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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Modeling of intersymbol-interference in a Rayleigh fast fading channel with typical delay power profiles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 438 - 447
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    By applying a propagation model which combines Rayleigh fast fading with typical, prescribed delay power profiles, the authors analyze intersymbol interference error performance of a single-bit differential detector. A quadrature modulation with ±π/2 phase rotation within one symbol period, which is the case for MSK, is assumed. An analytic expression is derived for the error probability as a function of the ratio of the average energies of the relevant symbol and the preceding interfering symbols. This interference is caused by the channel time dispersion. The error probability lies between an upper and a lower bound with a margin that never exceeds 3 dB. The upper bound error probability turns out to be almost identical to the cochannel interference as calculated by the model of K. Hirade et al. (1979). Using typical delay power profiles of European propagation environments, the authors calculate error probability versus symbol duration. For bad-urban and hilly-terrain cases, in which error bursts may last for a few milliseconds, several tens to several hundreds of successive symbols will be corrupted, unless proper signal recovery measures are taken View full abstract»

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  • Performance comparison of different decoding strategies for a bandwidth-efficient block-coded scheme on mobile radio channels

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 505 - 515
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)  

    The performance of bandwidth-efficient Reed-Solomon (RS)-coded MPSK schemes is evaluated on a shadowed Rician fading channel using different decoding strategies, namely, errors-only, errors-and-erasures, and soft-decision decoding. The lower bounds of the bit error probability are found for errors-only and for errors-and-erasures decoding. For the soft-decision decoding the upper bound of the bit error rate is derived. The error bounds are calculated and examined by simulation for some RS-coded MPSK schemes on a shadowed Rician channel. It is shown that their performance is significantly improved compared to uncoded QPSK. The amount of improvement depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the decoding strategy, and the degree of shadowing. A comparison between different decoding techniques, for one of the RS-coded schemes, for different degrees of shadowing shows that the use of channel measurement information in the decoding process is more effective for heavy shadowed channels View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and computer simulation of wave propagation in lineal line-of-sight microcells

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 337 - 342
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    The model and implementation principles governing the computer simulation of line-of-sight (LOS) microcell wave propagation are presented. Multiray propagation above a plane earth constitutes the basic model. For rural microcells, two rays are used while, for urban microcells, 10 rays are used propagating in a dielectric canyon. The model is applied to two relevant problems. In the first, control of electric field falloff with distance, r, is studied. ln the second, the advantages of switched transversal antenna diversity are demonstrated. Power falloff rates of 1/r4 and 1/r6 were obtained for simple two-element array structures. This may provide an additional interference control tool in the layout and design of microcells. The interference between the various rays propagating in lineal urban microcells results in deep nulls at various locations. The deleterious effects of these nulls can be eliminated by employing simple switched transverse antenna diversity View full abstract»

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  • Baseband pulse shaping to improve M-ary FSK in satellite mobile systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 424 - 429
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    Baseband pulse shaping is proposed to improve the performance of M-ary FSK with limiter discriminator integrator detection in a satellite mobile channel. Numerical results obtained for binary, quaternary, and octonary signaling with a Gaussian and a third-order Butterworth IF filter indicate that pulse shaped signals perform significantly better than frequency shift keying (FSK) signals. The error rate floor in the presence of a Doppler shift is also analyzed. Numerical results indicate that the error rate floor of pulse-shaped signals is significantly lower than that of FSK signals View full abstract»

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  • Performance approximation of a multi-base station slotted ALOHA for wireless LAN's

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 448 - 454
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    It has been reported that the capture effect can improve the performance of slotted ALOHA systems. Further improvement can be expected when the number of base stations is increased. The performance of such slotted ALOHA systems with multiple base stations is analyzed with the aid of the equilibrium point analysis. Not only the capture effect but also the packet dropping due to the finite number of retransmission trials are taken into account. The numerical results indicate that the finite number of retransmission trials mainly contributes to the improvement of the packet dropping probability in the range of the light input traffic, while the number of base stations mainly contributes to the improvement of the overall throughput and the average transmission delay in the range of the heavy input traffic View full abstract»

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  • Mechanisms governing UHF propagation on single floors in modern office buildings

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 496 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (125)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)  

    Because of the potential implementation of indoor wireless local area networks (LANs) and personal communication networks (PCNs) it is important to understand propagation of signals in the UHF band inside buildings. The authors explore features of office buildings of modern construction that influence propagation between transmitter and receiver located on the same floor. One feature is the clear space between ceiling and furnishings or floor that results in excess attenuation of the signal. A second feature is reflection and transmission at interior and exterior walls. Diffraction at corners and propagation along the exterior wall are also shown to be a significant means for radiation to reach the receivers. The influences of the first two features are combined into a computer program that evaluates the sector average signal, which is then compared with measurements View full abstract»

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  • Spectral sensitivity of power amplifiers to quadrature modulator misalignment

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 516 - 525
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)  

    Misalignments in the quadrature modulator feeding a nonlinear high power amplifier can produce distortion products that lead to spectrum leakage into adjacent channels. Expressions are derived relating the out-of-band spectra to these misalignments and to the complex coefficients of the power series describing the amplifier. For most applications the adjacent channel leakage is proportional to the square of the misalignment error (carrier leak, differential gain, differential phase and level error) except in the case of some higher order products of continuous phase modulations (CPM). A technique for estimating the spectrum for the above situations is described. It involves summing the weighted spectrum of each distortion product. The weighting coefficients can be varied to account for amplifier characteristics, backoff, and misalignment error. The analysis is applicable to linear or continuous phase modulations with or without predistortion. The spectrum estimate is particularly good for continuous phase modulated signals where the error is normally much less than 1 dB View full abstract»

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  • Power control considerations for DS/CDMA personal communication systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 479 - 487
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    A model of the personal communication system (PCS) employing code division multiple access (CDMA) is presented and analyzed. In the analysis, the effect of multipath transmissions that are usually present in the portable environments is included. This effect causes severe fading degradation in the received signal power. The model introduces the factors that mostly affect the reception of different signals at the base station, and their effect on the received power is discussed. The performance of the system is measured by the probability of error and the increase in the amount of power (the power cost) necessary to overcome multipath fading effects. Upper bounds on the probability of error are obtained to show the limits on the performance View full abstract»

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  • Large scale space diversity in a widely spaced network of meteor scatter communication systems and its application to mobile communications

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 455 - 460
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    A model is developed for predicting the inherent spatial multiplexing or diversity in a widely dispersed network of meteor scatter receivers. The primary measure, network diversity, is defined as the ratio of the arrival rate of useful trails observed by the entire network to the arrival rate at an average node and is less than the number of receivers in the network. Network diversity is calculated from the ground illumination footprint of individual meteor trails and weighted by the spatial arrival pattern of trails. Predictions using the model are compared to an experiment conducted in the western US. Ramifications on the design of meteor scatter communication systems for very large network applications such as automatic vehicle location and tracking are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional cellular systems for aeronautical mobile radio communications

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 322 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)  

    A new technique for designing three-dimensional cellular systems for VHF air/ground communications is proposed to solve the problem of frequency congestion for air traffic control (ATC) and flight services. In VHF air/ground communication systems, a radio line of sight (RLOS) between the aircraft and ground station must exist. The frequency reuse distance is reduced by using the radio horizon to block cochannel interferences. In the proposed system, cells of different sizes to cover different altitude ranges are separated by different reuse distances. With nine groups of channels, the altitude range from 740 ft to 45000 ft can be covered without interference. The proposed system utilizes the spectrum efficiently by covering a certain airspace according to a well-organized plan with the minimum number of frequency channels and cell sites. Thus, it has more frequency reuse than the current systems View full abstract»

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  • Some issues on multisite throughput of a mobile digital radio link

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 526 - 531
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    The throughput and response time calculations of a multisite mobile digital radio system were presented previously by the author (see IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.39, no.8, p.190, 1990, and IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.40, pt.2, no.2, p.161, 1991). In those papers, two simplifying assumptions are made without providing detailed analysis. These two assumptions are: (1) the probability of a message getting through the uplink radio channel is calculated using the nearest three sites only, and (2) the probability of FM capture is calculated using the two strongest signals only. The validity of these two assumptions is examined. Results indicate that these two assumptions are good in general. The intrinsic instability associated with a contention channel is not addressed View full abstract»

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  • Measurement-based estimates of bit-error-rate performance in urban LOS microcells at 900 MHz

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 414 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    Cumulative distribution estimates are presented for the one-second-average bit-error-rate (BER) which would be experienced on UHF links in a microcellular environment. It is assumed that users (subscribers) are moving at speeds ranging from quasi-stationary to 96 km/h. The authors concentrate on lineal microcells, in which there is always a line-of-sight path between the microcell and subscriber antennas, in addition to road-reflected and/or building-reflected rays. Using extensive UHF data collected in Manhattan, the signal and interference levels are characterized, point-by-point, for a subscriber moving in a lineal microcell. Combining these measurement-based characterizations with a mathematical model of modem performance, the cumulative distribution of the BER is computed. For moving subscribers, simple diversity reception gives large benefits in grade-of-service (percentage of time that the BER is below a specified threshold value) and uplink and downlink transmission qualities tend to be similar, with the latter being somewhat better. Performance estimates based on a multiray model are generally similar to those based on measured data and tend to be conservative View full abstract»

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  • Computer simulation of a direct sequence spread spectrum cellular radio architecture

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 544 - 550
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    A computer simulation study to evaluate the channel capacity of a direct sequence spread spectrum cellular radio architecture which is based on code division is described. The cellular radio architecture utilizes the processing gain provided by a wideband multipath RAKE receiver to suppress multicell/multiuser interference. As a result, the same piece of radio spectrum can be reused in every cell. We use a step-by-step approach to verify the basic idea behind the spread spectrum cellular radio architecture. Computer simulations are used to calculate the distributions of signal-to-reference ratio (SIR). From SIR distributions, one can easily calculate the channel capacity of the cellular radio architecture. Technical requirements to fulfil potential system performance are also discussed. Finally, an 800 MHz system example is given for cellular mobile radio telephone application View full abstract»

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  • On the performance of error control coding with diversity for mobile channels

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 488 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB)  

    Upper bounds on the bit error probability are applied to evaluate the error performance of coded systems over non-interleaved and partially interleaved Rician fading mobile channels. The correlation between successive received symbols is exploited to bound the error performance. The bound allows useful evaluation of coding gains on realistic communication systems without going into lengthy computer simulations. By further defining the maximum energy degradation factors, compact upper bounds are expressed in a similar way as on the fully interleaved or memoryless channels. The maximum energy degradation factors are computed for a wide variety of mobile channel conditions. These factors give an interesting evaluation of the fading conditions and may be used to design coded communication systems on mobile channels. Furthermore, independent space or frequency diversity may be taken into account in these bounds and it is shown that the energy degradation due to correlation is independent of this added independent diversity View full abstract»

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  • The attache case size message communication system via satellite links

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 537 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been carrying out research and development of a very low rate message communication system with an ultra-small earth station called the Attache Case Size Message Communication Terminal (AMCT). In order to minimize the size and power consumption of the AMCT, a transmission rate of 100 b/s is adopted. This is extremely low for satellite communications. As a result, the AMCT is similar in size to an attache case. In the base station, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique is used in order to search for a very narrow band signal from the AMCT and compensate for the frequency deviation of the signal. The experiments have been carried out through ETS-V satellite links to estimate the bit error rate (BER) and acquisition performance of this system. Also, the probability of completed message transmission is calculated using these experimental results. Based on these results, it is confirmed that a very low rate transmission system such as this system is applicable to satellite communications View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a low profile slotted microstrip antenna for cellular mobile radio

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 363 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    The TM01 mode of a circular resonant microstrip cavity has been used to produce an omnidirectional vertically polarized antenna with a broadside null. Interlaced circumferential slots were added, resulting in reductions in the resonant frequency of up to 50%. The performance of this antenna when mounted on the roof of an automobile has been analyzed through the application of the geometric theory of diffraction (GTD). Chebychev matching networks have been investigated to implement a broadband impedance match to the antenna View full abstract»

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  • Throughput performance of a class of continuous ARQ strategies for burst-error channels

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 380 - 386
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    The throughput performance of a class of continuous automatic repeat request (ARQ) strategies for burst-error channels modeled by two-state Markov chains is studied. The operation of the investigated ARQ strategies can be described as follows. A chunk of m or fewer copies of each data block is transmitted contiguously to the receiver. Whenever a repeat request is received, the transmitter goes back to and retransmits that data block and all successive ones. However, the maximal number of copies transmitted is equal to n in each retransmission. It is proved that the optimal repetition sequence which maximizes the throughput efficiency among a more general set of ARQ schemes falls in the class of investigated strategies. Numerical results reveal that throughput efficiency is very likely to be maximized at m=n View full abstract»

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  • A neural network parallel algorithm for channel assignment problems in cellular radio networks

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 430 - 437
    Cited by:  Papers (95)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    The channel assignment problem involves not only assigning channels or frequencies to each radio cell. but also satisfying frequency constraints given by a compatibility matrix. The proposed parallel algorithm is based on an artificial neural network composed of nm processing elements for an n-cell-m-frequency problem. The algorithm runs not only on a sequential machine but also on a parallel machine with up to a maximum of nm processors. The algorithm was tested by solving eight benchmark problems where the total number of frequencies varied from 100 to 533. The algorithm found the solutions in nearly constant time with nm processors. The simulation results showed that the algorithm found better solutions than the existing algorithm in one out of eight problems View full abstract»

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  • Performance limits of coded multilevel DPSK in cellular mobile radio

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 329 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    Performance limits of coded multilevel differential PSK (MDPSK) in multipath Rayleigh fading channels are described. The simple Gaussian metric is assumed for reasons for practicality even though it is not the maximum likelihood. The channel cutoff rate, R0 of MDPSK is analyzed based on the metric. Account is taken of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), cochannel interference, and multipath channel delay spread. For the analysis of the spectrum efficiency of a cellular mobile radio system employing coded MDPSK, its service area is defined as the area in which, with a bit rate of R information bit/symbol (RR0), reliable communications are possible. Three optimal information bit rates are determined from the channel cutoff rate to minimize the required average signal energy per information bit-to-noise power spectral density ratio (Eb/N0) to maximize the tolerable r.m.s. delay spread τr.m.s. and to maximize the spectrum efficiency View full abstract»

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  • Experimental performance of an adaptive digital linearized power amplifier [for cellular telephony]

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 395 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)  

    Amplification of linear modulation schemes, (which exhibit fluctuating envelopes), by high power amplifiers invariably leads to the generation of distortion and intermodulation products. Recent theoretical work has suggested that a complex gain predistorter may be employed to linearize a nonlinear power amplifier. The authors present experimental results demonstrating that a reduction in out-of-band spectra in excess of 20 dB may be achieved by employing digital feedback and a complex gain predistorter View full abstract»

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  • A new PLL frequency synthesizer with high switching speed

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 407 - 413
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    A phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer with high switching speed is proposed. Mobile communication networks are evolving towards microcellulars operating in narrowband TDMA and microwave bands to meet the rapidly increasing demands for both voice and data services. Therefore, synthesizers with high switching speed are required for the realization. However, it will be difficult for conventional synthesizers to provide switching times of shorter than 1 ms. The PLL synthesizer proposed is composed entirely of digital signal processors except for a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The VCO control signal is derived by the subtraction of the linear reference phase and the feedback phase; therefore, it does not need the band-limited loop filter which limits the ability of the loop to switch fast. The experimental results show that it can provide switching times as short as 0.1 ms, which is 102~103 times higher than conventional PLL synthesizers, and spurs of less than -60 dB View full abstract»

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  • Outage probabilities of diversity cellular systems with cochannel interference in Nakagami fading

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 343 - 355
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB)  

    Analytical, closed-form expressions for cellular outage probabilities in generalized Nakagami fading are derived for three practical diversity combining schemes. The outage is defined as the probability that the signal-to-interference power ratio (SIR) is less than a power protection ratio. The analysis considers L-branch equal gain (EG), selection (SC), and switched (SW) diversity combining schemes. The analyses are not limited to a single interferer, but rather assume the presence of multiple independent cochannel interferers. Previous results have used some approximations to study the performance of the EG combiner. A precise method is used to analyze the performance of an L-branch EG combiner. Selection diversity combining using the total power algorithm, the desired power algorithm, and the signal-to-interference power algorithm is analyzed. The effects of diversity on the reuse factor and on the spectrum efficiency of cellular mobile radio systems are considered in detail. The results for the Rayleigh fading channel are obtained and presented as a special case of the generalized Nakagami fading model View full abstract»

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  • A statistical discrete-time model for the WSSUS multipath channel

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 461 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (269)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    The computation of the tap gains of the discrete-time representation of a slowly time-varying multipath channel is investigated. Assuming the channel is wide-sense stationary with uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS), a known Monte Carlo based method approximating the given scattering function (which fully determines the WSSUS channel) is extended by including filtering and sampling. The result is a closed-form solution for the tap gains. This allows the efficient simulation of the continuous-time channel with, e.g., only one sample per symbol, and without explicit digital filtering View full abstract»

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  • Throughput-delay and stability analysis of an asynchronous spread spectrum packet radio network

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 469 - 478
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    A continuous-time Markov chain model for an asynchronous spread spectrum packet radio network is presented. The network consists of N fully connected nodes and the radios in all nodes are identical. Packets arrive at each node and are retransmitted when lost, both according to Poisson processes with different rates, and packet lengths are exponential in distribution. A simple threshold approximation is used to account for the multiuser interference, and the preamble collision probability at receiving radios to account for the capture effect. The approximate analysis gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations in most cases. The network stability conditions are discussed and the bistable behavior of the network is demonstrated. Results are given which show the effects on throughput and packet delay performance of the network according to the variations of the network size, the packet retransmission rate, the preamble collision probability at receiving radios, and the threshold value of the radio channel capacity View full abstract»

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  • Forward-link-power control in CDMA cellular systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 532 - 536
    Cited by:  Papers (57)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    The forward-link (base to mobile) power-control problem in code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular systems is studied. For a better understanding of the problem, a simple analytical model is developed for the neighboring-cell interference experienced by users as a function of distance from their home base station. Using this model, the recently proposed nth-power-of-distance power-control laws are investigated, especially with regard to the possibility of creation of a service hole. The investigation leads to the shape of the optimum radial distance dependent power-control law that will provide uniform service to all the users View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida