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Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education - Reviews, IEE Proceedings A

Issue 1 • Date January 1982

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Misunderstanding nuclear power

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (907 KB)  

    Nuclear power has its proponents and opponents. The range of viewpoints of those opposing the increased use of nuclear power are examined, and comparisons are made with opposition to other industrial and technological innovations of the past. The advantages of nuclear fission as a source of power are discussed. Worldwide needs are for increased power, but fossil fuels and oil supplies are running down. The self interest and false assumptions of many objectors to the introduction of nuclear power are explained. The hazards associated with nuclear power stations are compared with other hazards already faced by the general public, and their possible effects are put into perspective. The problems of disposal of nuclear waste are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Computing & Control Division: Chairman's address. Electronic chalk and talk

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    The role of computers in higher education has expanded beyond that of purely scientific use, and they now provide generalised information processing services. The implications of information technology on education are briefly considered and examples of developing use of the technology in both science and arts-based dsciplines are given. However, the provision of computer services in universities is now complex, and essentially an engineering matter. The way computers are utilised, the communications systems that are needed and problems of management and operation are considered. From examples taken from Southampton University, observations are made on the problems that have to be solved by our educational systems. The examples cited also demonstrate the vital role of engineers in the operation and management of information processing systems, and the technical problems that still have to be resolved. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Electronics Division: Chairman's address. Making measurements with light

    Page(s): 16 - 23
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    The last decade has seen rapid developments in optical sources and low-loss optical fibres aimed at wide-bandwidth communications. The availability of these components has also encouraged the development of special forms of optical data highways and optical-fibre sensors as byproducts of this work. Several international groups are currently working on such sensors, capable of measuring strain, temperature, acoustic signals, electric current and rotation. Examples of various types of sensor based on both coherent and incoherent light are discussed. Coherent devices have the potential for highly sensitive measurements but are often limited by problems of extraneous pick up. The optical-fibre gyroscope looks most promising as a new form of rotation sensor which should be capable of simple construction in integrated optic form. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Management & Design Division: Chairman's address. Managing BBC engineering

    Page(s): 24 - 29
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    The BBC exists to make and distribute radio and television programes and it is the goal of managers in its Engineering Division to ensure that the BBC has the best possible technical facilities at minimum cost. In the address, an outline is given of the extensive engineering resources used in the origination and transmission of the BBC's programmes, and the structure of the Engineering Division is analysed with particular reference to the application of different forms of management for different departmental roles. It is seen also that departmental boundaries are sometimes crossed to fulfil most effectively the needs of the Radio, Television and External Broadcasting directorates. After a brief look at the management of change in an industry which is moving rapidly with advancing technology, the paper concludes with a description of engineering training and subsequent training for managers at all levels in the BBC's Engineering Division. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Power Division: Chairman's address. 30 years of electrical engineering for London's local government

    Page(s): 30 - 38
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    The period under review includes the postwar reconstruction, expansion and reorganisation of London, a period of challenge to London's local government and particularly to the professional engineer who had to initiate and carry through programmes of work in many difficult areas. The shortage of materials and skilled manpower required innovation and acceptance of new methods and revised practices which broke new ground and required new thinking. The expansion programme of house building and schools construction was a particularly challenging one with the rapid introduction of new equipments in audio and visual fields and the attendant operative and maintenance provision. Lighting, lifts and sewerage treatment plants were particularly large commitments together with the design operation and evaluation of a large refuse incinerator at Edmonton. Other public buildings of size to be built in that period included the Royal Festival Hall, the South Bank Arts Centre and Crystal Palace National Recreation Centre. Energy management and the maintenance of existing assets are discussed as being an important part of today's work load. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Science, Education & Technology Division: Chairman's address. On getting the right answer

    Page(s): 39 - 45
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    The rapid growth of new technology in areas such as systems engineering, information engineering and software engineering dictates a shift of emphasis in the IEE and in the overall pattern of electrical engineering education. Nevertheless we still need to recruit, educate and train engineers for the longer-established sectors of the electrical industry. The pace of development in products such as rotating electrical machines may not be apparent to the casual observer but it is none the less real, and significant in the context of our national economic survival. We therefore need a continuing supply of electromechanical engineers with the requisite imagination and breadth of vision to advance the state of the art in the heavy electrical equipment industry. Somewhat in contrast to the compartmented and preordained format of typical university engineering courses and examinations, our design engineers can only get the right answers if they have the ability to devise and put to themselves the right questions. Some suggestions are offered as to how the formative educational attitudes and experiences might be modified so as to be more relevant to the ensuing engineering career. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of 3-dimensional eddy currents at power frequencies

    Page(s): 46 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB)  

    The forseeable increase in the speed of digital computers over the next few years is, alone, unlikely to increase significantly the range of 3-dimensional eddy current problems amenable to numerical solution. Thus greater use of suitable approximations and highly efficient numerical methods are required to attack the general 3-dimensional problem. The paper reviews the current techniques and approximations used and, from this, proposes the form of a general program for calculating 3-dimensional eddy currents suitable for present digital computers. View full abstract»

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  • Generalised solution of field distribution in cylindrical shells of finite length and thickness due to axial currents

    Page(s): 54 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (754 KB)  

    A cylindrical conducting shell of finite length and finite thickness, surrounding a straight current filament of infinite length, is considered. This current filament is assumed to be parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and generally at an arbitrary distance from it. Because of the presence of this excitation, eddy currents are induced within the conducting material of the shell. Using the wave equation instead of thee diffusion differential equation a generalised solution of the field equations is formed by taking into account the term corresponding to the displacement current. This rigorous approach leads to an accurate determination of the eddy currents' distribution within the conducting material of the shell, as well as the magnetic-flux-density distribution in the air regions both inside and outside the cylindrical shell. View full abstract»

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  • Anomalous breakdown in synthetic insulating materials immersed in transformer oil and subjected to switching surge voltages

    Page(s): 62 - 65
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    The occurrence of anomalous breakdown in synthetic insulating materials has been reported in recent years under alternating voltages, direct voltages, and direct voltages with ripple. In the paper, the authors report the results of their investigations on anomalous breakdown phenomena under positive and negative switching surge voltages, and discuss the mechanisms of breakdown. View full abstract»

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  • Some consequences of recursion in human affairs

    Page(s): 66 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1271 KB)  

    Meaningful sequences of symbols in natural languages, and also in the most useful artificial computer languages, are constructed following rules whose applicability is independent of the scale of the construct. Thus, for example, a single adjective, an adjectival clause, a sentence or a complete paper can all be used in the same way as a qualifier, and similarly for other basic grammatical components. This scale-independent assembly technique has been named `recursive¿¿ by linguistic theorists. The same recursive technique is used in the reproduction and growth of many living organisms and, indeed, in the growth and operation of organised human society, which can be regarded as a living organism in this general sense. The scale independence of such recursively defined organised systems creates statistical corelations at every scale; that can account for empirical statistical distributions such as Zipf's law for the use of words and Pareto's law for the distribution of income. The large-scale corelations also invalidate the `ergodic process¿¿ as a model of a generator of meaningful text, so that widely used measures of information technology such as `cost per bit¿¿ are of questionable value. View full abstract»

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  • Priority base budgeting: a practical, zero base approach to manufacturing overheads

    Page(s): 76 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (794 KB)  

    The `zero base¿¿ concept originated in the electronics industry, and has been widely applied in the public sector. In times of financial constraint it is an alternative to more arbitrary forms of cost reduction, and is equally helpful for reallocation of resources in an expansionary phase. Traditional methods of cost reduction do not assess alternatives, and can be harmful to the future of the business. The PBB methodology has evolved as a means of re-evaluating and ranking priorities in operational planning, relative to key indicators of output or level of service, so that cost can be equated to benefit. Managers are encouraged to identify the main purposes of their function in presenting their budget proposal. Priorities for resources are ranked by senior management, to arrive at an annual operations plan, against which results can be monitored. The process is participative, and can bring together suppliers and users of services. The process must be adapted to specific needs, and works best in companies with strong leadership. Top management gains a closer understanding of the operating priorities, and there is better communication, and greater commitment of managers to achieve planned objectives of cost and performance. View full abstract»

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