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Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education - Reviews, IEE Proceedings A

Issue 4 • Date May 1981

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Airborne electronic displays

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 225 - 243
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3689 KB)  

    Electronic displays are being increasingly used in aircraft for the presentation of information to aircrew. This trend is due to two principal reasons, the steady improvements in the technology of electronic displays which are finding growing use in a wide range of markets, and the radical changes to the methods of distributing and processing data on board both military and civil aircraft. However, the peculiar environmental and other factors which constrain the design of airborne displays have caused the aircraft world to lag behind other markets in the use of new types of electronic display. It is the aim of the paper to review both the available and potentially promising display technologies, the human factors and environmental constraints, and the integration of the display devices into the total avionic systems, in order to present a balanced view of both the advantages and the problems associated with the use of airborne electronic displays. The design of the aircraft cockpit and the wide range of ambient light levels impose particular problems, and these are considered in relation to the characteristics of the human eye to provide some overall guidelines for display design. The types of information which are typically presented and the design of symbology are reviewed. Electronic display devices described include monochrome and colour CRTs, which are coming into use in the new generation of civil aircraft after many years of use in military aircraft, digitally-addressed CRTs, and a range of solid-state matrix and alphanumeric displays, both emissive and reflective. Image intensifiers for use in night operation are discussed. Some types of display, particularly for military aircraft, incorporate optical elements for magnification, collimation and image combination, and the use of both refractive and diffractive optial techniques is reviewed. The design of complete display systems to provide multifunction capability and protection against component failure is - een as one of the greatest potential advantages of integrating electronic displays with digital data highways. View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatics and applications to industrial processes

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 244 - 256
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3157 KB)  

    Industrial electrostatics is now a well established branch of engineering, encompassing not only important applications such as electrophotography, precipitation and coating, but also the varied and unpredictable field of static hazards. Industrial environments particularly sensitive to static charge separation include the petrochemical industry, aeronautical and aerospace operations, surgical applications, pharmaceutical and synthetic-fibre manufacturing. As in most static-induced hazard situations, charge separation leading to an incendive spark illustrates well the uncontrollable nature of electrostatic phenomena. On the other hand, the application of electrostatic phenomena and the control of electrostatic processes has been developed into an extremely elegant science. Electrophotography is perhaps the best example of this, and is probably also the application which may qualify as the electrostatic process which has contributed most to changing operating routines in offices and factories worldwide. The review does not include the hazardous effects of static electricity, as this is a vast field in itself worthy of separate treatment. Indeed, some of the applications mentioned here are themselves areas where intense research efforts have been put, resulting in many volumes of published technical papers. It would be impossible to do justice to any of these topics here, and the depth of treatment is therefore limited in an attempt to reproduce what is probably more of an awareness document than an in-depth technical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Fault-tolerant computer systems

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 257 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2669 KB)  

    The paper reviews the methods by which reliable processing and control can be achieved using fault-tolerant digital computers. The motivation for employing such systems is discussed, together with an indication of current and potential areas of application. The features of fault-tolerant computers are described in general terms, together with a system design procedure specific to the development of a reliable computer. The adherence to a well structured design methodology is particularly important in a fault-tolerant computer to ensure an initially fault-free system. In order to follow this design procedure an intimate knowledge of the following subject areas is required: fault classification, redundancy techniques and their relative merits and reliability modelling and analysis. These topics are covered in the paper, with particular emphasis being placed upon the implementation of hardware, software, data and time-redundancy techniques. Examples of fault-tolerant computers proposed and produced in the last decade are described. The availability of large scale integrated circuits (LSI) and in particular microprocessors will have a profound effect on the development and application of fault-tolerant computers. The implications of using LSI in this area are therefore discussed including a brief description of two fundamentally different approaches to the realisation of a fault tolerant microcomputer. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study of factors affecting capacitance of high-voltage compressed-gas capacitors

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 273 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB)  

    Various factors affecting the value and voltage dependence of the capacitance of high-voltage compressed-gas capacitors, used as high-voltage measurement standards, are considered. An experimental method for testing the mechanical stability of the electrodes is presented. Results of the comparison of a standard capacitor with other gas capacitors are presented, and it is concluded that a compressed-gas capacitor can be transported successfully if some precautions are taken. View full abstract»

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  • Conference on precision electromagnetic measurements

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 278 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • The university-industry interface

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 280 - 290
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1738 KB)  

    In the first part of this paper aspects of the university-industry interface are grouped on the basis of initial funding received from Government, charitable organisations, the UK University Grants Committee, the UK Science Research Council, and from private organisations and individuals. In the discussion particular emphasis is given to the units which were launched with the aid of the UK Ministry of Technology grant, 1967/68. University-owned limited-liability companies are also surveyed. The second part of the paper is a `case study¿¿ of one of the successful university industrial units; this is a detailed account of the growth of Industrial Development Bangor (UCNW) Ltd. Factors predicating commercial success are analysed and evaluated. An assessment of the position of the unit within its host university is made and pointers are given to avenues of future development. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Worcestershire Area: Chairman's address. The generation game: a Midlands view

    Publication Year: 1981
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    First Page of the Article
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  • IEE Northwestern Utilisation Section: Chairman's address. A guide to electrical hazards in the chemical industry

    Publication Year: 1981
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Introduction to special section

    Publication Year: 1981
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (76 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Arc interruption

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 294 - 297
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB)  

    The paper reviews forms and techniques of current interruption in general, and considers the techniques, effects and implications of arc interruption in a vacuum and in gas at atmospheric or higher pressures. Arcelectrode and arc-column problems are presented, followed by treatment of the four established media for arc interruption. View full abstract»

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  • Corona discharges and their applications

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 298 - 302
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (503 KB)  

    Despite their differing aspects, and although they operate in gases at higher pressures and in nonuniform electric fields, corona discharges can be considered as glow discharges, whatever the polarity of the active electrode. Their main features are presented in the paper, together with a look at applying fields. View full abstract»

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  • Review of high-voltage gas breakdown and insulators in compressed gas

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 303 - 312
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1771 KB)  

    In the past ten years there have been significant advances in the theoretical and experimental analysis of high-voltage gas breakdown and surface flashover of insulators in compressed gases. This has probably been fostered by the recent growth in the design and application of gas-insulated high-voltage equipment. The review describes the characteristics of compressed-gas breakdown, including the effects of failure of Paschen's law; conditioning; electrode area; material and surface; breakdown-voltage distribution; particle contamination; voltage waveform; temperature; and gas mixtures. The insulator-flashover characteristics are then described, including the effects of insulator-electrode interface; insulator material; insulator shape; voltage waveform; charge generation; particle contamination; surface contamination; conditioning; flashover distribution; and dependence on type of gas. The various mechanisms proposed for gas breakdown and insulator flashover are reviewed and discussed in relation to the experimental characteristics. Future theoretical and experimental work is suggested to clarify the gas-breakdown and insulator-flashover mechanisms, and which would also help bring about the design of improved high-voltage gas-insulated systems. View full abstract»

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  • Glows and prebreakdown phenomena

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 313 - 318
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB)  

    The paper is concerned with glow discharges and their applications. A description of the glow discharge is given, together with a theoretical explanation based on a combination of the fundamental processes. Most ot these processes have been investigated by studying prebreakdown phenomena. View full abstract»

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  • Breakdown in nonuniform fields

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 319 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1139 KB)  

    The paper presents a review of recent studies in the field of air breakdown. Coverage is given both to technological aspects of UHV systems and to the physics of spark breakdown, reflecting current interest in sparkover voltages, spark leader growth and space-charge effects. View full abstract»

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