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2008 49th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

25-28 Oct. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 92
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): C1
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  • [Title page i]

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): i
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  • [Title page iii]

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): iii
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): iv
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):v - xi
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  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): xii
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  • Committees

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): xiii
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  • list-reviewer

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):xiv - xvi
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  • The Polynomial Method in Quantum and Classical Computing

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): 3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In 1889, A. A. Markov proved a powerful result about low-degree real polynomials: roughly speaking, that such polynomials cannot have a sharp jump followed by a long, relatively flat part. A century later, this result - as well as other results from the field of approximation theory - came to play a surprising role in classical and quantum complexity theory. In this article, the author tries to te... View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Sponsored Search Auctions

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (162 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Web search engines are becoming an increasingly important advertising medium. When a user poses a query in addition to search results, the search engine also returns a few advertisements. On most major search engines, the choice and assignment of ads to positions is determined by an auction among all advertisers who placed a bid on some keyword that matches the query. The user might click on one o... View full abstract»

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  • Average-case Complexity

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s): 11
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (74 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We review the many open questions and the few things that are known about the average-case complexity of computational problems. We shall follow the presentations of Impagliazzo, of Goldreich, and of Bogdanov and the author, and focus on the following subjects. (i). Average-case tractability. What does it mean for a problem to have an "efficient on average'' algorithm with respect to a distributio... View full abstract»

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  • Truthful Approximation Schemes for Single-Parameter Agents

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):15 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We present the first monotone randomized polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for minimizing the makespan of parallel related machines (Q||Cmax), the paradigmatic problem in single-parameter algorithmic mechanism design. This result immediately gives a polynomial-time, truthful (in expectation) mechanism whose approximation guarantee attains the best-possible one for all polynomi... View full abstract»

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  • Discretized Multinomial Distributions and Nash Equilibria in Anonymous Games

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):25 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (350 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We show that there is a polynomial-time approximation scheme for computing Nash equilibria in anonymous games with any fixed number of strategies (a very broad and important class of games), extending the two-strategy result of Daskalakis and Papadimitriou 2007. The approximation guarantee follows from a probabilistic result of more general interest: The distribution of the sum of n independent un... View full abstract»

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  • Approximation Algorithms for Single-minded Envy-free Profit-maximization Problems with Limited Supply

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):35 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We present the first polynomial-time approximation algorithms for single-minded envy-free profit-maximization problems (Guruswami et al., 2005) with limited supply. Our algorithms return a pricing scheme and a subset of customers that are designated the winners, which satisfy the envy-freeness constraint, whereas in our analyses, we compare the profit of our solution against the optimal value of t... View full abstract»

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  • Market Equilibria in Polynomial Time for Fixed Number of Goods or Agents

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):45 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We consider markets in the classical Arrow-Debreu model. There are n agents and m goods. Each buyer has a concave utility function (of the bundle of goods he/she buys) and an initial bundle. At an ldquoequilibriumrdquo set of prices for goods, if each individual buyer separately ex-changes the initial bundle for an optimal bundle at the set prices, the market clears, i.e., all goods are exactly co... View full abstract»

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  • The Sign-Rank of AC^O

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):57 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The sign-rank of a matrix A = [Aij] with plusmn1 entries is the least rank of a real matrix B = [Bij] with AijBij > 0 for all i, j. We obtain the first exponential lower bound on the sign-rank of a function in AC0. Namely, let f(x, y) = Lambdai=1 m Lambdaj=1 m 2(xij Lambda y... View full abstract»

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  • Arithmetic Circuits: A Chasm at Depth Four

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):67 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We show that proving exponential lower bounds on depth four arithmetic circuits imply exponential lower bounds for unrestricted depth arithmetic circuits. In other words, for exponential sized circuits additional depth beyond four does not help. We then show that a complete black-box derandomization of identity testing problem for depth four circuits with multiplication gates of small fanin implie... View full abstract»

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  • Dense Subsets of Pseudorandom Sets

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):76 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (355 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A theorem of Green, Tao, and Ziegler can be stated (roughly) as follows: ifR is a pseudorandom set, and D is a dense subset of R, then D may be modeled by a set M that is dense in the entire domain such that D and M are indistinguishable. (The precise statement refers to"measures" or distributions rather than sets.) The proof of this theorem is very general, and it applies to notions of pseudo-ran... View full abstract»

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  • Almost-Natural Proofs

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):86 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Razborov and Rudich have shown that so-called "natural proofs" are not useful for separating P from NP unless hard pseudorandom number generators do not exist. This famous result is widely regarded as a serious barrier to proving strong lower bounds in circuit complexity theory. By definition, a natural combinatorial property satisfies two conditions, constructivity and largeness. Our main result ... View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Connectivity: Connecting to Networks and Geometry

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):95 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Dynamic connectivity is a well-studied problem, but so far the most compelling progress has been confined to the edge-update model: maintain an understanding of connectivity in an undirected graph, subject to edge insertions and deletions. In this paper, we study two more challenging, yet equally fundamental problems: subgraph connectivity asks to maintain an understanding of connectivity under ve... View full abstract»

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  • Algorithms for Single-Source Vertex Connectivity

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):105 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In the survivable network design problem (SNDP) the goal is to find a minimum cost subset of edges that satisfies a given set of pairwise connectivity requirements among the vertices. This general network design framework has been studied extensively and is tied to the development of major algorithmic techniques. For the edge-connectivity version of the problem, a 2-approximation algorithm is know... View full abstract»

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  • A Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme for Euclidean Steiner Forest

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):115 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We give a randomized O(n2 log n)-time approximation scheme for the Steiner forest problem in the Euclidean plane. For every fixed epsi > 0 and given any n pairs of terminals in the plane, our scheme finds a (1 + epsi)- approximation to the minimum-length forest that connects every pair of terminals. View full abstract»

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  • Degree Bounded Network Design with Metric Costs

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):125 - 134
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Given a complete undirected graph, a cost function on edges and a degree bound B, the degree bounded network design problem is to find a minimum cost simple subgraph with maximum degree B satisfying given connectivity requirements. Even for simple connectivity requirement such as finding a spanning tree, computing a feasible solution for the degree bounded network design problem is already NP-hard... View full abstract»

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  • Matrix Sparsification for Rank and Determinant Computations via Nested Dissection

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):137 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The nested dissection method developed by Lipton, Rose, and Tarjan is a seminal method for quickly performing Gaussian elimination of symmetric real positive definite matrices whose support structure satisfies good separation properties (e.g. planar). One can use the resulting LU factorization to deduce various parameters of the matrix. The main results of this paper show that we can remove the th... View full abstract»

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  • Fast Modular Composition in any Characteristic

    Publication Year: 2008, Page(s):146 - 155
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We give an algorithm for modular composition of degree n univariate polynomials over a finite field Fq requiring n 1 + o(1) log1 + o(1) q bit operations; this had earlier been achieved in characteristic no(1) by Umans (2008). As an application, we obtain a randomized algorithm for factoring degree n polynomials... View full abstract»

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