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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 2008

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1 - 769
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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  • Use of Reverberation Chambers to Determine the Shielding Effectiveness of Physically Small, Electrically Large Enclosures and Cavities

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 770 - 782
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the proliferation of small electric devices in recent years, along with various other applications, there is a growing need to test and determine the shielding properties or shielding effectiveness (SE) of physically small (but electrically large) enclosures or cavities. In this paper, we discuss how a reverberation chamber technique can be used to measure the SE of such enclosures. The approach consists of placing the small enclosure inside a reverberation chamber and using frequency stirring to excite the reverberation chamber. A small surface probe (i.e., a monopole) is mounted on the inside wall of the small enclosure to measure the power level inside the small enclosure. We present measured data from various other reverberation chamber approaches obtained from various enclosure configurations. The data from these other reverberation chamber approaches are used to validate the proposed approach. We also compared measured data to theoretical calculations of the SE for two small enclosures with circular apertures. These various comparisons illustrate that the proposed technique is a valid approach for determining the SE of physically small (i.e., cubic enclosure dimensions of the order of 0.1 m and smaller), but electrically large enclosures (that support several modes at the lowest frequency of interest). View full abstract»

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  • Use of Nested Reverberating Chambers to Measure Shielding Effectiveness of Nonreciprocal Samples Taking Into Account Multiple Interactions

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 783 - 786
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (201 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper enhances the new nested chambers shielding effectiveness approach proposed by Holloway. The enhanced model considers the multiple interactions between the two chambers and nonreciprocal samples. Results show that the enhancement is remarkable when the two chambers are tightly coupled and the shielding effectiveness is not marginal. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum Rate of Frequency Scanning for Distortionless Signal Generation in Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 787 - 793
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We derive theoretical and experimental performance based upper bounds for the rate of frequency scanning (sweeping) or electronic stirring inside a reverberation chamber. The interior field is modeled as a dynamic process of frequency modulation of the source field. The bounds are obtained by imposing quasi-stationarity of the field, as a requirement for preventing nonlinear distortion of an analog or digital excitation (test) signal injected into the chamber. View full abstract»

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  • Correlation Between EUT Failure Levels and ESD Generator Parameters

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 794 - 801
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (989 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Some system-level electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests repeat badly if different ESD generators are used. For improving repeatability, ESD generator specifications have been changed, and modified generators have been compared in a worldwide round robin test. The test showed up to 1 : 3 variations of failure levels. Multiple parameters that characterize ESD generators have been measured. This paper correlates the parameters to test result variations trying to distinguish between important and nonrelevant parameters. The transient fields show large variations among different ESD generators. A correlation has been observed in many equipment under tests (EUTs) between failure levels and the spectral content of the voltage induced in a semicircular loop. EUT resonance enhances the field coupling, and is the dominate failure mechanism. The regulation on the transient field is expected to improve the test repeatability. View full abstract»

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  • Uncertainty of ESD Pulse Metrics Due to Dynamic Properties of Oscilloscope

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 802 - 809
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates how dynamics of an HF oscilloscope affects standardized metrics (i.e., rise time and peak value) of a recorded electrostatic discharge (ESD) current pulse and evaluates the oscilloscope measurement uncertainty. A frequency-domain dynamic model of the oscilloscope, based on measurements of the input reflection and voltage gain magnitude, is derived. The complex voltage gain is approximated with a transfer function to take into account unmeasured phase shift. A high-order discrete-time filter is designed to fit the measured voltage gain magnitude not only in the passband, but also beyond it as well. Since the measured data are burdened with measurement uncertainties, the worst-case deviations of the oscilloscope input impedance and the voltage gain (in the form of envelopes of the frequency responses) are calculated, and components of type B uncertainty of the ESD pulse metrics corresponding to these deviations are estimated using the sensitivity method. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation on Robustness of CMOS Devices Against Cable Discharge Event (CDE) Under Different Layout Parameters in a Deep-Submicrometer CMOS Technology

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 810 - 821
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2017 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cable discharge events (CDEs) have been found to be the major root cause of inducing hardware damage on Ethernet ICs of communication interfaces in real applications. Still, there is no device-level evaluation method to investigate the robustness of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices against a CDE for a layout optimization in silicon chips. The transmission-line pulsing (TLP) system was the most important method used to observe the electrical characteristics of semiconductor devices under human-body model (HBM) electrostatic discharge (ESD) stress. To understand the physical characteristics and CDE robustness of on-chip protection devices, the long-pulse transmission-line pulsing (LP-TLP) system is proposed in this paper and used to simulate the influence of CDE on Ethernet-integrated circuits. The secondary breakdown characteristics of the CDE protection devices under different layout styles and parameters can be measured and analyzed by the proposed LP-TLP with pulsewidths of 500 or 1000 ns. Furthermore, measured results using the LP-TLP system are compared with results measured by the traditional 100-ns TLP system. The experimental results with silicon devices in 0.18-mu m CMOS process have shown that the CDE robustness of n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (PMOS) devices in deep-submicrometer CMOS technology is much lower than their HBM ESD robustness. By using the proposed LP-TLP system, one set of design rules for I/O devices to sustain high CDE robustness in a given CMOS process can be evaluated and built up for chip layout. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Corona Discharge Interference on Antennas on Composite Airplanes

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 822 - 827
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Static electrification of the airframe can often cause electromagnetic interference on aircraft radios. Triboelectric charging, occurring when an aircraft is operated in precipitation, raises the aircraft potential until corona discharges occur from points of high dc field on the aircraft. These corona discharges generate noise that is coupled into antenna systems installed on the aircraft. The characteristics of electrostatic accumulation on the surface of carbon fiber composite airplanes are studied in this paper. The differences in electrostatic accumulation between carbon fiber composite airplanes and metal airplanes are also demonstrated. Based on the E fields radiated by an electrostatic discharge (ESD) current, a model of ESD in composite airplanes is established. As is shown, the induced currents excited by the ESD can successfully predict the interference to the airborne antennas in the frequency and time domains, providing a reference for composite airplane design. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Estimation Method Based on 2-D Scanned Electric Fields

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 828 - 836
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents two methods that accurately estimate the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution and spatial averaged SAR in a phantom exposed to electromagnetic waves from a wireless device. These methods theoretically estimate the SAR value from a 2D scanned electric field (e-field) by basically applying the equivalence theorem. The validity of the proposed methods is investigated based on calculated and measured results. The estimated spatial averaged SAR over a 1-g or 10-g mass shows a difference of less than a few percent compared to the original SAR value. Furthermore, the proposed methods have the potential to measure the 3D SAR distribution in several tens of seconds or a few minutes when used in combination with a 2D probe array. View full abstract»

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  • On the Estimation of SAR and Compliance Distance Related to RF Exposure From Mobile Communication Base Station Antennas

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 837 - 848
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) estimation formulas for RF main beam exposure from mobile communication base station antennas are proposed. The formulas, given for both whole-body SAR and localized SAR, are heuristic in nature and valid for a class of common base station antennas. The formulas were developed based on a number of physical observations and are supported by results from an extensive literature survey together with supplementary measurements and numerical simulations of typical exposure situations. Using exposure limits, the proposed SAR estimation formulas can be converted to formulas for estimating compliance distance. View full abstract»

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  • High-Power EMI on RF Amplifier and Digital Modulation Schemes

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 849 - 860
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the performance of an RF amplifier and digital modulation techniques in the presence of high-power electromagnetic interference (EMI) to provide existing and next generation communication systems with critical information. An advanced measurement setup comprised of a large-signal network analyzer is used to characterize the adverse effects of EMI on the device characteristics of an RF power amplifier and the performance of digital modulation schemes. Furthermore, our analysis incorporated hybrid numerical tools, such as the hybrid S-parameter method to carry out an extensive EMI analysis of digital modulation schemes in the presence of complex structures, such as cylindrical cavities. Our studies yield critical information for the communication systems. For instance, our analysis suggests that digital modulation schemes are more susceptible to EMI than the RF power amplifier that processes the modulated signals. Power levels of the order of megawatts are required to have a notable impact on the device characteristics of an RF amplifier in the presence of a missile-like body, whereas, much lower power levels are sufficient to degrade the performance of a digital modulation scheme as long as it is within the bandwidth of the modulated signal. Our analysis further indicates that nonconstant envelope digital modulation schemes are more susceptible to EMI. View full abstract»

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  • Impulsive Noise Characterization of In-Vehicle Power Line

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 861 - 868
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Impulsive noise can have a great influence on the performance of in-vehicle power line communication systems. Intensive noise measurements in the time domain were thus carried out on five different vehicles. Preliminary trials were first made on a stationary vehicle and the motor idling, but the characteristics of the measured low-amplitude pulses greatly vary from one car to another. We thus emphasize the characteristics of high-amplitude pulses, greater than 70 mV, observed when the vehicles were moving in traffic, during a 20-min trip. Noise is statistically characterized in terms of duration, frequency content, peak amplitude, and time interval between successive pulses. Stochastic models based on mathematical distribution functions and fitting the experimental distribution of the various pulse characteristics are proposed. It has been found that interarrival time, i.e., the time interval between two successive pulses, is rather short and would be thus the most critical parameter when optimizing the power line communication physical layer. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the IEC 61000-4-4 EFT Injection Clamp

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 869 - 875
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (906 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper analyzes the test setup required by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61000-4-4 to evaluate the immunity of electronic equipment to electrical fast transients (EFTs), and proposes an electrical model of the capacitive coupling clamp, which is employed to add disturbances to nominal signals. The study points out limits on accuracy of this model, and shows how it can be fruitfully employed to predict the interference waveform affecting nominal system signals through computer simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the EMI Susceptibility of a Kuijk Bandgap

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 876 - 886
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (910 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the susceptibility of a Kuijk bandgap voltage reference to electromagnetic interferences (EMIs) superimposed to the power supply is investigated. A model of the bandgap circuit is derived from experimental tests consisting of scattering parameters and susceptibility measurements on a test chip. The model is able to correctly predict the susceptibility of the circuit by means of SPICE transient simulations. The simulations identify the fundamental stray components responsible for EMI coupling that are usually not taken into account in postlayout analyses. From the EMI point of view, the rectification phenomenon of bipolar transistors, used in the bandgap cell, and the operational amplifier (op-amp) input distortion are shown to cause the voltage reference performance degradation. In particular, for the first time, the importance of the bandgap cell is pointed out, suggesting that the measures to reduce the susceptibility of the op-amp may not be sufficient to guarantee the bandgap immunity. Moreover, the analyses of main parasitic paths (from the power supply net to the more sensitive nodes) demonstrate the relevance of paths that are not commonly considered during the design phase and that may lead to an immunity degradation. Possible solutions to reduce the bandgap susceptibility are also explored, suggesting design criteria, filtering techniques, and layout variations. A second test chip is designed and manufactured to validate the suggested improvements and verify the critical role of the bandgap cell. Finally, a simplified theoretical analysis, which allows a fast bandgap susceptibility evaluation, is presented. This tool is used to point out the importance of the rectification phenomenon compared to the op-amp differential pair distortion. View full abstract»

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  • Compensation of Low-Frequency Disturbances by Means of Linearization of the Electronic Systems Characteristic

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 887 - 894
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A mechanism to demodulate a two-tone high-frequency oscillation in nonlinear electronic devices due to an external electromagnetic field is investigated. The results of a demodulation are low-frequency disturbances to the internal circuits of electronic devices. A method for the synthesis of nonlinear compensators on the basis of the operational equations of electronic devices is offered for protection against low-frequency noise. The nonlinear operator of the compensator is designed so that a cascade connection of the electronic device and the compensator is described by the linear Volterra functional. As an example, the compensation of nonlinear transformations of a detector at high-frequency oscillation is synthesized with the use of results of measurements. The accuracy of the executed compensation is estimated. View full abstract»

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  • Bandpass Shielding Enclosure Design Using Multipole-Slot Arrays for Modern Portable Digital Devices

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 895 - 904
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we reveal a design approach for a bandpass shielding enclosure (BPSE) that uses multipole-slot arrays applicable to modern portable digital devices having wireless communication functions. The BPSE is a conductive, airtight box etched with the apertures of a periodic multipole-slot array on its top and bottom surfaces. The BPSE is designed to achieve the design objectives of high transmittance in the specified wireless-signal band and high shielding effectiveness outside this band, and to have little influence on the radiation characteristics of an internal antenna located inside the enclosure. Three representative kinds of multipole-slot arrays: slot arrays, tripole-slot arrays, and cross-slot arrays, were considered in this study. In addition, these arrays may or may not have end loading. A prototype of the BPSE was created and studied. Simulated and measured results were obtained to validate the design. Based on these results, a detailed performance comparison among all the considered arrays is given. The comparison demonstrated that only the BPSE with a cross-slot array and full end loading can simultaneously meet all the design objectives. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of Lightning-Induced Magnetic Fields and Voltages Inside Struck Double-Layer Grid-Like Shields

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 905 - 912
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the reduction of lightning-induced magnetic fields and voltages inside double-layer grid-like spatial shields typically used in reinforced concrete buildings, e.g., nuclear power plants. The calculations are performed with the CONCEPT computer code, which solves Maxwell's equations using the method of moments in the frequency domain. The computer code is extended with the well-known transmission line model (TL-model) in order to simulate direct lightning strikes. The structure under study comprises a cubic cage of 2 m side length having single- or double-layer grid-like spatial shields with square meshes of 0.25 m width. Three lightning-channel attachment points are considered at the cage roof, namely, the center, the midedge, and the corner. The simulated lightning currents are the positive, the negative first, and the negative subsequent strokes at lightning protection level I (LPL I) according to the international standard series IEC 62305. The computed quantities comprise the currents through some selected wires of the grid-like spatial shields, the magnetic fields, the magnetic-field derivatives, and the induced voltage across a typical installation loop inside the shield. The results of the single-layer shield are compared to those of the double-layer one to evaluate the additional reduction of the latter shield. View full abstract»

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  • Measured and Modeled Horizontal Electric Field From Rocket-Triggered Lightning

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 913 - 920
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the results of experiments carried out with rocket-triggered lightning and the related theoretical analysis. It describes the test setup and presents the electric field waveform recorded at the earth surface alongside with the simultaneous measurement of the lightning return stroke current at the channel base. The relevant parameters that allow the validation of a model to correlate the two waveforms are presented, i.e., the return stroke velocity, the distance from the lightning channel base, and the earth parameters (resistivity and permittivity). A theoretical analysis is also presented, which models the phenomenon by the superposition of an induced and a conducted component, providing results that are in good agreement with the measurements. Finally, the paper presents a discussion about the range of validity of the theoretical model and analyzes the behavior of the two components of the electric field. View full abstract»

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  • On the Relationship Between the Signature of Close Electric Field and the Equivalent Corona Current in Lightning Return Stroke Models

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 921 - 927
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Engineering return stroke models can be categorized either as current generation (traveling current source type) models or current propagation (transmission line type) models. The current generation models are described among other parameters by a corona current distributed along the channel. Recent studies show that there is equivalence between the models of current generation and current propagation types. Due to this equivalence, any engineering return stroke model of current propagation type can be described in terms of an equivalent corona current per unit channel length. The measurements conducted within 10-500 m from triggered lightning flashes show that the electric field of subsequent return strokes at these distances flattens within 15 mus or so. In this paper, the constraints imposed by this feature on the temporal and spatial variation of the equivalent corona current are investigated. The results show that in order for the close fields to flatten within 15 mus or so, the equivalent corona current, should be bipolar and the corona current wave shape at late times should be identical to that of the longitudinal current time derivative. This is in contrast to most of the engineering models of current generation type, in which the corona current is assumed to be unipolar. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband Pulse Responses of Metallic Rectangular Multistage Cascaded Enclosures Illuminated by an EMP

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 928 - 939
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A generalized mathematical procedure is developed for investigating shielding performance and inner wideband pulse responses of metallic rectangular multistage cascaded enclosures with multiple rectangular apertures, which is illuminated by an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The mathematical methodology is based on the integral equation technique combined with the method of moments, by which all unknown aperture fields are solved according to a set of linear algebraic equations of infinite order. Numerical computations are performed to show frequency- and geometry-dependent shielding effectiveness and inner pulse waveforms of single- and double-stage cascaded enclosures, respectively, with computational accuracy and convergence rate also checked. It is found that using appropriate metallic multistage cascaded enclosures, high shielding performance can be achieved, which can provide an effective protection for certain electronic and communication systems from the interference of an EMP. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Solution of Scattering From Conducting Structures by Local MLFMA Based on Improved Electric Field Integral Equation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 940 - 945
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (439 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a local multilevel fast multipole algorithm (LMLFMA) based on an improved electric field integral equation (IEFIE) is developed to achieve fast and efficient solution of electromagnetic scattering from 3-D conducting structures. The IEFIE is used to reduce iteration number, and LMLFMA is applied to further accelerate the computation of matrix-vector multiplications in iteration, in which only the local interactions between subscatterers are taken into account. Numerical results show that the present method attains faster iterative convergence than traditional EFIE and less computational cost than MLFMA. The speedup can achieve at least 4-5 times while keeping an rms error of less than 2 dB. View full abstract»

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  • A Domain Decomposition Finite-Difference Method Utilizing Characteristic Basis Functions for Solving Electrostatic Problems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 946 - 952
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (554 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient approach for solving a linear system of equations arising in the domain decomposition finite-difference (DDFD) method, employed for electrostatic problems. This novel approach is based on utilizing characteristic basis functions (CBFs)-special functions defined on macrodomains, or blocks in which the computational domain is discretized by using the DDFD method. The use of the CBFs leads to a significant reduction in the number of unknowns, and results in a substantial size reduction of the DDFD system; this, in turn, enables us to handle the reduced matrix by using an iteration-free direct solver. The reduced sparse matrix system is solved via the Schur complement approach, which reduces the system into many independent smaller subsystems. Two electrostatic problems are used as examples to illustrate the application of the proposed approach. Numerical results that demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method are included. View full abstract»

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  • PEEC Formulation Based on Dyadic Green's Functions for Layered Media in the Time and Frequency Domains

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 953 - 965
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel time- and frequency-domain concept of modeling with the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) method, which applies the mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) with dyadic Green's functions for layered media (DGFLM-PEEC). On the one hand, it represents an exact full-wave semianalytical solution for an arbitrary configuration of traces and via holes in multilayered printed circuit boards. On the other hand, the DGFLM-PEEC model is represented in a circuit form, and thus, may be included in general-purpose circuit simulators. The paper derives a general DGFLM-PEEC formulation, which may be applied to all types of the MPIE with dyadic Green's functions. Using this concept, a particular type of layered media, namely a lossy dielectric between two grounds (stripline region), is thoroughly investigated and used to set up a particular DGFLM-PEEC model. The closed-form expressions for partial inductances and potential coefficients have been derived for this case. The time- and frequency-domain DGFLM-PEEC models for the stripline region have been validated using the measurements and the simulation by the method of moments. View full abstract»

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  • A Closed-Form Equation for Estimating Capacitance of Signal Vias in Arbitrarily Multilayered PCBs

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 966 - 973
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a significant improvement to the coaxial-line equation that is used for analytical estimation of via capacitance in multilayered printed circuit boards (PCBs) Previously, a pure coaxial-line equation is used for estimating via capacitance with a maximized and minimized number of pads in high-density multilayered PCBs. Now, in the via capacitance equation, both the capacitances associated to via body and via pads in multilayered PCBs with arbitrary stackups are included. Laboratory measurements by a vector network analyzer and digital inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) meter, as well as quasi-static and full-wave computational simulations, confirm solid accuracy of the derived equation used for estimating the capacitance of arbitrary signal via geometry common in practice. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch