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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2317 - 2318
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Intervention in Gene Regulatory Networks via a Stationary Mean-First-Passage-Time Control Policy

    Page(s): 2319 - 2331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A prime objective of modeling genetic regulatory networks is the identification of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. To date, optimal stochastic intervention has been studied in the context of probabilistic Boolean networks, with the control policy based on the transition probability matrix of the associated Markov chain and dynamic programming used to find optimal control policies. Dynamical programming algorithms are problematic owing to their high computational complexity. Two additional computationally burdensome issues that arise are the potential for controlling the network and identifying the best gene for intervention. This paper proposes an algorithm based on mean first-passage time that assigns a stationary control policy for each gene candidate. It serves as an approximation to an optimal control policy and, owing to its reduced computational complexity, can be used to predict the best control gene. Once the best control gene is identified, one can derive an optimal policy or simply utilize the approximate policy for this gene when the network size precludes a direct application of dynamic programming algorithms. A salient point is that the proposed algorithm can be model-free. It can be directly designed from time-course data without having to infer the transition probability matrix of the network. View full abstract»

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  • Snore Signal Enhancement and Activity Detection via Translation-Invariant Wavelet Transform

    Page(s): 2332 - 2342
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Acoustical properties of snores have been widely studied as a potentially cost-effective and reliable alternative to diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with a common recognition that the diagnostic accuracy depends heavily on the snore signal quality and intelligibility. This paper proposes a novel preprocessing system that performs two critical tasks concurrently in a translation-invariant wavelet transform domain. These tasks include enhancement of snore signals via a level-correlation-dependent (LCD) threshold, and identification of snore presence through a snore activity (SA) detector. Various experiments were conducted to warrant the robustness of the system in terms of theoretical statistics quality, signal-to-noise ratio, mean opinion score, and clinical usefulness in detecting OSA. Results indicate that the proposed LCD threshold and SA detector are highly comparable to the existing denoising methodologies using level-dependent threshold and segmentation approaches using short-time energy and zero-crossing rate, yielding the best results in all the experiments. Given the strong initial performance of the proposed preprocessing system for snore signals, continued exploration in this direction could potentially lead to additional improvement in signal integrity, thereby increasing the diagnostic accuracy for OSA. View full abstract»

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  • Exploring Time Series Retrieved from Cardiac Implantable Devices for Optimizing Patient Follow-Up

    Page(s): 2343 - 2352
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (825 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current cardiac implantable devices (IDs) are equipped with a set of sensors that can provide useful information to improve patient follow-up and prevent health deterioration in the postoperative period. In this paper, data obtained from an ID with two such sensors (a transthoracic impedance sensor and an accelerometer) are analyzed in order to evaluate their potential application for the follow-up of patients treated with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). A methodology combining spatiotemporal fuzzy coding and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) is applied in order to: 1) reduce the dimensionality of the data and provide new synthetic indexes based on the ldquofactorial axesrdquo obtained from MCA; 2) interpret these factorial axes in physiological terms; and 3) analyze the evolution of the patient's status by projecting the acquired data into the plane formed by the first two factorial axes named ldquofactorial plane.rdquo In order to classify the different evolution patterns, a new similarity measure is proposed and validated on the simulated datasets, and then, used to cluster observed data from 41 CRT patients. The obtained clusters are compared with the annotations on each patient's medical record. Two areas on the factorial plane are identified, one being correlated with a health degradation of patients and the other with a stable clinical state. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of Amplitude and Phase Statistics for Complete Artifact Removal in Independent Components of Neuromagnetic Recordings

    Page(s): 2353 - 2362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1637 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), independent component analysis is widely applied to separate brain signals from artifact components. A number of different methods have been proposed for the automatic or semiautomatic identification of artifact components. Most of the proposed methods are based on amplitude statistics of the decomposed MEG/EEG signal. We present a fully automated approach based on amplitude and phase statistics of decomposed MEG signals for the isolation of biological artifacts such as ocular, muscle, and cardiac artifacts (CAs). The performance of different artifact identification measures was investigated. In particular, we show that phase statistics is a robust and highly sensitive measure to identify strong and weak components that can be attributed to cardiac activity, whereas a combination of different measures is needed for the identification of artifacts caused by ocular and muscle activity. With the introduction of a rejection performance parameter, we are able to quantify the rejection quality for eye blinks and CAs. We demonstrate in a set of MEG data the good performance of the fully automated procedure for the removal of cardiac, ocular, and muscle artifacts. The new approach allows routine application to clinical measurements with small effect on the brain signal. View full abstract»

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  • Predicting Fingertip Forces by Imaging Coloration Changes in the Fingernail and Surrounding Skin

    Page(s): 2363 - 2371
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an external camera method for measuring fingertip forces by imaging the fingernail and surrounding skin. A 3-D model of the fingernail surface and skin is obtained with a stereo camera and laser striping system. Subsequent images from a single camera are registered to the 3-D model by adding fiducial markings to the fingernail. Calibration results with a force sensor show that the measurement range depends on the region of the fingernail and skin. A generalized least squares model is developed to predict fingertip force given coloration changes, and results for normal and shear force measurement are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Selection Criteria for the Analysis of Data-Driven Clusters in Cerebral fMRI

    Page(s): 2372 - 2380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Functional MRI (fMRI) may be possible without a priori models of the cerebral hemodynamic response. First, such data-driven fMRI requires that all cerebral territories with distinct patterns be identified. Second, a systematic selection method is necessary to prevent the subjective interpretation of the identified territories. This paper addresses the second point by proposing a novel method for the automated interpretation of identified territories in data-driven fMRI. Selection criteria are formulated using: 1) the temporal cross-correlation between each identified territory and the paradigm and 2) the spatial contiguity of the corresponding voxel map. Ten event-design fMRI data sets are analyzed with one prominent algorithm, fuzzy c-means clustering, before applying the selection criteria. For comparison, these data are also analyzed with an established, model-based method: statistical parametric mapping. Both methods produced similar results and identified potential activation in the expected territory of the sensorimotor cortex in all ten data sets. Moreover, the proposed method classified distinct territories in separate clusters. Selected clusters have a mean temporal correlation coefficient of 0.39 plusmn0.07 ( n = 19) with a mean 2.7 plusmn1.4 second response delay. At most, four separate contiguous territories were observed in 87% of these clusters. These results suggest that the proposed method may be effective for exploratory fMRI studies where the hemodynamic response is perturbed during cerebrovascular disease. View full abstract»

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  • Estimating Corneal Surface Topography in Videokeratoscopy in the Presence of Strong Signal Interference

    Page(s): 2381 - 2387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1565 KB)  

    Videokeratoscopy techniques rely on a number of factors in order to achieve accurate estimates of corneal surface topography. Good tear film quality, minimal reflections from eyelashes, and minimal eye movements are essential for corneal topography estimates to be reliable. However, in practice, these ideal conditions may not always be fulfilled, especially in cases of subjects diagnosed with dry eye syndrome, having narrow palpebral apertures, long eyelashes, or nystagmus (uncontrolled eye movements). Such nonoptimal conditions of image acquisition result in poorer estimates of corneal topography. The aim of this paper was to devise a technique that would provide more accurate estimation of corneal topography in such situations and particularly when the source of signal interference is strong. This was achieved by developing a set of algorithms that extract the interference from the acquired raw videokeratoscopic image and filter the topography according to the interference location. The experiments carried out with test surfaces and real corneas showed that this new technique leads to a significant improvement in the topography estimator. Additionally, it is an interference indication procedure that, in the future, could be used for the purpose of tear film quality estimation. View full abstract»

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  • Tonometric Arterial Pulse Sensor With Noise Cancellation

    Page(s): 2388 - 2396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Arterial tonometry provides for the continuous and noninvasive recording of the arterial pressure waveform. However, tonometers are affected by motion artifact that degrades the signal. An arterial tonometer was constructed using two piezoelectric transducers centered within a solid base. In two subjects, one transducer was positioned over the radial pulse (p) and the other was positioned on the wrist not overlying the pulse (n). The presence of induced motion artifact and any noise was removed after signal digitization by noise cancellation. Besides fixed weighting, two adaptive algorithms were used for cancellation-LMS and differential steepest descent (DSD). Criteria were developed for comparison of the adaptive techniques. The best fixed weighting for noise cancellation was w = 0.6. For fixed-weighting, LMS, and DSD, the mean peak-to-peak errors were 1.22 plusmn 0.54, 1.18 plusmn 0.30, and 1.16 plusmn 0.23 V, respectively, and the mean point-to-point errors were 15.86 plusmn 3.15, 11.40 plusmn 1.96, and 10.13 plusmn 1.25 V, respectively. Noise cancellation using a common-mode reference input substantially reduces motion artifact and other noise from the acquired tonometric arterial pulse signal. Adaptive weighting provides better cancellation than fixed weighting, likely because the mechanical gain at the transducer-skin interface is time-varying. View full abstract»

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  • A Thermal Monitoring Sheet With Low Influence From Adjacent Waterbolus for Tissue Surface Thermometry During Clinical Hyperthermia

    Page(s): 2397 - 2406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1122 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Experimental Evaluations of a Low-Frequency Hemispherical Ultrasound Phased-Array System for Transcranial Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption

    Page(s): 2407 - 2416
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a prototype design of a low-frequency multiple-channel hemispherical focused-ultrasound phased-array system for transcranial disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A 32-channel ultrasound driving system tunable in the frequency range from 200 to 400 kHz was designed for producing a suitable ultrasound output for BBB disruption. The driving system includes a microcontroller/field-programmable gate-array-based control kernel with multiple-channel driving circuits implemented by a high-voltage switching/LC-resonance/impedance-matching circuit module. Three hemispherical phased arrays comprising 22, 31, and 80 elements were fabricated and tested. The pressure distributions at the geometric center and at off-center positions were tested experimentally. The focal performance of the different hemispherical arrays was also evaluated theoretically. The results showed that the developed phased-array system can successfully drive the hemispherical array with multiple-channel ultrasound signals with independent phase control at 8-bit resolution. Good focusing abilities were evident both at the geometric center and at specific off-center target positions. Preliminary animal experiments show that the BBB in rat can be locally disrupted successfully. The system will serve as a reference platform for developing a focused-ultrasound system for clinical use in brain drug delivery applications. View full abstract»

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  • A Patient-Mounted Robotic Platform for CT-Scan Guided Procedures

    Page(s): 2417 - 2425
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1883 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel robotic assistant dedicated to medical interventions under computed tomography scan guidance. This compact and lightweight patient-mounted robot is designed so as to fulfill the requirements of most interventional radiology procedures. It is built from an original 5 DOF parallel structure with a semispherical workspace, particularly well suited to CT-scan interventional procedures. The specifications, the design, and the choice of compatible technological solutions are detailed. A preclinical evaluation is presented, with the registration of the robot in the CT-scan. View full abstract»

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  • Microfluidic Device for Dielectrophoresis Manipulation and Electrodisruption of Respiratory Pathogen Bordetella pertussis

    Page(s): 2426 - 2432
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A miniaturized microfluidic device was developed to facilitate electromanipulation of bacterial respiratory pathogens. The device comprises a microchip with circular aluminum electrodes patterned on glass, which is housed in a microfluidic system fabricated utilizing polydimethylsiloxane. The device provides sample preparation capability by exploiting positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) in conjunction with pulsed voltage for manipulation and disruption of Bordetella pertussis bacterial cells. Positive DEP capture of B. pertussis was successfully demonstrated utilizing 10 Vrms and 1 MHz ac fields. Application of dc pulses (300 V amplitude and 50 mu s pulsewidth applied 1 s apart) across the aluminum electrodes resulted in electrodisruption and lysis of B. pertussis bacterial cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, a 23 factorial experimental design and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate bacterial cell manipulation and factors affecting bacterial cell disruption. The main factors affecting bacterial cell disruption were electric field strength, the electrical conductivity of the cell suspension sample, and the combined effect of number of pulses and sample conductivity. The bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid target remained undamaged as a result of DEP and cell lysis experimentation. Our findings suggest that a simple miniaturized microfluidic device can achieve important steps in sample preparation on-chip involving respiratory bacterial pathogens. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Voltage Bipolar Transconductance Amplifier for Electrotactile Stimulation

    Page(s): 2433 - 2443
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1535 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a high-performance transconductance amplifier specifically designed for electrotactile (electrocutaneous) stimulation. It enables voltages up to plusmn600 V to be produced at the output that will allow the psychophysiological performance associated with stimulation of the fingertip using various stimulation waveforms to be studied more thoroughly. The design has a transconductance of up to 20 mA/V, an 8.8-MOmega output resistance, and can provide output currents up to plusmn20 mA. A complete schematic diagram is presented along with a discussion of theory of operation and safety issues as well as performance and derating plots from the implemented design. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Spectroscopy of Normal Breast Tissue Specimens Obtained From Reduction Surgeries: Comparison of Optical and Microwave Properties

    Page(s): 2444 - 2451
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Techniques utilizing electromagnetic energy at microwave and optical frequencies have been shown to be promising for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Since different biophysical mechanisms are exploited at these frequencies to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, combining these two modalities may result in a more powerful approach for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Toward this end, we performed microwave dielectric spectroscopy and optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements at the same sites on freshly excised normal breast tissues obtained from reduction surgeries at the University of Wisconsin Hospital, using microwave and optical probes with very similar sensing volumes. We found that the microwave dielectric constant and effective conductivity are correlated with tissue composition across the entire measurement frequency range (|r| ~ 0.5-0.6, p < 0.01) and that the optical absorption coefficient at 460 nm and optical scattering coefficient are correlated with tissue composition (|r| ~ 0.4-0.6, p < 0.02). Finally, we found that the optical absorption coefficient at 460 nm is correlated with the microwave dielectric constant and effective conductivity (r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that combining optical and microwave modalities for analyzing breast tissue samples may serve as a crosscheck and provide complementary information about tissue composition. View full abstract»

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  • The Berlin Brain--Computer Interface: Accurate Performance From First-Session in BCI-NaÏve Subjects

    Page(s): 2452 - 2462
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (11040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Berlin brain-computer interface (BBCI) project develops a noninvasive BCI system whose key features are: 1) the use of well-established motor competences as control paradigms; 2) high-dimensional features from multichannel EEG; and 3) advanced machine-learning techniques. Spatio-spectral changes of sensorimotor rhythms are used to discriminate imagined movements (left hand, right hand, and foot). A previous feedback study [M. Krauledat, K.-R. Muller, and G. Curio. (2007) The non-invasive Berlin brain-computer Interface: Fast acquisition of effective performance in untrained subjects. NeuroImage. [Online]. 37(2), pp. 539--550. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.01.051] with ten subjects provided preliminary evidence that the BBCI system can be operated at high accuracy for subjects with less than five prior BCI exposures. Here, we demonstrate in a group of 14 fully BCI-naive subjects that 8 out of 14 BCI novices can perform at >84% accuracy in their very first BCI session, and a further four subjects at >70%. Thus, 12 out of 14 BCI-novices had significant above-chance level performances without any subject training even in the first session, as based on an optimized EEG analysis by advanced machine-learning algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • A New Oscillometry-Based Method for Estimating the Brachial Arterial Compliance Under Loaded Conditions

    Page(s): 2463 - 2470
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new method for assessing the compliance of a compressed brachial artery using an oscillometry-based approach that is mathematically based on artery and air-cuff models. The cuff dynamics during the inflation period were characterized by simultaneously recording the cuff volume and internal pressure with a pressure transducer and an airflow meter, respectively, which yielded the envelope of the oscillation amplitudes (OAs) in the air cuff. This allowed the change in the arterial volume during each heartbeat at different cuff pressures to be calculated, yielding a changed volume-pressure curve. The oscillometry-derived loaded compliance of the brachial artery ( C osci) can be determined as the dynamic changed volume divided by the pulse pressure. Furthermore, we developed a direct scheme to calibrate the calculated dynamic changed volume. In addition, the proposed C osci was validated by comparing it with the compliance of the brachial artery (C echo ) estimated echocardiographically from the brachial arterial blood flow in 32 patients whose lower limbs exhibited numbness or lack of strength. The results showed that C osci and C echo were significantly correlated between the cuff pressures levels and the mean arterial pressure, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure ( r = 0.616, 0.571, and 0.666, respectively; p < 0.0001). This suggests that a useful measure of the loaded compliance can be derived from the pattern of the OA waveform in addition to oscillometry-based blood pressure measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Predicting Tumor Location by Modeling the Deformation of the Breast

    Page(s): 2471 - 2480
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (977 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Breast cancer is one of the biggest killers in the western world, and early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis. The shape of the breast varies hugely between the scenarios of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (patient lies prone, breast hanging down under gravity), X-ray mammography (breast strongly compressed) and ultrasound or biopsy/surgery (patient lies supine), rendering image fusion an extremely difficult task. This paper is concerned with the use of the finite-element method and nonlinear elasticity to build a 3-D, patient-specific, anatomically accurate model of the breast. The model is constructed from MR images and can be deformed to simulate breast shape and predict tumor location during mammography or biopsy/surgery. Two extensions of the standard elasticity problem need to be solved: an inverse elasticity problem (arising from the fact that only a deformed, stressed, state is known initially), and the contact problem of modeling compression. The model is used for craniocaudal mediolateral oblique mammographic image matching, and a number of numerical experiments are performed. View full abstract»

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  • A New Method to Derive White Matter Conductivity From Diffusion Tensor MRI

    Page(s): 2481 - 2486
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2887 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new algorithm to derive the anisotropic conductivity of the cerebral white matter (WM) from the diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) data. The transportation processes for both water molecules and electrical charges are described through a common multicompartment model that consists of axons, glia, or the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The volume fraction (VF) of each compartment varies from voxel to voxel and is estimated from the measured diffusion tensor. The conductivity tensor at each voxel is then computed from the estimated VF values and the decomposed eigenvectors of the diffusion tensor. The proposed VF algorithm was applied to the DT-MRI data acquired from two healthy human subjects. The extracted anisotropic conductivity distribution was compared with those obtained by using two existing algorithms, which were based upon a linear conductivity-to-diffusivity relationship and a volume constraint, respectively. The present results suggest that the VF algorithm is capable of incorporating the partial volume effects of the CSF and the intravoxel fiber crossing structure, both of which are not addressed altogether by existing algorithms. Therefore, it holds potential to provide a more accurate estimate of the WM anisotropic conductivity, and may have important applications to neuroscience research or clinical applications in neurology and neurophysiology. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE 11th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics Kyoto International Conference Center (ICORR 2009)

    Page(s): 2487
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (379 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The 4th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering

    Page(s): 2488
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (429 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering information for authors

    Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (28 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Blank page [back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering