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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 44
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2389
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest EditorialSpecial Section on the 2007 International Conference on Near-Field Imaging and Characterization (ICONIC'07)

    Page(s): 2390 - 2391
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  • Scanning Near-Field Millimeter-Wave Microscope: Application to a Vector-Coding Technique

    Page(s): 2392 - 2397
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an evanescent field-scanning millimeter-wave microscope to bridge the frequency gap that currently exists in probe microscopy. The method is supported by the use of a six-port-based reflectometer operating at 35 GHz in association with a microfabricated resonant micro stripline probe. The simplicity of the method makes it suitable for an industrial context and offers integration possibilities to gain in compacity, reliability, and time operation, in particular. This millimeter-wave microscope is well suited for the characterization of conductors and local electromagnetic properties of dielectrics. The resolution of the probe is experimentally verified by scanning gold lines deposited on a silicon substrate. In addition to the demonstration of the system, we propose to discuss various probe parameters that can be considered to design evanescent millimeter-wave probes (EMPs) for different applications. An original use of the system is suggested through a vector-coding technique of digital information that makes use of the real and imaginary parts of the reflection coefficient. View full abstract»

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  • Near-Field Electromagnetic Characterization and Perturbation of Logic Circuits

    Page(s): 2398 - 2404
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    We propose here a nondestructive electromagnetic (EM) near-field test bench for both EM compatibility and susceptibility of circuits. This setup permits both the collection of the near field and injection without contact of a disturbing EM field, all through a probe. Exhaustive characterizations of probes are undertaken via simulations and experiments. According to their design, they are supposedly linked more to the electric or the magnetic field. Simulations of their EM behavior are undergone to fix their optimal geometries, leading to the best measurement performances. It is shown by both the simulations and the S-parameter measurements that their presence does not interfere with the electric behavior of the device under test. Then, logic circuits are characterized from the EM point of view, with the help of this test bench. Circuits are placed on three different printed boards: one double-sided low-frequency board without a ground plane and two single-sided boards with a ground plane and a design that is more or less optimized. EM near-field mappings highlight the strong field areas of the circuits. The need for a ground plane is highlighted. Field patterns on the traces are linked with those observed on microstrip lines. Then, an EM aggression is injected over a supposed sensitive zone of the circuit. Whichever printed board is considered, a parasitic signal superimposes itself on the output signal of the gates. Deepened studies are undergone to exhaustively explain the phenomena observed. View full abstract»

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  • Dual Experimental Approach for Thermal Impacts on Electromagnetic Behavior of Electronic Circuit Board Configurations

    Page(s): 2405 - 2413
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    Some effects of physical parameters, such as temperature, on electromagnetic emission or susceptibility of electronic circuit boards are nonnegligible and can be enforced by new integrated complex electronic structures. This paper describes experimental improvements proposed on near-field and radiated-mode test setups, including the temperature parameter. New experimental investigations and methodology are driven to estimate the real external thermal impacts on electromagnetic behavior and compliance. With pertinent characterization results, a review of wideband frequency modifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) responses on electronic configurations with active digital devices and a printed circuit board (PCB) wire network is presented and analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • UWB Short-Range Bifocusing Tomographic Imaging

    Page(s): 2414 - 2420
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    In this paper, the capability of ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor arrays for tomographic imaging of electrically large objects in 2-D and 3-D environments is presented. One of the main concerns when imaging extended real objects is the capability of the system to correctly reconstruct the object cross-section electric properties. An imaging method using a UWB multifrequency bifocusing (UWB-MFBF) operator with good tomographic imaging capabilities is presented, and numerical simulations are conducted to obtain the basic geometry and sampling parameters for a good-quality image reconstruction for geometrical and electrical parameters. Canonical-shape experimental reconstructions are performed to validate the established criteria. View full abstract»

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  • Chilean Wine Classification Using Volatile Organic Compounds Data Obtained With a Fast GC Analyzer

    Page(s): 2421 - 2436
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    The results of Chilean wine classification based on the information contained in wine aroma chromatograms measured with a fast GC analyzer (zNosetrade) are reported. The aroma profiles are the results of the derivative of frequency change responses of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector when it is exposed to a flux of wine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during aroma measurement. Classification is done after two sequential procedures: first applying principal component analysis (PCA) or wavelet transform (WT) as feature extraction methods of the aroma data, which results in data dimension reduction. In the second stage, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs), and support vector machines (SVMs) are used as pattern recognition techniques to perform the classification. This paper compares the performance of three classification methods for three different Chilean wine varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Carmenere) produced in different years, in different valleys, and by different Chilean vineyards. It is concluded that the highest classification rates were obtained using wavelet decomposition together with SVM with a radial base function (RBF) type of kernel. View full abstract»

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  • A Preliminary Magnetoinductive Sensor System for Real-Time Imaging of Steel Reinforcing Bars Embedded Within Concrete

    Page(s): 2437 - 2442
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies the feasibility of using solid-state magnetoinductive probes for detecting and imaging steel reinforcing bars embedded within prestressed and reinforced concrete. Changes in the inductance of the sensor material are directly proportional to the strength of the measured magnetic field parallel to the sensor. Using a square coil of 300 mm times 300 mm times 2.5 mm, 10-mm rebars can be imaged down up to a depth of 100 mm. Experimental results obtained by scanning steel bar specimens are presented. General performance characteristics and sensor limitations are also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • The Performance Evaluation of IEC Flicker Meters in Realistic Conditions

    Page(s): 2443 - 2449
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (530 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The light flicker effect is one of the most complex phenomena in the power quality field. It involves voltage fluctuation shape, lamp behavior, and eye-brain activity. As a first approach, the cause of light flicker was modeled in terms of voltage amplitude modulations, with a rectangular or sinusoidal shape. This is the main reason these modulated voltage waveforms have been adopted to evaluate the performance of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) light flicker meter. Unfortunately, in realistic conditions, the observed voltage fluctuations have usually more complex shapes; therefore, it might happen that two IEC flicker meters give different measurement results for the same voltage input, depending on the different implementation. In this paper, we are mostly concerned with the synthesis of an automatic test system for the evaluation of the IEC light flicker meter performance and the measurement of the short-time severity index (Pst) with a standard IEC flicker meter when a wide set of complex modulating shapes is applied to the voltage. Part of them has been implemented by adopting the parameters suggested by the international organizations; starting from the obtained results, some new modulating shapes are proposed and tested. View full abstract»

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  • A Flexible GPS-Based System for Synchronized Phasor Measurement in Electric Distribution Networks

    Page(s): 2450 - 2456
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large-scale distributed measurement systems are the object of several applications and research. The goal of this paper is to develop, by employing global positioning system (GPS) receivers, measurement techniques that are suited to the continuous monitoring of the electrical quantities in distribution networks in terms of synchronized phasors. The proposed measurement procedures, differently from commercially available phasor measurement units, are based on general-purpose acquisition hardware and processing software, thus guaranteeing the possibility of being easily reconfigured and reprogrammed according to the specific requirements of different possible fields of application and to their future developments. View full abstract»

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  • Multimode Air-Coupled Excitation of Micromechanical Structures

    Page(s): 2457 - 2461
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    The development of an acoustic measurement system for multimode air-coupled excitation and detection of micrometer-scale cantilever structures, which are, for example, used in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMSs), is detailed and reported for the first time. The source of noncontact vibrational excitation is a pulsed acoustic field generated by an air-coupled transducer. In the experimental system, the transient response of the cantilever beam is obtained at various points along the beam axis to extract its resonance frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. We demonstrate that measurable amplitudes of vibrations can be obtained at various excitation levels in the megahertz range, and higher harmonics of vibration of a microbeam can be excited by the air-coupled mechanism from a distance on the order of 10 mm. In the specific utilizations of the reported system, resonance frequencies and mode shapes can be related to the mechanical properties and geometric attributes (dimensions and defects), as well as the residual stress state in a microstructural element using various established computational and experimental inverse techniques. Another potential application area of the reported system is in the sensors for detecting the bending stiffness of deposited films on cantilever oscillators (in addition to its film mass loading) to increase the detection sensitivity and selectivity in a single sensing element. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Noise Parameter Determination for On-Wafer Microwave Noise Measurements

    Page(s): 2462 - 2471
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    A novel method to determine the noise parameters of receivers or devices under test (DUTs) for on-wafer microwave noise measurements is presented. An iterative technique is utilized, and fast convergence is achieved by the proposed impedance selection principle. This proposed method reduces the parameter variations in the conventional methods. The impact of the impedance difference on noise parameter determination is experimentally evaluated using a DUT fabricated in a standard 90-nm CMOS technology. View full abstract»

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  • A Monolithic CMOS Autocompensated Sensor Transducer for Capacitive Measuring Systems

    Page(s): 2472 - 2486
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a monolithic complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) autocompensated sensor transducer for capacitive measuring systems is newly presented. The proposed converter is compact and robust to integrate in capacitive measuring systems. The proposed autocompensated sensor transducer is attractive due to the fact that a digitized signal is produced without realizing the analog-to-digital converter. Hence, the hardware cost could be reduced. Furthermore, the output signal of the proposed transducer is a pulse stream; it could be easily sent over a wide range of transmission media, such as package switch networks (PSNs), radios, and optical, infrared (IR), and ultrasonic media. Another innovation is that the proposed automatic compensation circuits enhance and compensate the linear relation between the variable capacitance of the detected sensor and the output digital frequency over a wide dynamic frequency range. Measurement results have successfully verified the functions and the performance of the proposed autocompensated sensor transducer and confirmed that it is possible to apply it to the air pressure sensor. The area of this chip is 940 times 1080 mum2, and the power consumption is 6.4 mW. The proposed transducer is not only suitable for capacitive measuring systems but also practical for application in the front-end systems of the wireless sensor network. View full abstract»

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  • A Study on the Measurement Instrumentation for a Custom-Made Bipendulum Impact Testing Machine

    Page(s): 2487 - 2494
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1239 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Experimental investigations of structures under impact loads are normally carried out by means of drop-weight testing rigs, which are often tailor made, and require sensors for fast transient measurement of mechanical quantities (namely, force, displacement, velocity, and absorbed energy). Since these tests are quite expensive, time consuming, and, often, not repeatable, the sensors must provide reliable and interpretable results in the first trial. In this paper, a thorough study on the measurement instrumentation suitable to carry out reliable low-velocity impact tests by means of a custom-made bipendulum impact testing machine is presented. Attention has been focused on the choice of the quantities to be measured, on the measurement problem, on the calibration of the instrumentation, and on the mechanical characterization of the impact rig. Original transducers for the measurement of either the initial impact velocity or the impact force have been developed, and their uncertainty has been estimated. The use of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) sensing films for the realization of both single- and multiple-channel tailored dynamic load cells proved to be effective, gaining some significant advantages when compared to the use of more expensive commercial load cells or accelerometers fixed to the impacting mass. The detailed mechanical characterization of the bipendulum impact testing machine accomplished by exploiting the new developed transducers allowed the equivalent mass of the impactor, the alignment between the swinging mass and the sample holder, and the friction loss model to be experimentally assessed. Finally, an example of the application of the instrumented impact testing machine is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Time Transfer by Passive Listening Over a 10-Gb/s Optical Fiber

    Page(s): 2495 - 2501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique for time and frequency transfer over an asynchronous fiber optical transmission control protocol (TCP)/IP network is being developed in Sweden by SP Measurement Technology together with STUPI. The technique is based on passive listening to existing data traffic at 10 Gb/s in the network. Since the network is asynchronous, intermediate supporting clocks will be located and compared at each router. We detect, with a specially designed high-speed optoelectronic device, a header recognizer, the frame alignment bytes of the synchronous optical network (SONET)/synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) protocol, as a reference for the supporting clock comparison. The goal of the project is to establish a time transfer system with an accuracy on the nanosecond level. In this paper, we present the results of a time transfer over a distance of 5 km. We have compared two clocks: a cesium clock at the Swedish National Laboratory for time and frequency and a remote rubidium clock. The results of the time transfer with the fiber link have been simultaneously compared to measurements with a Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier phase link in terms of precision and stability. The root-mean-square (rms) difference between the time difference measured with the fiber link and the GPS link is approximately 300 ps. A large part of the difference is due to the heating of the GPS antenna cable, which introduces daily delay variations on the order of 1 ns from peak to peak. For one of the days with small day-to-day variations in temperature, the corresponding rms difference is 72 ps, and the Allan deviation is below 30 ps for averaging times longer than 5 min. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Statistical Geometric Properties of Tomographic Images of Soils

    Page(s): 2502 - 2512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Porous media modeling is relevant in several applications, such as agricultural engineering, where soil compaction analysis requires the estimation of soil transport properties. For example, the prediction of root growing patterns and their environmental impact is usually measured by analyzing soil fluid infiltration capacity and water retention. Recently, tomographic images have been used in nondestructive tests of soil. However, using such images is challenging for two reasons: (1) Tomographic images are usually noisy, which complicates their segmentation, and (2) modeling the soil structure requires establishing adjacency relations among neighboring tomographic slices, which has a significant computational cost due to the combinatorial nature of this problem. In this paper, we propose a solution for both problems. The experimental results show that soil samples can be analyzed and classified with significant accuracy using our proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Passive R , L , and C Components Under Nonsinusoidal Conditions: The Solution of Some Case Studies

    Page(s): 2513 - 2521
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    This paper deals with the measurement of the R, L, and C parameters of passive components in nonsinusoidal conditions. Since these components usually work with voltage and current waveforms that are different from sinusoidal ones, nonsinusoidal characterization has to be made. The importance of nonsinusoidal characterization of passive components is highlighted through the analysis of two case studies: (1) the influence of distorted waveforms on the line impedance stabilizer network (LISN) passive component behaviors and (2) the influence of voltage and current harmonics on hybrid filter responses. In this paper, the authors propose and describe a measurement method based on linear system identification and model parameter estimation techniques. Then, the two case studies are analyzed and described with the help of some test results. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Performance of a Goniometer for Studying Surface Reflection

    Page(s): 2522 - 2527
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An accurate goniometer was constructed, being a part of a system that is designed for the measurement of reflecting properties of surfaces. It can be used to orient a surface of the sample under test arbitrarily with respect to the observing direction and the direction of the shooting light beam. The high performance (revolution angle uncertainty equal to 0.1deg), which is required as a specification for the construction, is checked. Particular attention has been given to analyzing the orthogonality among the revolution axes of each goniometer component and their convergence in the goniometer center. The linearity error of each revolution motion has been measured by using a differential method, which proves to be effective in highlighting the small linearity deviation and verifying the uncertainty declared by the manufacturer. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinearity Compensation of the Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation System Based on an Arrayed Waveguide Grating

    Page(s): 2528 - 2531
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (218 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we report on nonlinearity compensation for a solid-state fiber bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system based on an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) device. A lookup table with calibration data is used to improve system linearity. A reduction in the absolute value of the measurement error from 120 mustrain or 15degC to 4.8 mustrain or 0.6degC, respectively, is experimentally demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • A Microforce and Nanoforce Biomicroscope Device for In Vitro Mechanotransduction Investigation

    Page(s): 2532 - 2541
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the development of an open design platform for explorative cell mechanotransduction investigation. The produced setup combines scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques and advanced robotics approaches, allowing both prolonged observations and spatial measurements on biological samples. As a result, an enhanced force probing method based on scanning microscopy techniques and advanced robotics and automation approaches is integrated in this device. Visual and force feedback control is used to achieve automatic data acquisition and monitoring processes when high skills are required. Experimentation on the mechanical cell characterization under in vitro conditions on human adherent cervix epithelial Hela cells are presented to demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed setup. View full abstract»

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  • A New Multifunctional Sensor Using Piezoelectric Ceramic Transducers for Simultaneous Measurements of Propagation Time and Electrical Conductance

    Page(s): 2542 - 2547
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to develop a system for reconstructing an image of two parameters, e.g., temperature and body composition, in the same region of a living body. In this paper, a new multifunctional sensor for simultaneous measurements of the ultrasonic and electrical properties of an object is proposed. The proposed sensor, which uses a pair of piezoelectric ceramic transducers, measures not only the ultrasonic property of the object but also its electrical property by using the surface electrodes of each piezoelectric ceramic transducer. In the experiment, the propagation time and conductance of a simple cell model for the living body are simultaneously measured by the proposed sensor. The sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, which is the composition that determines the conductivity of the model, and temperature are estimated from the measurements. It was found that the ultrasonic and electrical properties could simultaneously be measured. In addition, two parameters of the model could be estimated from these measured values. Therefore, it is suggested that the proposed sensor has the potential for application, although there are some problems that must be solved. View full abstract»

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  • Eddy-Current Displacement Sensing Using Switching Drive Where Baseband Sensor Output Is Readily Available

    Page(s): 2548 - 2553
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (322 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In eddy-current displacement sensing, existing techniques mostly involve a high-frequency sinusoidal carrier wave and deal with the demodulation of this signal. In this paper, we give a new design idea. We use switching circuits, in which the sensing coil is included as an inductor and driven by a switching voltage, and some baseband sensor output is readily available. Thus, no explicit demodulation is needed, and the electronics are simplified. We give three designs of such switching circuits. The first is based on coil inductance, the second is also based on coil inductance but is different from the first in many ways, and the third is based on eddy-current power loss. These circuits are tested on hardware electronics. The results seem to indicate that the presented techniques would permit performances comparable to those achieved by existing techniques. View full abstract»

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  • A Data-Fusion Scheme for Quantitative Image Analysis by Using Locally Weighted Regression and Dempster–Shafer Theory

    Page(s): 2554 - 2560
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (795 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory provides a solution to fuse multisensor data, which are presented in a hypothesis space comprising mutually exclusive and exhaustive propositions and their unions. The fusion result is a description of the proposition with the values of support, plausibility, and uncertainty interval. However, in some applications, numerical values of a continuous function, instead of a Boolean value or a proposition, are expected. In this paper, a scheme based on DS reasoning and locally weighted regression is proposed to fuse the data obtained from the nondestructive inspections of aircraft lap joints for the estimation of the remaining thickness. The proposed approach uses a pairwise regression that is optimized by the DS method when multiple inputs are involved. The scheme is evaluated with the experiments on fusing conventional eddy current and pulsed eddy current data obtained from aircraft lap joint structures for the characterization of hidden corrosion. View full abstract»

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  • A Digital Directional Coupler With Applications to Partial Discharge Measurements

    Page(s): 2561 - 2567
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a digital directional coupler (DDC) that separates forward- and backward-traveling waves on a transmission line. Based on two independent wideband measurements of voltage and current and on frequency-domain digital wave splitting using a fast Fourier transform (FFT), the DDC is a versatile device for direction separation. A practical procedure is described for the calibration of the digital processor with respect to the particular transmission line and the voltage and current sensors that are being used. As an experiment, a DDC was designed and implemented using low-cost wideband sensors and was installed with medium-voltage equipment in a power distribution station. Partial discharge (PD) measurements were conducted on cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)-insulated power cables to illustrate the directional separation capabilities of the DDC. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703