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Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education - Reviews, IEE Proceedings A

Issue 1 • Date January 1984

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Electricity supply¿problems and possibilities

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1207 KB)  

    The problem of balancing the supply of electrical energy with demand is one constantly facing power system engineers. In the industrialised countries, the growth of demand has slowed in recent years, but there are still electricity shortages in the developing countries. Electricity is expected to increase its world-wide share of the delivered energy market, and plans to meet future demands with electric power supply from economic and environmentally acceptable sources are important in the development of every country. The paper reviews the present position of electricity supply and some of the ways in which its problems are being solved by demand management, the exploitation of conventional and nuclear generation systems, and renewable sources such as wind, wave, solar and hydro power. Developments in combined heat and power/district heating, storage and transmission are considered. The need for an adequate supply of good engineers in the field of electrical energy is seen to be essential to the future wellbeing of all society. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Computing & Control Division: Chairman's address. The human body and its transducers: a real-time real-life computing and control system

    Page(s): 10 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1047 KB)  

    The study of how the human body functions when considered as a real-time computing and control system is of considerable interest from many points of view including those of robotics, parallel signal-processing methods and adaptive learning control systems. In particular the methods of operation of the wide range of human sensors and actuators which the body uses are of specific interest and importance in giving control engineers guidance on the development of machines which can effectively provide intelligent control of manufacturing systems, industrial processes and perhaps eventually of robotic systems in the less controlled situation in the home and leisure environments. The paper describes the basic organisation of the brain, how it can be represented as an enormously complex real-time parallel computing and control system and how its operation relates to some of the latest concepts in computing and control technology. The human senses are then considered as control system input transducers, and their engineering equivalents and their limitations are described, in particular their relevance to developments in intelligent or `smart¿¿ sensors is discussed. Finally the paper describes the human output transducers as represented by the muscular system and its reflex controls. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Electronics Division: Chairman's address. The business of VLSI

    Page(s): 17 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (982 KB)  

    Very large scale integration (VLSI) represents not only the threshold of a capability for combining over 100000 electronic components on a die of silicon, but also yet another stage in the growth of a volatile industry. The incredible feat of harnessing a wide range of technologies to achieve this degree of integration, and even hold out the prospect for evolution to 106 elements and beyond, often tends to obscure the fact that this is also being implemented in high manufacturing volumes and at ever decreasing costs. As a result, it is expected that the characteristic rapid growth of integrated-circuit production will continue over the next decade. However, the scale of the industry has now reached a point where fundamental changes are likely and the pressures resulting from the manufacturing commitments and the market reactions will come to dominate the purely technical influences. VLSI, especially via the leverage of electronic systems, now represents a major influence on world economies, and the commitment necessary to cost-effectively produce such devices in volume stretches the resources of even the largest companies. The objective of the address is to outline, against the background of the evolution of the integrated circuit industry, the wide consequences of VLSI technology, which, by the contribution it makes and the magnitude of the resources needed to even participate, raises issues at national and strategic levels which are likely to be determining factors in the future direction of the industry. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Management & Design Division: Chairman's address. Some art, some science and a lot of feedback

    Page(s): 24 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1893 KB)  

    The paper examines the methods adopted for the management of major projects. It concentrates on the management of the design and construction of conventional power stations by the CEGB in the UK. The roles of the owner, the engineer and the contractor are discussed together with the process of setting up a giant project. Project definition, contract strategy, the design, the construction, commissioning and taking over phases are discussed in terms of project management and the controls associated with time and money are described. Reference is made to the last three decades of construction and to the analogies of the very different problems arising in each decade. Examples are quoted using the Grain and Drax completion power station projects to emphasise some of the lessons of the 1970s. A few examples of feedback of operating problems to designers are given with the solutions to these problems leading to the high availability and flexible operation of the 500/660 MW sized units now achieved. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Power Division: Chairman's address. AC/DC: one man's view

    Page(s): 38 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1077 KB)  

    The paper covers the development of electrical power from its earliest days, how it was provided for consumers to utilise, and particularly the dilemma which ensued as to whether the form should be alternating or direct current. Historical examples of early power stations and municipal systems are discussed, developing into long range transmission and extensive distribution. Silicon semiconductor devices became the modern link between AC and DC, so that there was no longer a need for separate DC generation, although still substantial DC utilisation in many industries. Silicon manipulation is enabling more and more sophisticated performance to be extracted from the crystal, with promise of great benefits in the future. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Science, Education & Technology Division: Chairman's address. Looking for alternatives

    Page(s): 44 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1838 KB)  

    The search for alternative ways of generating and transmitting electricity has always been of concern in the electricity-supply industry. Sometimes this search has proved successful¿¿more often, not. This paper deals with alternative energy sources that are being considered today, with direct energy-conversion processes that were topical twenty years ago and with novel techniques in the power-transmission field, concentrating on ones in which the author has been closely involved: MHD generation, thermoelectrics, HVDC, SF6 circuit breakers, hydrogen transmission, wave power and wind power. View full abstract»

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  • Unified approach to problems in electromagnetism

    Page(s): 55 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (723 KB)  

    The development of a structure linking the various potentials and field vectors of the electric and magnetic fields is presented. The approach shows that it is usually possible to find alternative formulations, for a given problem, in a relatively simple manner. These alternative formulations, when correctly chosen, pose problems in dual or complementary form such that bounded solutions are possible. Such properties are particularly attractive when numerical solutions are being considered. The proposed structure is general, incorporating both electrostatic and magnetostatic systems as well as time varying field quantities. View full abstract»

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  • Finite-element analysis of the Xi-core levitator

    Page(s): 62 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (525 KB)  

    A finite-element study of a Xi-core transverse-flux single-phase plate levitator is described. The potential function used is the magnetic vector potential. The open boundary of the field is taken into account by means of a `ballooning¿¿ technique. A method of increasing the lateral stability of the Xi-core is described. It is shown that the C-core levitator form which the Xi-core evolved is, in several respects, the superior machine. View full abstract»

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  • Coupling in a dielectric-coated multicoaxial-cable system. An analysis based on a quasi-TEM model

    Page(s): 67 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB)  

    Earlier theoretical studies for crosstalk between two coaxial cables [1, 2] and those in a system of multicoaxial cables in free space [3,4] focus attention on an ideal case where bare coaxial cables are of prime concern. Although in installations coaxial cables are always used with their dielectric jackets (mainly PVC) for obvious electrical reasons, the case of coupling between dielectric-coated coaxial cables has not been studied in the literature. Although the crosstalk methods developed for a multicoaxial-cable system in earlier studies [3, 4] can be extended to analyse complicated practical multicoaxial-cable systems, they are not applicable to this practical case unless the effects of dielectric jackets on coupling have properly been investigated and included in the analysis. In this paper a method, which uses the point-matching technique [5] in terms of harmonic expansion functions for charge densities, is employed to determine the per-unit-length parameters of the tertiary circuits. The results of these studies were used for modifying the earlier crosstalk methods [3, 4] to determine the coupling process between dielectric-coated multicoaxial cables. View full abstract»

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  • Optically coupled probe for microwave near-field measurements

    Page(s): 74 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB)  

    A probe capable of measuring both phase and magnitude of an RF field at frequencies up to 10 GHz is described. The probe is linked to its display unit by two optical fibres, thus eliminating field distortion effects that would occur if coaxial cables were used. Because of frequency limitations in optical-fibre components, the probe contains a frequency downconversion circuit powered by a small battery. This produces harmonics (up to the 1000th) of a 10 MHz reference oscillator; an appropriate harmonic produces a beat-frequency signal when mixed with the field signal sampled by a small dipole. The reference- and beat-frequency signals are sent down separate fibres to the display unit, where they are converted to phase and amplitude information View full abstract»

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  • The right tool for the job improving export sales

    Page(s): 79 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1098 KB)  

    The paper is a result of personal experiences on the commissioning, start up and subsequent development to satisfactory operation of the biggest gold mine in Zimbabwe, producing over ¿¿20 million of gold per year, as well as some silver and copper. Prior to being the engineer on this mine my experience had been gained working in the UK. This experience was fairly broad by UK standards, but different to the experience gained in Africa. Many of the probelms which have developed druing the early satge of a mine's operation resulted because people with a background similar to mine, before I came to Africa, were designing equipment for operation in places such as I now work. The differences between the two environments are such that the lack of appreciation of the operating environment by the design organisation can result in the sale to the environment of equipment not suitable to it. The aim of the paper is to give some insight into the problems which can develop, the reasons for some of them and the solution from, principally, the suppliers' point of view to produce a satisfied customer and hence further sales. The main areas considered are the use of historical information by the supplier to improve his plant. The problems of obtaining spare parts, the use of historical information by the supplier to improve his plant. The problems of obtaining spare parts, the use of equipment that local expertise can cope with and the sale of equipment that is unsuitable for the technological infrastructure that it will have to exist in. Consideration of these topics results in the conclusion that it is principally an engineering function to ensure that the problems are overcome, that the customer is satisfied that he has what he wants and that the supplier continues to hold or increase his market share. View full abstract»

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