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Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Editorial Board: Retirement and Appointments

    Page(s): 1285 - 1286
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  • Controlled Thermophoresis as an Actuation Mechanism for Noncantilevered MEMS Devices

    Page(s): 1287 - 1293
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    A microelectromechanical system actuator based on thermophoretic, or Knudson, forces is proposed using analytical calculations. It can potentially execute scanning or spinning motions of a body that is not mechanically attached to the reference substrate. For a silicon device of 100-mum diameter, it is calculated that it can be levitated at a distance of about 0.5 mum from a substrate and that it can execute scanning motion and use quasi-springs by laterally acting thermal forces. In this way, an engine with spinning motion of a floating body having a diameter of 200 mum with up to 5 kHz can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A Low-Voltage Large-Displacement Large-Force Inchworm Actuator

    Page(s): 1294 - 1301
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    Inchworm microactuators are popular in micropositioning applications for their long ranges. However, until now, they could not be considered for applications such as in vivo biomedical applications because of their high input voltages. This paper reports on the modeling, design, fabrication, and testing of a new family of pull-in-based electrostatic inchworm microactuators which provides a solution to this problem. Actuators with only 7-V operating voltage are achieved with a plusmn18-mum total range and a plusmn30-muN output force. Larger operating voltage (16 V) actuators show even better results in force (plusmn110 muN) and range (plusmn35 mum). The actuator has an in-plane angular deflection conversion which provides a force-displacement tradeoff and allows us to set step sizes varying from few nanometers to few micrometers with a minor change in design. In this paper, we designed 1- and 4-mum step-size devices. The actuator step size may change during the operation because of the slipping of the shuttle and the beam bending; however, our model successfully explains the reasons. One of our actuator prototypes has survived more than 25 million cycles without performance deterioration. The device is fabricated using the silicon-on-insulator-based multiuser MEMS process. View full abstract»

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  • A Robustness Approach for Handling Modeling Errors in Parallel-Plate Electrostatic MEMS Control

    Page(s): 1302 - 1314
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    This paper addresses the control of electrostatic parallel-plate microactuators in the presence of such modeling errors as unmodeled fringing field effect and deformations. In general, accurate descriptions of these phenomena often lead to very complicated mathematical models, while ignoring them may result in significant performance degradation. In this paper, it is shown by finite-element-method-based simulations that the capacitance due to fringing field effect and deformations can be compensated by introducing a variable serial capacitor. When a suitable robust controller is used, the full knowledge of the introduced serial capacitor is not required, but merely its boundaries of variation. Based on this model, a robust control scheme is derived using the theory of input-to-state stability combined with backstepping state feedback design. Since the full state measurement may not be available under practical operational conditions, an output feedback control scheme is developed. The stability and performance of the system using the proposed control schemes are demonstrated through both stability analysis and numerical simulation. The present approach allows the loosening of the stringent requirements on modeling accuracy without compromising the performance of control systems. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Operational Stress Measurement of MEMS Using Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    Page(s): 1315 - 1321
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    A dynamic-stress analysis method, based on time-resolved micro Raman spectroscopy, has been developed for reliability studies of microelectromechanical systems. This novel technique is illustrated by measuring temporally and spatially resolved stress maps of a piezoelectrically actuated silicon microcantilever when driven at its first- (6.094 kHz) and second-order (37.89 kHz) resonant frequencies. Stress amplitudes of up to 180 plusmn 10 MPa were measured at the maximum stress locations. The time-resolved Raman stress measurements are compared to the results of finite-element analysis and laser Doppler vibrometry.[2008-0003]. View full abstract»

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  • A Biohybrid Microfluidic Valve Based on Forisome Protein Complexes

    Page(s): 1322 - 1328
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    Externally adjustable and reversibly switchable valves are key actuators in microchannels. A related function is required for full fluidic control over the flow in the vascular microchannels (phloem) of plants. Evolution fulfilled this in the Fabaceae family through using reversibly swellable protein aggregates (forisomes). The swelling behavior is regulated in the vessels by calcium but is also pH dependent. In order to utilize the natural forisome elements in a technical chip application, we integrated the protein complexes into the channel system of a microflow cell. In this artificial environment, the reversible conformation change of the forisomes could be induced by varying the calcium concentration or by an electrically generated pH shift. In consequence, the swelling of the forisome reversibly blocked a microparticle flow in various branched and unbranched channel geometries. The regulation of the flow was successfully verified by detecting the particle flux while switching the valve and by impedance spectroscopy. In conclusion, forisome plant protein bodies are a valve element that can readily be integrated into microfluidics and can also be externally controlled to selectively retain objects that pass the channel. View full abstract»

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  • A Microfabricated PDMS Microbial Fuel Cell

    Page(s): 1329 - 1341
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    This paper presents a microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microbial fuel cell (MFC) with embedded micropillar electrodes. This MFC is characterized by a flexible and biocompatible structure suitable for body implantation as a potential power source for implanted bioMEMS devices. The MFC is biocatalyzed by a microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which converts chemical energy stored in glucose in the blood stream to electrical energy. The MFC is a laminate design, consisting of 0.2-mum-thick gold-evaporated PDMS anode and cathode separated by a Nafion 117 proton exchange membrane. These electrode surfaces feature more than 70 000 8- mum-high micropillar structures in a 1.2-cmtimes1.0-cm geometric area. The MFC is encapsulated by PDMS and has an overall size of 1.7 cm times 1.7 cm times 0.2 cm and a net weight of less than 0.5 g. Compared with recent silicon micromachined MFCs working in a phosphate buffer medium, the presented MFC with its micropillar structure showed a 4.9 times increase in average current density and a 40.5 times increase in average power density when operated at identical conditions. Using 15-muL droplet of human plasma, containing 4.2-mM blood glucose, the PDMS MFC demonstrated a maximum open circuit potential (OCP) of 488.1 mV, maximum current density of 30.2 muA/cm2, and a maximum power density of 401.2 nW/cm2. When the MFC operated continuously for 60 min, it showed an average OCP of 297.4 mV, average current density at 4.3 muA/cm2, and average power density of 42.4 nW/cm2 at 1-kOmega load. The coulombic efficiency of electron conversion from blood glucose was 14.7%. View full abstract»

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  • Microfabricated Implantable Parylene-Based Wireless Passive Intraocular Pressure Sensors

    Page(s): 1342 - 1351
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    This paper presents an implantable parylene-based wireless pressure sensor for biomedical pressure sensing applications specifically designed for continuous intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring in glaucoma patients. It has an electrical LC tank resonant circuit formed by an integrated capacitor and an inductor coil to facilitate passive wireless sensing using an external interrogating coil connected to a readout unit. Two surface-micromachined sensor designs incorporating variable capacitor and variable capacitor/inductor resonant circuits have been implemented to realize the pressure-sensitive components. The sensor is monolithically microfabricated by exploiting parylene as a biocompatible structural material in a suitable form factor for minimally invasive intraocular implantation. Pressure responses of the microsensor have been characterized to demonstrate its high pressure sensitivity ( > 7000 ppm/mmHg) in both sensor designs, which confirms the feasibility of pressure sensing with smaller than 1 mmHg of resolution for practical biomedical applications. A six-month animal study verifies the in vivo bioefficacy and biostability of the implant in the intraocular environment with no surgical or postoperative complications. Preliminary ex vivo experimental results verify the IOP sensing feasibility of such device. This sensor will ultimately be implanted at the pars plana or on the iris of the eye to fulfill continuous, convenient, direct, and faithful IOP monitoring.[2008-0111]. View full abstract»

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  • Floating-Disk Parylene Microvalves for Self-Pressure-Regulating Flow Controls

    Page(s): 1352 - 1361
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    This paper presents the first parylene-based floating-disk microvalve with self-pressure-regulating characteristics for various microfluidic applications. By incorporating a free-floating disk diaphragm with no anchoring/tethering structures to constrain its movement, the microvalve realizes configurable pressure-based flow-shunting functions in a stand-alone fashion. Its passive operation eliminates the need for power sources or the external actuation of the device. A multilayer polymer surface-micromachining technology is utilized for device fabrication by exploiting parylene C (poly-chloro-p-xylylene) as the biocompatible structural material for high mechanical compliance as compared with other conventional thin-film materials. Experimental results successfully demonstrate that the in-channel microvalves control water flows in the following two different shunt designs: 1) a nearly ideal regular check valve with zero forward-cracking pressure, zero reverse leakage, and 1.25 times1013 - 2.09 times 1013 Nldrs/m5 (0.03-0.05 psildrmin/muL, 1.55-2.59 mmHgldrmin/muL) of fluidic resistance; and 2) a pressure-bandpass check valve with 0-100 mmHg and 0-10 muL/min of pressure and flow rate regulation ranges, respectively, as well as 4.88 ×1013 Nldrs/m5 (0.12 psi middotmin/muL, 6.08 mmHg middotmin/muL) of fluidic resistance in the forward conductive region. Such a biocompatible and implantable microvalve has the great potential of being integrated in microfluidic systems to facilitate effective microflow control for lab-on-a-chip and biomedical applications. [2008-0055]. View full abstract»

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  • Application of an Equilibrium Model for an Electrified Fluid Interface—Electrospray Using a PDMS Microfluidic Device

    Page(s): 1362 - 1375
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    An experimental investigation of an electrified fluid interface is presented. The experimental findings are related to a previously developed analytical model of Gubarenko , which is used to determine when a fluidic interface under electrical stress is in equilibrium, and to observations reported in the literature. The effect of key parameters on causing the interface to rupture, form, and maintain an electrospray is investigated. The experimental results reveal the dependence of interface shape on operational parameters, the impact of the interface apex angle on equilibrium, the conditions that cause either dripping mode or cone-jet mode, and the structure of operational domains. This paper confirms predictions made using the analytical model, including the range of parameters that cause the onset and steadiness of a quasi-equilibrium (electrospray) state of the interface. Testing is performed using an electrospray emitter chip fabricated from two layers of Polydimethylsiloxane and one layer of glass. The model and experimental results assist in design decisions for electrospray emitters. Applications of electrified interfaces (electrosprays) are found in mass spectrometry, microfluidics, material deposition, and colloidal thrusters for propulsion. View full abstract»

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  • Ultraminiaturized High-Speed Permanent-Magnet Generators for Milliwatt-Level Power Generation

    Page(s): 1376 - 1387
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    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of millimeter-scale rotary electromagnetic generators. The axial-flux synchronous machines consist of a three-phase microfabricated surface-wound copper coil and a multipole permanent-magnet (PM) rotor measuring 2 mm in diameter. Several machines with various geometries and numbers of magnetic poles and turns per pole are designed and compared. Moreover, the use of different PM materials is investigated. Multipole magnetic rotors are modeled using finite element analysis to analyze magnetic field distributions. In operation, the rotor is spun above the microfabricated stator coils using an off-the-shelf air-driven turbine. As a result of design choices, the generators present different levels of operating frequency and electrical output power. The four-pole six-turn/pole NdFeB generator exhibits up to 6.6 mWrms of ac electrical power across a resistive load at a rotational speed of 392 000 r/min. This milliwatt-scale power generation indicates the feasibility of such ultrasmall machines for low-power applications. [2008-0078]. View full abstract»

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  • Millimeter-Scale Fuel Cell With Onboard Fuel and Passive Control System

    Page(s): 1388 - 1395
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    We report microfabrication of a millimeter-scale fuel cell with onboard fuel and a passive control mechanism. This unique power source has a total volume of 9 muL (3times3times1 mm3), which makes it the smallest fully integrated fuel cell reported in the literature. The first generation of this device delivered an energy density of 254 Wmiddoth/L. The device uses a reaction between a metal hydride, LiAlH4, and water vapor to generate hydrogen in a reactor. The generated hydrogen exits the reactor through a nanoporous silicon wall to reach a hybrid silicon/Nafion membrane electrode assembly. A passive micro- fluidic control system regulates hydrogen generation through controlled delivery of water vapor to the metal hydride based on the reactor pressure. The development of this unique power source greatly benefits the portable electronics industry and enables future technologies that require significantly high energy density power sources such as cognitive arthropods ("thinking" insect- sized robots). This paper provides details of the device micro- fabrication processes, component integration, and performance analysis. [2008-0168]. View full abstract»

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  • Mass-Sensitive Microfabricated Chemical Preconcentrator

    Page(s): 1396 - 1407
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    This paper describes a mass-sensitive microfabricated preconcentrator for use in chemical detection microsystems. The device combines mass sensing and preconcentration to create a smart preconcentrator (SPC) that determines when it has collected sufficient analyte for analysis by a downstream chemical microsystem. The SPC is constructed from a Lorentz-force-actuated pivot-plate resonator with an integrated heater. Subsequent to microfabrication, the SPC is coated with an adsorbent for collection of chemical analytes. The frequency of operation varies inversely with the mass of collected analyte. Such shifts can be measured by a back-EMF in the SPC's drive/transducer line. By using a calibrated vapor system, the limit of detection of the SPC was determined to be less than 50 ppb for dimethyl-methyl-phosphonate (DMMP) (actual limits of detection are omitted due to export control limitations). At 1 ppm of DMMP, 1-s collection was sufficient to trigger analysis in a downstream microsystem; other micropreconcentrators would require an arbitrary collection time, normally set at 1 min or longer. This paper describes the theory of operation, design, fabrication, coating, vapor system testing, and integration of the SPC into microanalytical systems. The theory of operation, which is applicable to other torsional oscillators, is used to predict a shear modulus of silicon (100) of G = 57.0 GPa plusmn2.2 GPa. View full abstract»

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  • Tungsten-Based SOI Microhotplates for Smart Gas Sensors

    Page(s): 1408 - 1417
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    This paper is concerned with the design, fabrication, and characterization of novel high-temperature silicon on insulator (SOI) microhotplates employing tungsten resistive heaters. Tungsten has a high operating temperature and good mechanical strength and is used as an interconnect in high temperature SOI-CMOS processes. These devices have been fabricated using a commercial SOI-CMOS process followed by a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) back-etch step, offering low cost and circuit integration. In this paper, we report on the design of microhotplates with different diameters (560 and 300 mum) together with 3-D electrothermal simulation in ANSYS, electrothermal characterization, and analytical analysis. Results show that these devices can operate at high temperatures (600degC ) well beyond the typical junction temperatures of high temperature SOI ICs (225degC), have ultralow dc power consumption (12 mW at 600degC), fast transient time (as low as 2-ms rise time to 600degC), good thermal stability, and, more importantly, a high reproducibility both within a wafer and from wafer to wafer. We also report initial tests on the long-term stability of the tungsten heaters. We believe that this type of SOI microhotplate could be exploited commercially in fully integrated microcalorimetric or resistive gas sensors. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Angular Rate Sensor System Using a Fully Decoupled Silicon-on-Glass MEMS Gyroscope

    Page(s): 1418 - 1429
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    This paper presents the development of a compact single-axis angular rate sensor system employing a 100- mum-thick single-crystal silicon microelectromechanical systems gyroscope with an improved decoupling arrangement between the drive and sense modes. The improved decoupling arrangement of the gyroscope enhances the robustness of sensing frame against drive-mode oscillations and therefore minimizes mechanical crosstalk between the drive and sense modes, yielding a small bias instability. The gyroscope core element is fabricated by through-etching a 100-mum -thick silicon substrate which is anodically bonded to a recessed glass handling substrate. A patterned metal layer is included at the bottom of the silicon substrate, both as an etch-stop layer and a heat sink to prevent heating- and notching-based structural deformations encountered in deep dry etching in the silicon-on-glass process. The fabricated-gyroscope core element has capacitive actuation/sensing gaps of about 5 mum yielding an aspect ratio close to 20, providing a large differential sense capacitance of 18.2 pF in a relatively small footprint of 4.6 mm times 4.2 mm. Excitation and sensing electronics of the gyroscope are constructed using off-the-shelf integrated circuits and fit in a compact printed circuit board of size 54 mm times 24 mm. The complete angular rate sensor system is characterized in a vacuum ambient at a pressure of 5 mtorr and demonstrates a turn-on bias of less than 0.1 deg/s, bias instability of 14.3 deg/h, angle random walk better than 0.115 deg/radic(h), and a scale-factor nonlinearity of plusmn0.6% in full-scale range of plusmn50 deg/s. [2007-0158]. View full abstract»

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  • An Application of 3-D MEMS Packaging: Out-of-Plane Quadrupole Mass Filters

    Page(s): 1430 - 1438
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    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of low-cost out-of-plane quadrupole mass filters that use commercially available dowel pins as electrode rods. The quadrupoles implement a 3-D MEMS packaging technology that relies on deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE)-patterned deflection springs for alignment. Quadrupoles with rod diameter ranging from 0.25 to 1.58 mm and aspect ratio of 30 to 60 were built and tested at RF frequencies of 1.44, 2.0, and 4 MHz. Assembled devices operated in the first stability region achieved a maximum mass range of 650 amu, while a minimum half-peak width of 0.4 amu at mass 28 was obtained in the second stability region. Operation in the second stability region provides a means to higher resolution, smoother peaks, and removed peak splitting at the expense of transmission. The ultimate resolution of the reported quadrupoles is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Schottky Barrier Contact-Based RF MEMS Switch

    Page(s): 1439 - 1446
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    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurement results for a novel Schottky barrier contact-based radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch. This Schottky barrier contact allows one not only to operate the RF MEMS switch in a traditional capacitive mode when it is reverse biased but also conduct current in a forward biased state. Forward biasing the switch recombines trapped charges, thus extending the lifetime of the switch. This paper intimately combines MEMS processing with solid-state electronics to produce a truly unique RF device. View full abstract»

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  • A Ruthenium-Based Multimetal-Contact RF MEMS Switch With a Corrugated Diaphragm

    Page(s): 1447 - 1459
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    This paper presents a ruthenium metal-contact RF microelectromechanical system switch based on a corrugated silicon oxide/silicon nitride diaphragm. The corrugations are designed to substantially reduce the influence of the fabrication-induced stress in the membrane, resulting in a highly insensitive design to process parameter variations. Furthermore, a novel multilayer metal-contact concept, comprising a 50-nm chromium/50-nm ruthenium/500-nm gold/50-nm ruthenium structure, is introduced to improve the contact reliability by having a hard-metal surface of ruthenium without substantial compromise in the contact and transmission-line resistances, which is shown by theoretical analysis of the contact physics and confirmed by measurement results. The contact resistance of the novel metallization stack is investigated for different contact pressures and is compared to pure-gold contacts. The contact reliability is investigated for different dc signal currents. At a measurement current of 1.6 mA, the Ru-Au-Ru contacts have an average lifetime of about 100 million cycles, whereas the Au-Au contacts reach 24 million cycles only. For larger signal currents, the metal contacts have proven to be more robust over the Au-Au contacts by a factor of ten. The measured pull-in voltage is reduced significantly from 61 V for flat diaphragm to 36 V for corrugated diaphragm with the introduction of corrugation. The measured RF isolation with a nominal contact separation of 5 mum is better than -30 dB up to 4 GHz and still -21 dB at 15 GHz, whereas the insertion loss of the fully packaged switch including its transmission line is about -0.7 dB up to 4 GHz and -2.8 dB at 15 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Cryogenic Performance of RF MEMS Switch Contacts

    Page(s): 1460 - 1467
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    A series of experiments was performed to characterize RF microelectromechanical system switch performance under variable environmental conditions and cryogenic temperatures. Data were recorded in helium and nitrogen environments to lower stiction failure rates as well as to circumvent switch bouncing arising from low pressure at cryogenic temperatures. Contact resistance values were observed to be lower at cryogenic temperatures but still two orders of magnitude higher than the values predicted for the constriction resistance of gold asperity contacts, consistent with the presence of adsorbed films on the contacts. An asperity-heating model was applied, from which it was deduced that contact voltages can selectively disassociate adsorbed films from the contact surface while not softening the gold asperity contacts. The results are consistent with the reduced mobility of the adsorbed surface films at cryogenic temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Synthesis of Microsystems Using the Segment Rayleigh–Ritz Method

    Page(s): 1468 - 1480
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    Microsystem development requires accurate and parametric-based modeling as well as experimental validation of the effects of multiphysics influences such as electrostatic, thermal, and mechanical on microsystems in a systematic manner. This work attempts to synthesize the influence of electrothermomechanical influences on microsystems using an energy-based method, namely, the segment Rayleigh-Ritz (SRR), thereby making it possible to study the multiphysics influences on the dynamic behavior of microsystems in a simplified and unified way. Electrostatic, thermal, and geometrical influences along with microfabrication limitations related to the boundary support are studied on cantilever-based microsystems. Silicon-on-insulator-based technology is used for demonstration purposes. The SRR energy method was developed in order to improve the theoretical formulation for microsystems with nonuniform properties. The method of artificial springs is employed to model the boundary support, electrostatic influences, and intersegmental boundaries. The microfabricated support conditions were quantified through a rotational stiffness, and its invariance with geometry, temperature, and electrostatic field was verified through dynamic testing under electrothermal influences. Comparison with test results validates the dynamic synthesis modeling for microstructures. This approach can be expanded further to nondimensional design optimization and for targeted performance tuning of the static and dynamic behavior of microsystems. View full abstract»

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  • Room-Temperature Fabrication of Anodic Tantalum Pentoxide for Low-Voltage Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD)

    Page(s): 1481 - 1488
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    This paper presents a robust anodic Ta2O5 dielectric as an alternative insulator for fabricating low-voltage electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) systems. Previously reported low-voltage EWOD technologies require high-temperature processes ( > 435degC), which unlike this room temperature technology, are not compatible with standard copper and aluminum integrated circuit interconnect technology as well as polymer-based substrates. The anodized Ta2O5 forms a uniform pinhole free layer with a surface roughness (R a) of 0.6 nm. This robust film enables an ultrathin amorphous FluoroPolymer layer to be employed to reduce the EWOD driving voltage to 13 V. Both sub-20-nm Teflon-AF and CYTOP layers have been successfully coated on top of Ta2O5 with good adhesion. Applying voltages of 6-15 V significantly modified the contact angles of droplets in air on these samples (121deg to 81deg on Teflon-AF at 13 V and 114deg to 95deg on CYTOP at 6 V). Successful 14-V EWOD manipulation involving droplets being dispensed from a reservoir, their movement, followed by merging them together has been demonstrated using devices using a Teflon-AF + Ta2O5 dielectric. View full abstract»

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  • Hydrogenation-Assisted Lateral Micromachining of (111) Silicon Wafers

    Page(s): 1489 - 1494
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    Micromachining of (111) silicon wafers by means of a plasma hydrogenation and chemical etching sequence is achieved. Vertical etching is used to define the depth of the craters as well as the thickness of the final suspended silicon body. After protecting the 3-D structure by a thermally grown oxide, a hydrogenation step is used to remove the oxide layer from the bottom of the crater, allowing a lateral underetching. Final exposure of the processed silicon to a KOH solution, etches silicon in a lateral fashion and in the exposed places. A lateral aspect ratio of four to six has been achieved. The evolution of suspended structures on (111) wafers, suitable for sensor fabrication, is feasible without a need to a 3-D lithography. Using this technique suspended interdigital structures have been realized with a depth up to 70 mum. In addition, ultrathin fully suspended structures have been successfully fabricated. A preliminary capacitive accelerometer has been realized and tested on (111) substrate. View full abstract»

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  • Evanescent-Wave Spectroscopy Using an SU-8 Waveguide for Rapid Quantitative Detection of Biomolecules

    Page(s): 1495 - 1500
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    A 30-mm-long multimode waveguide, 40 mum wide and 40 mum high, is fabricated on a silicon wafer using polymer SU-8 as the core and liquid buffer as the cladding. Antibodies are successfully immobilized on the SU-8 surface designated for binding target antigens dispersed in the buffer solution. Evanescent-wave spectroscopy is performed by exciting the fluorescently labeled antigens, bound to the waveguide surface within its evanescence field, and measuring the emission light intensity. This evanescent-wave biosensor detects specific molecular interaction. The optical output as a function of the antigen concentration can be described by Langmuir equation. Antigen concentration as low as 1.5 mug/mL is detected; concentrations higher than 100 mug/mL lead to sensor saturation. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The topics of interest include, but are not limited to: devices ranging in size from microns to millimeters, IC-compatible fabrication techniques, other fabrication techniques, measurement of micro phenomena, theoretical results, new materials and designs, micro actuators, micro robots, micro batteries, bearings, wear, reliability, electrical interconnections, micro telemanipulation, and standards appropriate to MEMS. Application examples and application oriented devices in fluidics, optics, bio-medical engineering, etc., are also of central interest.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Christofer Hierold
ETH Zürich, Micro and Nanosystems