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Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education - Reviews, IEE Proceedings A

Issue 3 • Date April 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Lamps

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 125 - 126
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Historical review of artificial light sources

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 127 - 133
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    Simple oil lamps have been used for thousands of years, but the first major technical improvement was not made until the late eighteenth century. In the 1860s paraffin replaced the animal and vegetable oils used previously as lamp fuel. During the nineteenth century, gas and electric lighting developed together, the competition providing a stimulus to inventors in both fields. By about 1910 the tu... View full abstract»

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  • Properties and failure modes of incandescent tungsten filaments

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 134 - 141
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    The behaviour of doped tungsten filaments is discussed with particular reference to the life-controlling processes in incandescent lamps. Since lamp failure is a complex phenomenon depending on many conditions, it appears that there is no single mechanism of universal validity by which the finite life of the tungsten filaments can be explained satisfactorily in all cases. It is suggested that, in ... View full abstract»

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  • Tungsten-halogen lamps and regenerative mechanisms

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 142 - 148
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    The presence of iodine, bromine or chlorine in a tungsten-halogen lamp provides only an envelope cleaning mechanism; longer filament life and/or higher luminous-efficacy entirely result from the smaller size and physical changes that are permitted in the absence of envelope blackening. Since the introduction of the first practical lamp, patented in 1958, much progress has been made in the technolo... View full abstract»

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  • Fluorescent lamps and low pressure sodium lamps

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 149 - 157
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    Both the fluorescent lamp and the low pressure sodium lamp are based on the same type of discharge, namely the low pressure metal/rare-gas discharge. The paper deals with recent advances and possible future developments for both types of lamps. For the fluorescent lamp, recent advances include a better understanding of the discharge processes, the introduction of narrow emission band phosphors, th... View full abstract»

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  • High-pressure sodium lamp technology

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 158 - 164
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    Since the development of translucent polycrystalline alumina more than twenty years ago there has been a continuous improvement in high-pressure sodium lamp technology. Lamp lives have quadrupled and light output increased by 20%. There are approximately 16 manufacturers of h.p.s. lamps in the world today and more than 15 sizes of the lamps are now available from 45 to 1000 watts. The light source... View full abstract»

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  • Scientific aspects of the high-pressure sodium lamp

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 165 - 172
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    A description is given of the basic physical mechanisms operating in the high-pressure sodium (h.p.s.) arc with particular emphasis on the role of self-absorption. This is followed by reviews of the measured properties of the arc, and of the work that has been done on the modelling of the arc's behaviour. A well substantiated picture emerges of an arc in l.t.e. with a centre temperature of ~ 4000 ... View full abstract»

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  • High pressure mercury vapour lamps

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 173 - 180
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    Among the light sources in use for general lighting, high pressure mercury vapour (h.p.m.v.) lamps with lamp ratings from 50 to 2000W play an important role in outdoor lighting. During the last 15 years the luminous efficacy and the colour appearance of these mercury vapour lamps have been much improved by the application of europium-activated phosphors. Recent modifications of these phosphors hav... View full abstract»

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  • Recent progress in metal halide discharge-lamp research

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 181 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The use of volatile halides to introduce additive metals into a high-pressure arc discharge provides a light source of superior colour quality and high luminous efficacy; however, complex physical and chemical phenomena arise from additives having important consequences upon the operating characteristics. Although understanding of the underlying processes is presently incomplete, a critical apprai... View full abstract»

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  • Xenon lamps

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 190 - 195
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    Xenon lamps are the most important discharge lamps, with a primarily continuous spectral energy distribution. It matches in the visible natural daylight very closely. The intense continuum of the xenon arc discharge is mainly generated by free electrons recombining to the densely packed excited energy levels of the xenon atom closely below the ionisation limit. Xenon lamp designs include aircooled... View full abstract»

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  • Electroluminescent panel devices

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 196 - 201
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    There are a number of different forms of electroluminescent panels which can be used for display purposes. The differences between these various constructions are described, and their properties and applications reviewed. Although almost all the electroluminescent devices which are in regular production are of the a.c., e.l. type; d.c., e.l. shows promise for certain types of small dynamic display... View full abstract»

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  • Light-emitting diodes

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 202 - 210
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    The light emitting diode (l.e.d.) is a source widely used as indicator lamp, and in displays. The output covers a narrow spectral band which is defined by the material and dopants used. At present red, orange, yellow and green emitting devices are commercially available. The l.e.d. has many of the expected attributes of semiconductor devices including long life, small size, low operating voltages,... View full abstract»

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  • Future developments in lamps

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 211 - 218
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    After reviewing the principal ways in which light is produced, and some of the limitations on lamp performance imposed by the basic laws of nature, the prospects for new developments in existing types of lamp are considered, including short-term predictions, and longer-term speculations. Some more exotic possibilities are then discussed which may lead to completely new ways of producing light in t... View full abstract»

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