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Display Technology, Journal of

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Display Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 349 - 350
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Underwater Multi-View Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 351 - 353
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, is proposed the use of multi-view three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, such as synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII) for underwater applications. We analyze SAII systems for reconstructing 3D objects submerged in water. The effects of beam propagation in shallow water on the traditional SAII system are studied and computational reconstructions of 3D scenes are presented. We present experiments with SAII to reconstruct underwater 3D objects placed behind heavy occlusion. These systems could benefit deployments in unmanned underwater vehicles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on underwater multi-view 3D imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Guest Editorial—Special Issue on Medical Display

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 354 - 355
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Virtual Image Chain for Perceived and Clinical Image Quality of Medical Display

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 356 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When designing a new medical display, decisions, e.g., on the choice of the panel or the back light, must be taken. First decisions are mostly made based on physical measurements and not really on clinical or perceived quality. To prove clinical quality of the display costly time-consuming psycho-physical/clinical tests are performed. To solve these issues, a medical virtual image chain (MEVIC) was developed from image capture part until the visualization for facilitating medical display design. The chain is composed of three main modules: a virtual image part, a virtual medical display and a virtual specialist. The complete chain is described with a main focus on medical display simulation with many possible applications. View full abstract»

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  • Thermally Recordable Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Copolymers Containing Pendant Menthyl and Cholesteryl Groups

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 369 - 376
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to investigate the effect of spacer length and linkages between the rigid mesogenic core and the terminal group on the molecular interaction and physical properties of polymers, a series of novel side chain liquid crystalline polymers were synthesized. These were composed of liquid crystalline monomers with six or eleven methylene segments as spacers, and chiral monomers end capped with menthyl or cholesteryl groups. Liquid crystalline phases of the polymers were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy, and confirmed with X-ray diffractometry. Color image recording of the synthesized polymer films was achieved using a thermal treatment, and then fixed by quenching. This investigation demonstrates that the introduction of carbonate linking groups between the rigid mesogenic core and terminal group decreases both the lateral molecular interaction and thermal stability of the liquid crystalline polymers. The RGB reflection colors of the cholesteric composite film could be tuned by varying the film temperature and applying an external field. The results of this investigation present significant scientific and practical contributions with respect to the development of unique cholesteric polymer materials. View full abstract»

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  • A New Resolution Enhancement Technology Using the Independent Sub-Pixel Driving for the Medical Liquid Crystal Displays

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 377 - 382
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (943 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new resolution enhancement technology using the independent sub-pixel driving technology was developed for the medical monochrome liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Each pixel of monochrome LCDs, which employ the color liquid crystal panels that its color filters are removed, consists of three sub-pixels. In the new LCD system implemented with this new technology, the sub-pixel intensities were modulated according to the detailed image information, and consequently resolution was enhanced three times. Thus the new technology realized a 15 mega-pixels (MP) super high-resolution LCD (SHR-LCD) out of a conventional 5 MP LCD and a 9 MP SHR-LCD out of a conventional 3 MP LCD. Physical measurements and perceptual evaluations performed in this study proved that the achieved 15 MP (through our new technology) was appropriate and efficient to depict the finer anatomical structures such as the micro calcifications in mammography. View full abstract»

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  • Minimum-Error Splitting Algorithm for a Dual Layer LCD Display—Part I: Background and Theory

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 383 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1109 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dual layer high dynamic range liquid crystal display (LCD) can be built by stacking two panels one on top of the other. In this way, the dynamic range is theoretically squared and the bit depth is also increased. However, in order to minimize the parallax and reconstruction errors, dedicated splitting algorithms are needed to generate the two images which drive the panels. In this paper, we present an algorithm, based on variational techniques, which seeks the joint minimization of both errors. We propose a simplified visible difference metric that exploits some limitations of the human visual system and can be easily incorporated into an optimization algorithm. The image splitting task is formulated as a quadratic programming problem, which can be efficiently solved by means of appropriate numerical methods. Preliminary tests on medical images showed that the algorithm has good performances and appears robust with respect to the parameter adjustment. View full abstract»

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  • Minimum-Error Splitting Algorithm for a Dual Layer LCD Display—Part II: Implementation and Results

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 391 - 397
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dual layer liquid crystal display (LCD) is able to achieve a high dynamic range by stacking two liquid crystal panels one on top of the other over an enhanced backlight unit. However, the finite distance between the two panels inevitably introduces a parallax error when the display is observed off-axis, and the dynamic range limitations of the individual panels introduce a reconstruction error near sharp edges in the input image. In Part I, we have formulated the image splitting as a constrained optimization problem in which a joint minimization of the parallax error and the visibility of the reconstruction error is performed. View full abstract»

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  • Comparing Signal Detection Between Novel High-Luminance HDR and Standard Medical LCD Displays

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 398 - 409
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    DICOM specifies that digital data values should be linearly mapped to just-noticable differences (JNDs) in luminance. Increasing the number of JNDs available requires increasing the display's dynamic range. However, operating over too wide a range may cause human observers to miss contrast in dark regions due to adaptation to bright areas or, alternatively, miss edges in bright regions due to scattering in the eye. Dolby Inc.'s high dynamic range (HDR) LCD display has a maximum luminance over 2000 cd/m2; bright enough to produce significant in-eye scatter. The display combines a spatially variable backlight producing a low-resolution 8-bit ldquobacklight imagerdquo with a high-resolution 8-bit LCD panel, approximating a 16-bit greyscale display. Alternatively, by holding the backlight constant at 800 cd/m2, a standard medical LCD display can be simulated.We used two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) signal-detection experiments to quantify display quality. We explored whether the full-power HDR display's optical characteristics (scattering and low resolution backlight) have a negative effect on signal detection in medical images compared with a standard LCD. We used 8-bit test images derived from high-field MRI data combined with synthetic targets and synthetic Rician noise. We suggest signal detection performance with the HDR display is comparable to a standard medical LCD. View full abstract»

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  • Color Management for DICOM Images Considered as TIFF 16

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 410 - 414
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since the publication of DICOM standard part 10 about file format, DICOM leaves untouched 128 bytes in the beginning of each file for extra metadata accessed directly. This space can be used to declare the file as being a TIFF file, additionally to being a DICOM one. This article demonstrates how to create such hybrid file. TIFF allows for pixel depth of 16 bits-per-channel and may integrate an input ICC color management profile in order to represent the image correctly. We explain how to use this feature so that the TIFF representation automatically conforms to the result which would be expected if the picture data would pass through a DICOM graphical pipeline. Opening hybrid DICOM-TIFF16-ICC fastens the reopening of huge sets of files thanks to highly optimized TIFF and ICC libraries already embedded in the newest operating systems. It is also a very promising option for the transmission of medical image outside of DICOM networks (embedded within PDF documents, burnt on CD, sent by http wado to a web browser). View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of Mobile Technologies for Displaying Medical Images

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 415 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1754 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We compared the characteristics of state-of-the-art mobile display systems based on reflective and transmissive liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and an organic light-emitting display with respect to physical characterization metrics and observer studies. Physical performance factors provided information on the differences among display technologies. Observer studies resulted in different system ranking between the task-based performance and user-preference approaches. The results of the physical characterization and preference study showed that the reflective LCD ranked lower. We also found that ambient illumination played a lesser role than previously seen in large-format workstation displays. The methodology developed in this study provides an initial insight into the comparison of alternative technologies for display of diagnostic images in small portable devices. View full abstract»

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  • An Updatable Holographic Display for 3D Visualization

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 424 - 430
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Among the various methods to produce three-dimensional (3D) images, holography occupies a special niche. Indeed, holograms provide highly realistic 3D images with a large viewing angle capability without the need for special eyewear. Such characteristics make them valuable tools for a wide range of applications such as medical, industrial, military, and entertainment imaging. To be suitable for an updatable holographic display, a material needs to have a high diffraction efficiency, fast writing time, hours of image persistence, capability for rapid erasure, and the potential for large display area-a combination of properties that has not been realized before. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Hardware-Accelerated Volume Rendering of CT Scans

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 431 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As CT scanning is a very common medical imaging method, we propose new hardware-based algorithms using GPU (Graphical Processor Unit) programming for rapid visualization. Firstly, 3D volumes are constructed from CT scans. Then volume rendering is used to display anatomical structures via algorithms founded on improved ray casting and 2D textures. Our methods achieve interactive rendering rates and require an ordinary PC with an off-the-shelf graphics card. We expect our approach to be useful to medical practitioners for handling modern, large-scale medical datasets. View full abstract»

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  • Volumetric 3D Display for Radiation Therapy Planning

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 437 - 450
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1825 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In current clinical practice, radiation therapy planning (RTP) has often been treated as a two-dimensional (2D) problem, mainly due to the limitations in visualization technology available to date. The slice-by-slice display format makes it difficult to visualize the path of radiation beam not perpendicular to the axis of the CT slices. This discourages consideration of treatment plans that utilize radiation beam out of the transverse plane. Human body anatomical structures are inherently three-dimensional (3D) objects, and tumors and tissues/organs involved in the RTP are all of 3D shapes. A clear understanding of 3D spatial relationships among these structures, as well as the anatomic impact of 3D dose distributions, is essential for designing and evaluating radiation therapy plans. We have recently made an important breakthrough in the high-resolution volumetric 3D display technology and have made an initial attempt to apply it to RTP applications. By "volumetric 3D display", we mean that each "voxel" in the displayed 3D images is located physically at the (x, y, z) spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position to form real 3D images in the eyes of viewers. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system design by building full-scale prototypes and achieved a multi-color, large display volume, true volumetric 3D display system with a high resolution of over 10 million voxels in a portable design. This type of true 3D display system is able to present a 3D image of a patient's anatomy with transparent skin, providing both physiological and psychological depth cues to oncologists in perceiving and manipulating radiation beam configuration in true 3D fashion, thus offering a unique visualization tool to ensure the safety, effectiveness, and speed of the RTP process. The volumetric 3D display technology holds promise to significantly enhance the accuracy, safety, and speed of RTP procedures. Such an "understanding at a glance" ca- - pability is necessary to keep the clinicians from becoming bogged down in details, as he/she would be if provided only with conventional 2D display of CT slices with overlaid isodose lines. The main focus of this paper is to provide technical details on the volumetric 3D display system we developed, and present some initial results on its capability of displaying true 3D images. While the system design framework of applying such technology into RTP is introduced, its full scale clinical applications to RTP is still an ongoing effort and will be reported later in other publications. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Medical Displays: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 451 - 467
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The impressive development of medical imaging technology during the last decades provided physicians with an increasing amount of patient specific anatomical and functional data. In addition, the increasing use of non-ionizing real-time imaging, in particular ultrasound and optical imaging, during surgical procedures created the need for design and development of new visualization and display technology allowing physicians to take full advantage of rich sources of heterogeneous preoperative and intraoperative data. During 90's, medical augmented reality was proposed as a paradigm bringing new visualization and interaction solutions into perspective. This paper not only reviews the related literature but also establishes the relationship between subsets of this body of work in medical augmented reality. It finally discusses the remaining challenges for this young and active multidisciplinary research community. View full abstract»

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  • Head Mounted Displays for Medical Use

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 468 - 472
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Head Mounted Displays have been used in various forms to assist surgeons and other medical personnel to support and improve visualization of the work site. Historically, many of these were of inadequate resolution, bulky, cave-like and heavy and they, deservedly, received limited acceptance. Recent availability of high-resolution displays, lighter structures and the various see-though designs that merge both real world and registered synthetic imagery have significantly increased the benefits of these devices for the medical community. View full abstract»

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  • A Display Framework for Visualizing Real-Time 3D Lung Tumor Radiotherapy

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 473 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Medical display systems are valuable tools in enabling the clinicians in the field of radiation therapy to view a patient's multi-modal information and treatment plan details. The effectiveness of display systems is further improved by including computer-based visualization systems that deliver the content comprehensively. In this paper, we present a medical display and visualization framework for radiation therapy that couples a computer-based simulation of real-time lung tumor motion and its dose accumulation during treatment with an Augmented Reality Center (ARC) based display system. The simulation framework provides insights on the variations in the effectiveness of the lung therapy for changes in the patient's breathing conditions. The display system aims to enhance the clinician's understanding by enhancing the 3D depth perception of the dose accumulation in lung tumors. Thus the framework acts as a tool for presenting both pre-operative studies and intra-operative treatment efficacy analysis when coupled with a real-time respiration monitor. A first evaluation of this framework was carried out using six clinical experts. Results show that, using the ARC compared to a 2D monitor, the experts were able to more efficiently perceive the radiation dose delivered to various aspects of the moving tumor and the surrounding normal tissues, as well as more quickly detecting radiation hot spots that are critical to minimizing damage to healthy tissue. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Display and Visualization Concepts for Image Guided Surgery

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 483 - 490
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (789 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thanks to its rapid development in the last decades, image guided surgery (IGS) has been introduced successfully in many modern operating rooms. Current IGS systems provide their navigation information on a standard computer monitor. Alternatively, one could enhance the direct sight of the physician by an overlay of the virtual data onto the real patient view. Such in situ visualization methods have been proposed in the literature for providing a more intuitive visualization, improving the ergonomics as well as the hand-eye coordination. In this paper, we first discuss the fundamental issues and the recent endeavors in advanced display and visualization for IGS. We then present some of our recent work comparing two navigation systems: 1) a classical monitor based navigation and 2) a new navigation system we had developed based on in situ visualization. As both solutions reveal shortcomings as well as complementary advantages, we introduce a new solution that combines both concepts into one hybrid user interface. Finally, experimental results report on the performance of several surgeons using an external monitor as well as a stereo video see-through head-mounted display (HMD). The experiments consist of drilling into a phantom in order to reach planted deep-seated targets only visible in computed tomography (CT) data. We evaluate several visualization techniques, including the new hybrid solution, and study their influence on the performance of the participant surgeons. View full abstract»

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  • Intra-Operative Visualizations: Perceptual Fidelity and Human Factors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 491 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With increasing capability and complexity of surgical interventions, intra-operative visualization is becoming an important part of a surgical environment. This paper reviews some of our recent progress in the intelligent use of pre- and intra-operative data for enhanced surgical navigation and motion compensated visualization. High fidelity augmented reality (AR) with enhanced 3D depth perception is proposed to provide effective surgical guidance. To cater for large scale tissue deformation, real-time depth recovery based on stereo disparity and eye gaze tracking is introduced. This allows the development of motion compensated visualization for improved visual perception and for facilitating motion adaptive AR displays. The discussion of the paper is focused on how to ensure perceptual fidelity of AR and the need for real-time tissue deformation recovery and modeling, as well as the importance of incorporating human perceptual factors in surgical displays. View full abstract»

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  • 2008 Index Journal of Display Technology Vol. 4

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 502 - 512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF ( KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Display Technology information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (4 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

This publication covers the theory, design, fabrication, manufacturing and application of information displays and aspects of display technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Arokia Nathan
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, U.K.