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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date November 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 95
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • 2008 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Administrative Committee

    Page(s): i
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2008 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Officers and Committee Chairs

    Page(s): ii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Suppressing rolling-shutter distortion of CMOS image sensors by motion vector detection

    Page(s): 1479 - 1487
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the rolling shutter distortion of CMOS image sensor coming from its unique readout mechanism as the main cause for image degradation when there are fast-moving objects. This paper proposes a post image processing scheme based on motion vector detection to suppress the rolling shutter distortion. Motion vector detection is performed based on an optical flow method at a reasonable computational complexity. A practical implementation scheme is also described. View full abstract»

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  • A paperless fax machine with a single-touch panel

    Page(s): 1488 - 1491
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (331 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To eliminate the drawbacks of the conventional fax machines, this paper proposes a new paperless fax machine equipped with a single-touch panel, replacing the scanning and the printing units which not only take up most space but also are the most costly and vulnerable parts. In the proposed paperless fax machine, a received fax can be displayed and, if necessary, signed directly on the touch panel. The digital signature is then pasted onto the fax document, which can be sent back or stored in the memory for future references. Besides, a real handwriting reconstruction is developed to make the appearance of the digital signature close to real handwriting on the single-touch panel. View full abstract»

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  • Lossless and near lossless compression of real color filter array data

    Page(s): 1492 - 1500
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1577 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compression of Bayer pattern color filter array (CFA) data has gained a lot of attention during past years. Numerous algorithms have been proposed for lossless, near-lossless and lossy compression. The performance evaluation of compression methods is typically done only for artificial CFA data, obtained by sub-sampling full color images according to CFA pattern, without taking into account that CFA data are heavily processed before obtaining full color images. Therefore, some assumptions that are true for reconstructed images may not hold for real raw data. Thus, compression efficiency of different methods may vary. In this paper we evaluate the performance of some methods for lossless and near-lossless compression for real raw Bayer pattern CFA data obtained from digital cameras. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a scanner with stitching of multiple image capture

    Page(s): 1501 - 1505
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Instead of the flatbed scanner which moves slowly as it scans, we propose in this paper a new design of a high-speed and low-power scanner with a stitching of multiple image capture. We divide the area to be scanned into four parts, capture each image and then stitch these into a whole. Our design uses the compact camera module (CCM) advantages of high integrity, white balance, advanced calibration, and auto exposure for color and luminance, all of which reduce the software post-processing time. To solve the light reflection problem we propose an interleaved light source compensation method. To reduce power consumption and prevent light reflection among the four scan areas, we scan the four images one by one, during which a single CCM is turned on while the others are turned off. We use field of view (FOV) calculation to obtain the overlap area used by the stitching algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time face-priority auto focus for digital and cell-phone cameras

    Page(s): 1506 - 1513
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Auto-focus (AF) has been a key feature in consumer level digital and cell-phone cameras allowing users to focus automatically on a particular plane in a scene in order to get a sharp image. Face priority AF has become of interest lately due to the fact that most pictures captured by consumers are of human faces. In face-priority AF, the focusing decision is made based on a detected face area in the image, thus capturing a sharp picture of the face. While many face detection algorithms exist in the literature, very few of them are actually suitable for real-time software deployment on resource limited digital or cell-phone camera processors. In this paper, a fast face-detection algorithm is introduced by combining a skin color model cluster with a computationally efficient shape processing scheme. Comparison results with a standard algorithm in terms of robustness, speed and accuracy are provided. This face detection algorithm is incorporated into our previously developed rule-based AF method to achieve real-time face-priority AF on an actual digital camera platform. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic 3D human actor generation method using a time-of-flight depth camera

    Page(s): 1514 - 1521
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel method to generate a dynamic 3D human actor using a time-of-flight depth camera, which provides synchronized color and depth images in real time. In practice, depth data obtained from the depth camera have critical problems, such as optical noise, absence of depth information for certain regions, and unmatched boundaries. In this work, we significantly enhance the visual quality of raw depth images of the human actor by performing noise reduction, recovery of the lost hair region, and boundary refinement. The 3D surface of the human actor is then created by applying a 3D mesh triangulation technique on the enhanced depth images. Finally, we generate a dynamic 3D human actor by providing the surface with corresponding color images. Experimental results show that the proposed method produces a natural and immersive 3D human actor successfully while minimizing problems inherent in the current depth camera-based images. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of halftoning errors due to line load in a plasma display panel

    Page(s): 1522 - 1530
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The displayed gray level of a plasma display panel (PDP) is often different from the intended target gray level because the displayed level is affected by line load (the number of on-cells in a scan line). Previous attempts to reduce this difference (i.e. error) have been applicable to PDPs with no constraint imposed on the on-off decision for each sub-field. In order to improve the image quality (e.g. dynamic false contour (DFC) reduction), recently-developed PDPs impose constraints on sub-field coding and reduce the number of gray levels. This paper proposes a new sub-field coding algorithm that compensates for level error caused by the load when constraints are imposed on sub-field coding. As the number of gray levels is reduced, halftoning is employed in order to represent intermediate gray levels. In the proposed algorithm, the magnitude of the level error caused by the load effect is predicted and then two levels that are used for the halftoning are modified to compensate for the error. The modified levels are the nearest levels to the input level among the levels that satisfy the constraint of the sub-field coding. In order to reduce errors with moderate computational complexity, error prediction and level update are repeated by twice. A significant error reduction is achieved and shown by simulation and experimentation using a 42-inch PDP, including a 93.5% reduction in the mean absolute error (MAE) in simulations and a 67.2% reduction in MAE in experiments on a PDP. View full abstract»

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  • Color interpolation by expanding a gradient method

    Page(s): 1531 - 1539
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1030 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a color filter array interpolation method, which expands the preceding gradient based scheme by adopting Gaussian low-pass filter. It starts from the assumption that high frequency components of the green plane in an image are almost the same as those of the red or blue planes in the same image. We identify that the conventional gradient method can make use of this idea and can be expanded by Gaussian low-pass filter to enhance its performance. To determine the reasonable mask size and the appropriate Gaussian sigma value, various values are tested with sample images, and used later to interpolate the green plane for other test images in the proposed method. Afterward, red and blue plane interpolations are performed, and directional median processing is applied along the flat edge lines. This process can effectively suppress false colors introduced during the interpolation of color planes. The proposed method provides a reasonable visual quality and generally higher peak-signal-to-noise-ratio compared to existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Interactive data broadcasting services based on middleware technology in T-DMB

    Page(s): 1540 - 1544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the interactive data broadcasting service in T-DMB using middleware technology, which is known as T-DMB MATE (Mobile Application Terminal Environment). The T-DMB MATE defines a number of API to provide various applications with high-level functionalities for interactive data service, supporting a running environment of the applications. Specially, this paper introduces an implementation of T-DMB MATE receiver and some kinds of applications based on the designed T-DMB MATE service. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed service was verified by implementing the receiver and a variety of applications. View full abstract»

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  • Enabling dual branch switched diversity in compact wireless devices

    Page(s): 1545 - 1549
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dual branch switched diversity in compact wireless devices is considered. A simple technique for protecting a compact device from diversity loss incurred by antennas proximity is proposed. The technique is based on implementing the Karhunen-Loeve transform prior to down-conversion to baseband. The implementation reduces to constant and straightforward summation and subtraction of the two antennas RF outputs, and there is no need for channel estimation or additional operational complexity. It is shown that the proposed implementation protects the system from diversity loss by reducing outage probabilities, increasing the average SNR, and drastically lowering the mean switching rate. Implementation of the Karhunen-Loeve transform is achieved using a single RF combiner component located prior to the RF switch. View full abstract»

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  • A novel symbol synchronization method for OFDM systems in SFN channels

    Page(s): 1550 - 1554
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel symbol synchronization method for OFDM systems is proposed. By using correlation of guard interval (GI) preceding the OFDM symbol, it not only improves the accuracy of symbol synchronization in channels with long and strong echoes, which could be the case in a single frequency network (SFN), but also is applicable in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Ricean and Rayleigh channels. View full abstract»

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  • Reduced front-end reception requirements for satellite broadcast using interference processing

    Page(s): 1555 - 1563
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of fixed satellite broadcast reception is considered. The possibility of reducing the requirements on the antenna front-end dimensions is investigated. Interference processing and mitigation techniques are employed to cope with the increased level of adjacent system interference at the satellite broadcast receiver resulting from the less directive antenna. A novel satellite reception front-end antenna based on a multiple input receiver is proposed to adapt the interference processing methods to the broadcast reception scenario. The potential performance of the devised scheme is thoroughly discussed and assessed by extensive software simulations. View full abstract»

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  • A memory-reduced direct digital frequency synthesizer for OFDM receiver systems

    Page(s): 1564 - 1568
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital direct frequency synthesizer (DDFS) can be used to correct the carrier frequency offset (CFO) whose estimation and recovery are essential important in OFDM receiver systems. Traditional DDFS makes use of modulus 2N arithmetic and may provide fine frequency tuning capabilities using a sine/cosine look up table. However, straightforward implementation results in enormous amounts of memory and power consumption. This paper proposes a novel DDFS according to the adopted CFO recovery scheme, in which the integer CFO is corrected after the FFT by summing a constant to the index used to read the results of the FFT and the decimal CFO can be compensated with tuning on the increment word of the DDFS of the mixer. Its phase accumulator and ROM are split into three smaller parts based on the trigonometric approximate. Further, according to their characteristics each one has been compressed. Performance analysis has been carried out and shows that 96% and 61% memory reduction can be achieved compared with Moran and Memoyo's method and Kesoulis's method, respectively. The design will be implemented in OFDM such as DVB-T systems. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency domain feed-forward filter combined DFE structure in single carrier systems over time-varying channels

    Page(s): 1569 - 1575
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the researches about frequency domain equalization assume that the single carrier wireless communication system works over static channels. However, with more and more requests for mobile wireless reception, we have to consider the case of time-varying channels. In this paper, we propose a frequency domain feed-forward filter combined decision feedback equalizer over time-varying channels (FD-DFE-TV) for single carrier systems. Moreover, some complexity reducing techniques are provided to lower the additional computational burden brought by the disposal in time-varying channels. Simulations show that the proposed method can effectively lower the system error floor thus has superior performance than existing FD-DFE structure in time-varying environment, especially in high speed mobile reception. View full abstract»

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  • Robust channel estimation scheme for the TDS-OFDM based digital television terrestrial broadcasting system

    Page(s): 1576 - 1582
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1050 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As an effective technique for combating multipath fading and for high-bit-rate transmission over wireless channels, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is extensively used in modern digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) systems to support high performance bandwidth-efficient multimedia services. In practical DTTB system, there always exists phase noise caused by the fluctuation of the receiver and transmitter oscillators. Therefore, we should consider the effects of phase noise when designing the channel estimation scheme for the DTTB system. In this paper, we propose a robust channel estimation scheme for the time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM) based DTTB system with phase noise. The system performance studies under different channel situation are used to verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Novel channel estimation method based on PN sequence reconstruction for Chinese DTTB system

    Page(s): 1583 - 1589
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital television/terrestrial multimedia broadcasting (DTMB), announced as the Chinese digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) standard, uses pseudo-noise (PN) sequence as guard interval (GI) and the training sequence for both multi- and single-carrier block transmissions. The conventional channel estimation methods can be performed through either the subtraction of the PN sequence or the cancellation of residual inter-symbol interference (ISI). In this paper, a novel iterative method is introduced to estimate the overlapping part of PN sequence, meanwhile the channel impulse response (CIR) estimation can be obtained and updated via the reconstruction of the PN sequence in an iterative manner. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the ISI and improve the symbol error rata (SER) of DTMB system over slowvarying broadcasting multipath channel even with long delay spread. In practice, the proposed algorithm can be applied to the DTMB receiver-chip directly with low-complexity cost. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a mixed prime factor FFT for portable digital radio mondiale receiver

    Page(s): 1590 - 1594
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (806 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To achieve better sound quality and to improve data reception, digital radio mondiale (DRM) offers a worldwide initiative to bring analog amplitude modulation (AM) radio into the digital era. DRM systems use coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COFDM) modulation with a multilevel coding scheme to get high resistance to the multipath padding and interference. The bandwidth of a DRM passband signal is less than 20 kHz and the number of carriers used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is relatively small. For this reason, DRM systems use non-power-of-two Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) for OFDM demodulation, such processing gives way to more speed and power consumption in critical paths in DRM receivers. In this paper, we propose a mixed radix-2n and prime factor FFT algorithm for portable DRM receivers. Using the proposed architecture, we can reduce the processing time and energy consumption compared to conventional digital signal processor (DSP) based DRM receivers. View full abstract»

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  • Robust frequency synchronization scheme for digital FM broadcasting systems using cyclic delay diversity

    Page(s): 1595 - 1599
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cyclic delay diversity (CDD) is a simple transmit diversity technique for coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, high frequency selectivity caused by CDD degrades the performance of post-FFT estimation. This paper suggests a simple way of improving the performance of the integer frequency offset estimator in OFDM-based digital radio mondiale (DRM) system for FM broadcasting services. If compared to the conventional estimator, our proposed scheme has the advantage of being more robust against the frequency selective fading. View full abstract»

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  • Timing estimation for OFDM systems by using a correlation sequence of preamble

    Page(s): 1600 - 1608
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel timing estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The most common approaches in estimating timing use correlation by using a given preamble. Thus, the estimation performance is directly dependent on the specific preamble type. The proposed algorithm estimates the timing by using a simple circular shift operation of the given preamble at the receiver. For this reason, the proposed method can be used for any of the OFDM systems regardless of their preamble structures. The simulation results investigated in this paper reveal that the proposed method remarkably increases the estimation performance by more than 5 dB in terms of the mean squared error compared to conventional methods. We also consider the computational complexity of the methods and introduce a simple structure to reduce the computational burden of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Layered resource allocation for video broadcasts over wireless networks

    Page(s): 1609 - 1616
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (514 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper aims to combine adaptive modulation and coding with layered video coding to improve the quality of video services to users experiencing differing radio conditions, in the context of broadcast and multicast standards such as MBMS and BCMCS. We propose an optimal radio resource allocation algorithm which maximizes a general performance metric for a video session in polynomial time. We show that system-wide optimal resource allocation can be obtained by combining our algorithm with a simple two-step decomposition of the system. In some configurations frequent re-allocations of resource are required, so we also present a sub-optimal allocation algorithm which runs in near linear time. Simulation results show better video quality than existing resource allocation schemes over a range of conditions, and also suggest that the difference between the performance of optimal and suboptimal solutions is less than 3%. View full abstract»

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  • Low-cost reconfigurable VLSI architecture for fast fourier transform

    Page(s): 1617 - 1622
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a low-cost reconfigurable FFT processor employing novel dual-path pipelined shared memory architecture is presented. Based on this architecture, an elaborate memory configuration scheme is designed to make single-port SRAM available. Moreover, a mixed-radix butterfly unit is also designed, which makes the processor capable of multimode operation. Compared with previous ones, the proposed architecture can greatly reduce area. In addition, an optimized data scaling approach is proposed and the signal-to-quantization noise ratio (SQNR) of an 8K-point fixed-point FFT can achieve 52.7dB with the wordlength of 13bit. A test chip for DVB-T/H is implemented with the proposed architecture and fabricated in 0.18-mum single-poly six-metal CMOS process. The core area of this chip is 2.83mm2 with the power dissipation of 25.8mW at 20MHz. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583