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Network, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date September-October 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Front cover - IEEE Network - Front cover

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Network - Table of contents Sept.-Oct 2008 Vol 22 No 5

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • NATs and frozen veggies [Editor's Note]

    Page(s): 2 - 3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • New books and multimedia

    Page(s): 4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Implications and control of middleboxes in the internet

    Page(s): 6 - 7
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A retrospective view of network address translation

    Page(s): 8 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (81 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, network address translators, or NATs, are everywhere. Their ubiquitous adoption was not promoted by design or planning but by the continued growth of the Internet, which places an ever-increasing demand not only on IP address space but also on other functional requirements that network address translation is perceived to facilitate. This article presents a personal perspective on the history of NATs, their pros and cons in a retrospective light, and the lessons we can learn from the NAT experience. View full abstract»

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  • Behavior and classification of NAT devices and implications for NAT traversal

    Page(s): 14 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (111 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a long time, traditional client-server communication was the predominant communication paradigm of the Internet. Network address translation devices emerged to help with the limited availability of IP addresses and were designed with the hypothesis of asymmetric connection establishment in mind. But with the growing success of peer-to-peer applications, this assumption is no longer true. Consequently network address translation traversal became a field of intensive research and standardization for enabling efficient operation of new services. This article provides a comprehensive overview of NAT and introduces established NAT traversal techniques. A new categorization of applications into four NAT traversal service categories helps to determine applicable techniques for NAT traversal. The interactive connectivity establishment framework is categorized, and a new framework is introduced that addresses scenarios that are not supported by ICE. Current results from a field test on NAT behavior and the success ratio of NAT traversal techniques support the feasibility of this classification. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling middleboxes

    Page(s): 20 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (482 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The lack of a concise and standard language to describe diverse middlebox functionality and deployment configurations adversely affects current middlebox deployment, as well as middlebox-related research. To alleviate this problem, we present a simple middlebox model that succinctly describes how different middleboxes process packets and illustrate it by representing four common middleboxes. We set up a pilot online repository of middlebox models and prototyped model inference and validation tools. View full abstract»

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  • Network Address Translation for the Stream Control Transmission Protocol

    Page(s): 26 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Network address translation is widely deployed in the Internet and supports the transmission control protocol and the user datagram protocol as transport layer protocols. Although part of the kernels of all recent Linux distributions, namely, the FreeBSD 7 and the Solaris 10 operating systems, the new Internet Engineering Task Force transport protocol - stream control transmission protocol - is not supported on most NAT middleboxes yet. This article discusses the deficiencies of using existing NAT methods for SCTP and describes a new SCTP-specific NAT concept. This concept is analyzed in detail for several important network scenarios, including peer-to-peer, transport layer mobility, and multihoming. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed connectivity service for a SIP infrastructure

    Page(s): 33 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (118 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because of the constant reduction of available public network addresses and the necessity to secure networks, middleboxes such as network address translators and firewalls have become quite common. Because they are designed around the client-server paradigm, they break connectivity when protocols based on different paradigms are used (e.g., VoIP or P2P applications). Centralized solutions for middlebox traversal are not an optimal choice because they introduce bottlenecks and single point-of-failures. To overcome these issues, this article presents a distributed connectivity service solution that integrates relay functionality directly in user nodes. Although the article focuses on applications using the Session Initialization Protocol, the proposed solution is general and can be extended to other application scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Dial "M" for middlebox managed mobility

    Page(s): 41 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Users can be served by multiple network-enabled terminal devices, each of which in turn can have multiple network interfaces. This multihoming at both the user and device level presents new opportunities for mobility handling. Mobility can be handled by utilizing devices, namely, middleboxes that can provide intermediary routing or adaptation services. This article presents an approach to enabling this kind of mobility handling using the concept of personal networks (PNs). Personal networks (PNs) consist of dynamic conglomerations of terminal and middlebox devices tasked to facilitate the delivery of information to and from a single human user. This concept creates the potential to view mobility handling as a path selection problem because there may be multiple valid terminal device and middlebox configurations that can successfully carry a given communication session. We present details and an evaluation of our approach, based on an extension of the Host Identity Protocol, which demonstrate its simplicity and effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • NAT Issues in the Remote Management of Home Network Devices

    Page(s): 48 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Currently, many customer devices are being connected to home networks. For this reason, it is expected that device management capabilities will be a powerful instrument for the service provider to cope with high maintenance costs, security concerns, and management issues related to home networks. Through DM, the service provider could provide valuable services such as auto-provisioning, remote configuration, firmware and software updates, diagnostics, monitoring, scheduling, and fraud management. However, network address translators that are widely deployed in the home network environment prohibit DM operations from reaching user devices behind the NAT. In this article, we focus on NAT issues in the management of home network devices. Specifically, we discuss efforts relating to standardization and present our proposal to deploy DM services for VoIP and IPTV devices behind NATs. By slightly changing the behavior of Simple Network Management Protocol managers and agents and by defining additional management objects (MOs) to gather NAT binding information, we could solve the NAT traversal problem under a symmetric NAT. Moreover, we propose an enhanced method to search for the UDP hole binding time of the NAT box. For evaluation, we applied our method to 22 randomly selected VoIP devices out of 194 NATed hosts in the real broadband network and achieved a success ratio of 99 percent for exchanging SNMP request messages and a 26 percent enhancement in determining the UDP hole binding time. View full abstract»

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  • Improving the Performance of Route Control Middleboxes in a Competitive Environment

    Page(s): 56 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multihomed subscribers are increasingly adopting intelligent route control solutions to optimize the cost and end-to-end performance of the traffic routed among the different links connecting their networks to the Internet. Until recently, IRC practices were not considered adverse, but new studies show that in a competitive environment, they can lead to persistent traffic oscillations, causing significant performance degradation rather than improvements. To cope with this, randomized IRC techniques were proposed. However, the proliferation of IRC products raises concerns, given that randomization becomes less effective as the number of interfering IRC systems increases. In this article, we present a more scalable route control strategy that can better support the foreseeable spread of IRC solutions. We show that by blending randomization with adaptive filtering techniques, it is possible to drastically reduce the interference between competing route controllers, and this can be achieved without penalizing the end-to-end traffic performance. In addition to the potential improvements in terms of scalability and performance, the route control strategy outlined here has various practical advantages. For instance, it does not require any kind of protocol or coordination between the competing IRC middleboxes, and it can be adopted readily today because the only requirement is a software upgrade of the available route controllers. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Network covers topics which include: network protocols and architecture; protocol design and validation; communications software; network control, signaling and management; network implementation (LAN, MAN, WAN); and micro-to-host communications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, PhD
Engineering University of Waterloo