variations that effectively limit the sensitivity of current devices. The imager is mounted in a 4.9-m-long trailer and can be towed by a large personal vehicle. Source locations are determined both in range and along the direction of travel as the vehicle moves. A fully inertial platform coupled to a Global Positioning System receiver is used to map the gamma-ray images onto overhead geospatial imagery. The resulting images provide precise source locations, allowing rapid follow-up work. The instrument simultaneously searches both sides of the street to a distance of 50 m (100-m swath) for millicurie-class sources with excellent performance as determined using source injection studies and receiver-operator-characteristic techniques. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Gamma-Ray Imaging to Improve Portal Monitor Performance

    Page(s): 3654 - 3664
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have constructed a prototype, rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. Our Roadside Tracker uses automated target acquisition and tracking (TAT) software to identify and track vehicles in visible light images. The field of view of the visible camera overlaps with and is calibrated to that of a one-dimensional gamma-ray imager. The TAT code passes information on when vehicles enter and exit the system field of view and when they cross gamma-ray pixel boundaries. Based on this information, the gamma-ray imager ldquoharvestsrdquo the gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. In this fashion we are able to generate vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoid source confusion problems that plague nonimaging approaches to the same problem. View full abstract»

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  • Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Page(s): 3665 - 3672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations of MAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional. View full abstract»

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  • A 128-Channel CMOS Charge Readout ASIC for Flat-Panel X-Ray Detectors

    Page(s): 3673 - 3683
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A CMOS charge readout ASIC (SD7110) for flat-panel X-ray detectors was designed and tested. This ASIC contains 128 readout channels, with each channel consisting of a charge sensitive amplifier, a correlated double sampler, and a track-and-hold circuit. Channel outputs are read out via a 128:1 analog multiplexer and fed into an external 16-bit A/D converter. Conversion gain can be selected from 0.25 V/pC to 8 V/pC. The ASIC operates using a +5.0 V single power supply, with power dissipation of 1.8 mW/channel. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) measured was 400 + 18.9 e-/pF. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Luminescence Properties of Lu _{2} SiO _{5} :Ce (LSO) Powder Scintillator in the X-Ray Radiography Energy Range

    Page(s): 3684 - 3691
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the light emission efficiency of Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO) powder scintillator under conditions employed in projection X-ray imaging. Although single-crystal LSO has been thoroughly studied in medical imaging energies, the efficiency of powder LSO has not been previously investigated experimentally under X-ray medical radiography conditions. For this purpose, three scintillating screens with a coating thickness of 63.4, 108.4, and 172.5 mg/cm2 were prepared by sedimentation of LSO powder. Measurements of luminescence efficiency (emitted light energy flux over incident X-ray energy flux) were performed in the radiographic X-ray tube voltages range (40-140 kVp). Parameters related to X-ray detection, i.e., quantum detection efficiency, energy absorption efficiency and probability of K-fluorescence reabsorption were calculated. A theoretical model, describing radiation and light transfer, was employed to fit luminescence experimental data and to estimate values of the intrinsic conversion efficiency and of the light attenuation coefficients of the scintillating screens. The spectral compatibility of the LSO powder scintillator to various optical detectors used in digital radiography was also determined by performing light emission spectrum measurements and by taking into account the spectral sensitivity of electronic optical detectors. Maximum values of LSO luminescence efficiency were observed within the range from 40 to 60 kVp. The 172.5 mg/cm2 thick screen was found more efficient than the two thinner screens examined in our experiments. The intrinsic conversion efficiency of LSO (0.10) was found close to that of currently employed phosphors. Spectral compatibility data of LSO screens indicates that LSO may be efficiently coupled to optical detectors used in digital radiography imaging systems. View full abstract»

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  • Exploratory Research on the Development of Novel {\rm Ce}^{3+} -Activated Phosphate Glass Scintillators

    Page(s): 3692 - 3702
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report the discovery of a new family of Ce3+-activated phosphate glass scintillators that can be formed either with or without the addition of 6Li, for neutron or X-ray/gamma-ray radiation detection, respectively. Trivalent cerium can be efficiently introduced into these phosphate glasses in surprisingly high concentrations in the form of anhydrous cerium tri-chloride. Additionally, these glasses can be melted and poured at the relatively low temperatures of 1000-1050degC (i.e., substantially lower than silicate glasses), and to retain the cerium in the trivalent state it is not necessary to maintain highly reducing conditions during the synthesis process. The family of alkaline-earth-alkali phosphate glasses investigated here represents a system with two dissimilar cations - thereby offering a large range of potential compositional variations, substitutions, and combinations. In order to alter the scintillator characteristics, we have explored part of that compositional space by studying Ca-Na, Ca-Li, Ca-Cs, Ca-Rb, Ca-K and Ca-Ba-Na phosphate glasses, as well as various co-doping and post-synthesis thermal processing schemes. A series of experiments under X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron excitations was carried out. The broad, peaking at about 354 nm, UV scintillation of these glasses is well suited for applications that use common photomultipliers with bi-alkali photo-cathodes. Pulse shape measurements show that the primary component of the scintillation in most of these glasses corresponds to 75-90% of the emitted photons, and it decays with a time constant of 30 to 40 ns, which classifies these materials as reasonably fast scintillators. Although the gamma-induced light yield of these new scintillating phosphate glasses is, thus far, only about 30% of that of commercial GS20 silicate glass, due to the generally faster scintillation, the initial amplitude of the scintillation pulse of these glasses is close to that of the above-mentioned GS2- - 0 scintillator. View full abstract»

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  • Light Emission Efficiency of {\rm Gd}_{2} {\rm O} _{2} {\rm S}!!!:!!!{\rm Eu} (GOS:Eu) Powder Screens Under X-Ray Mammography Conditions

    Page(s): 3703 - 3709
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this study was to examine Gd2O2S:Eu (also known as GOS:Eu) powder scintillator under X-ray mammography imaging conditions. For this purpose, three scintillator screens with coating thicknesses of 33.1, 46.4 and 63.1 mg/cm2 were prepared in our laboratory by sedimentation of Gd2O2S:Eu powder. Light emission efficiency and optical emission spectra of the screens were measured under X-ray excitation using X-ray tube voltages (22-49 kVp) employed in mammography. Spectral compatibility with various optical photon detectors (photodiodes, photocathodes, charge coupled devices, films) and intrinsic conversion efficiency value (0.12) were determined by using emission spectrum data. In addition, parameters related to X-ray detection and energy absorption efficiency were calculated. Gd2O2S:Eu showed peak emission in the wavelength range 620-630 nm. The 63.1 mg/cm2 phosphor screen appeared with the maximum light emission efficiency. Due to its reddish emission spectrum, Gd2O2S:Eu showed excellent compatibility with the sensitivity of many currently used photodetectors and could be considered for application in X-ray imaging especially in various digital detectors. View full abstract»

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  • Boron-10 Loaded BC523A Liquid Scintillator for Neutron Detection in the Border Monitoring

    Page(s): 3710 - 3716
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A BC523A liquid scintillator loaded with boron-10 was tested as a detector for both fast and thermal neutrons. A pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method based on a zero-crossing principle was applied to distinguish between neutron and gamma radiation. High quantum efficiency Photonis XP5500B photomultiplier was used to enhance light detection from the scintillator. This allowed a good registration of the energy spectrum of neutron capture events on boron-10, corresponding to about 60 keV gamma-rays. The applied PSD method proved to be useful for n/gamma discrimination. A good resolving power of the method was achieved even without gating on neutron capture events. A comparison with a standard BC501A liquid scintillator was done to evaluate thermal neutrons detection efficiency in BC523A. View full abstract»

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  • Energy Resolution of Plastic Scintillation Detector for Beta Rays

    Page(s): 3717 - 3724
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (623 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many experiments on neutrinoless double beta decays have been proposed recently for determining the effective mass of neutrinos. Some of them use a plastic scintillator for measuring the beta-ray energy. Achieving a high energy resolution is critical for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments (e.g., MOON and superNEMO). The motivation of this study is to investigate the energy resolution of a plastic scintillation detector in terms of ldquocomponentsrdquo in the MeV-electron region. It is known that the total energy resolution of a plastic scintillation detector for a monoenergetic spectrum consists of two components: statistical and intrinsic energy resolution. In this paper, these two components were investigated for electrons. Experiments on protons were also performed for the purpose of comparison. Three additional experiments were performed to determine (1) the uniformity of the plastic scintillator materials by scanning a 2.8-MeV proton microbeam, (2) the energy spread of electrons and protons, and (3) the effect of the electron-beam size on the set-up. These additional experiments were performed to ensure that these factors did not affect measurements of the two above-mentioned components. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

Full Aims & Scope

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Albuquerque, NM  87111  USA