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Early Access Articles

Early Access articles are new content made available in advance of the final electronic or print versions and result from IEEE's Preprint or Rapid Post processes. Preprint articles are peer-reviewed but not fully edited. Rapid Post articles are peer-reviewed and edited but not paginated. Both these types of Early Access articles are fully citable from the moment they appear in IEEE Xplore.

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Displaying Results 1 - 7 of 7
  • Review of Robotic Technology for Stereotactic Neurosurgery

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
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    The research of stereotactic apparatus to guide surgical devices began in 1908, yet a major part of today’s stereotactic neurosurgeries still rely on stereotactic frames developed almost half a century ago. Robots excel at handling spatial information and are thus obvious candidates in the guidance of instrumentation along precisely planned trajectories. In this review, we introduce the concept of stereotaxy and describe a standard stereotactic neurosurgery. Neurosurgeons’ expectations and demands regarding the role of robots as assistive tools are also addressed. We list the most successful robotic systems developed specifically for or capable of executing stereotactic neurosurgery. A critical review is presented for each robotic system emphasising the differences between them, and detailing its positive features and drawbacks. An analysis of the listed robotic system features is also undertaken, in the context of robotic application in stereotactic neurosurgery. Finally, we discuss the current perspective and future directions of robotic technology in this field. All robotic systems follow a very similar and structured workflow despite the technical differences that set them apart. No system unequivocally stands out as an absolute best. The trend of technological progress is pointing towards the development of miniaturised, cost-effective solutions with more intuitive interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Body Sensor Networks: In the Era of Big Data and Beyond

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
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    Body sensor networks (BSN) have emerged as an active field of research to connect and operate sensors within, on or at close proximity to the human body. BSN have unique roles in health applications, particularly to support real-time decision making and therapeutic treatments. Nevertheless, challenges remain in designing BSN nodes with antennas that operate efficiently around, ingested or implanted inside the human body, as well as new methods to process the heterogeneous and growing amount of data on-node and in a distributed system for optimized performance and power consumption. As the battery operating time and sensor size are two important factors in determining the usability of BSN nodes, ultra-low power transceivers, energy aware network protocol, data compression, on-node processing and energy harvesting techniques are highly demanded to ultimately achieve a self-powered BSN. View full abstract»

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  • Ambient and Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring Techniques

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2945 KB)  

    Monitoring vital signs through unobtrusive means is a goal which has attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive review over the current state of the field of ambient and unobtrusive cardiorespiratory monitoring. To this end, nine different sensing modalities which have been in the focus of current research activities are covered: capacitive electrocardiography (ECG), seismo- and ballistocardiography (SCG/BCG), reflective photoplethysmography (PPG) and PPG imaging (PPGI), thermography, methods relying on laser or radar for distance-based measurements, video motion analysis, as well as methods using high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Current trends in these sub-fields are reviewed. Moreover, we systematically analyze similarities and differences between these methods with respect to the physiological and physical effects they sense as well as the resulting implications. Finally, future research trends for the field as a whole are identified. View full abstract»

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  • Towards Automating Clinical Assessments: A Survey of the Timed Up and Go (TUG)

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1249 KB)  

    Older adults often suffer from functional impairments that affect their ability to perform everyday tasks. To detect the onset and changes in abilities, healthcare professionals administer standardized assessments. Recently, technology has been utilized to complement these clinical assessments to gain a more objective and detailed view of functionality. In the clinic and at home, technology is able to provide more information about patient performance and reduce subjectivity in outcome measures. The timed up and go (TUG) test is one such assessment recently instrumented with technology in several studies, yielding promising results towards the future of automating clinical assessments. Potential benefits of technological TUG implementations include additional performance parameters, generated reports, and the ability to be self-administered in the home. In this paper, we provide an overview of the TUG test and technologies utilized for TUG instrumentation. We then critically review the technological advancements and follow up with an evaluation of the benefits and limitations of each approach. Finally, we analyze the gaps in the implementations and discuss challenges for future research towards automated, self-administered assessment in the home. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility of Energy-autonomous Wireless Micro-sensors for Biomedical Applications: Powering and Communication

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1047 KB)  

    In this paper biomedical related, wireless miniature devices such as implantable medical devices (IMD), Neural prostheses (NP), embedded neural systems and body area network (BAN) systems are investigated and categorized. The two main subsystems of such designs, the RF subsystem and the energy source subsystem are studied in detail. Different application classes are considered separately, focusing on their specific data-rate and size characteristics. Also the energy consumption of state-of-the-art communication practices is compared to the energy that can be generated by current energy scavenging devices, highlighting gaps and opportunities. The RF subsystem is classified and the suitable architecture for each category of applications is highlighted. Finally a new figure of merit suitable for wireless biomedical applications is introduced to measure the performance of these devices and assist the designer in selecting the proper system for the required application. This figure of merit can effectively fill the gap of a much required method for comparing different techniques in simulation stage before a final design is chosen for implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided Prostate Cancer Diagnosis from Digitized Histopathology: A Review on Texture-based Systems

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB)  

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is currently diagnosed by microscopic evaluation of biopsy samples. Since tissue assessment heavily relies on the pathologists level of expertise and interpretation criteria, it is still a subjective process with high intra- and interobserver variability. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) may have a major impact on detection and grading of PCa by reducing the pathologists reading time, and increasing the accuracy and reproducibility of diagnosis outcomes. However, the complexity of the prostatic tissue and the large volumes of data generated by biopsy procedures make the development of CAD systems for PCa a challenging task. The problem of automated diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma from histopathology has received a lot of attention. As a result, a number of CAD systems, have been proposed for quantitative image analysis and classification. This article aims at providing a detailed description of selected literature in the field of CAD of PCa, emphasizing the role of texture analysis methods in tissue description. It includes a review of image analysis tools for image preprocessing, feature extraction, classification, and validation techniques used in PCa detection and grading, as well as future directions in pursuit of better texture-based CAD systems. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Identification of Infarcted Myocardium Tissue Characterisation Using Ultrasound Images: A Review

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB)  

    Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) commonly known as heart attack is one of the major causes of cardiac death worldwide. It occurs when the blood supply to the portion of the heart muscle is blocked or stopped causing death of heart muscle cells. Early detection of MI will help to prevent the infarct expansion leading to left ventricle (LV) remodeling and further damage to the cardiac muscles. Timely identification of MI and the extent of LV remodeling are crucial to reduce the time taken for further tests, and save the cost due to early treatment. Echocardiography images are widely used to assess the differential diagnosis of normal and infarcted myocardium. The reading of ultrasound images is subjective due to inter-observer variability and may lead to inconclusive findings which may increase the anxiety for patients. Hence a computeraided diagnostic (CAD) technique which uses echocardiography images of the heart coupled with pattern recognition algorithms can accurately classify normal and infarcted myocardium images. In this review paper, we have discussed the various components that are used to develop a reliable CAD system. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering reviews the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Jose C. Principe
Department of Biomedical Engineering
University of Florida