By Topic

Systems Journal, IEEE

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2008

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (277 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Systems Journal publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (37 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 301
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (37 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 302 - 303
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Using Architecture Modeling to Assess the Societal Benefits of the Global Earth Observation System-of-Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 304 - 311
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enterprise architecture for the Earth science activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was developed to assist in assessing the capacity of scientific instruments in meeting the needs of society. It can also help them develop the right investment strategies and help scientists and engineers in their planning for system development, especially for complex space-based environmental sensors. This architecture model can be easily extended to the Global Earth Observation System-of-System (GEOSS). In fact, it was constructed with GEOSS in mind to ensure that NASA's observation systems can be readily mapped into the GEOSS structure. The architecture contains about 3000 elements that are involved in Earth science research: observation sources, sensors, environmental parameters, data products, mission products, observations, science models, predictions, and decision-support tools. The science models use observations from the space-based instruments to generate predictions about various aspects of the environment. These predictions are used by decision-makers around the world to help minimize property damage and loss of human life due to adverse conditions such as severe weather storms. The architecture is developed using both traditional and nontraditional systems engineering (SE) tools and techniques. This paper describes additional methods needed for the SE toolbox. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • System-of-Systems Architectural Considerations for Complex Environments and Evolving Requirements

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 312 - 320
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Complex "system-of-systems" architectures are subject to a myriad of issues arising from the dynamic inter-operability these systems are intended to provide. Many of these issues can be addressed or avoided by considering the messaging interactions between system nodes prior to and during the construction of the component systems. Standardization of messages and interfaces is an ideal way to provide a consistent, vendor agnostic vehicle for interaction and interoperability of systems in this class of complex architectures. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A System-of-Systems Engineering GEOSS: Architectural Approach

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 321 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1907 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is an increasing need to perform systems-of-systems engineering (SoSE) in a global environment. A new SoSE process has been developed which is a significant breakthrough in the development of large complex systems and net-centric systems-of-systems (SoS). The SoSE process provides a complete, detailed, and systematic development approach for military and civil SoS. This architecture-centric, model-based systems engineering process emphasizes concurrent development of the system architecture model and system specifications. It is applicable to all phases of a system's lifecycle. The significant benefits of developing a system architecture model for GEOSS using the SoSE process are described. An example of how the process would capture the architecture model of GEOSS is presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • GEOSS Architecture Principles and the GEOSS Clearinghouse

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 333 - 337
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The global earth observation system of systems (GEOSS) is composed of diverse component systems contributed by members and participating organizations of the group on earth observations (GEO). To enable these diverse components to interoperate, the GEOSS architecture embodies principles given in the GEOSS 10-year implementation plan and reference document. A basic principle is adoption of international standards and common interoperability arrangements, as seen in the contributed facility known as GEOSS Clearinghouse. GEOSS Clearinghouse acts as a cross-cutting discovery tool, encompassing all registered GEOSS components and external catalogs as well. Together, the GEOSS architecture and GEOSS clearinghouse enable GEO members and participating organizations to cooperate in realizing GEOSS. The resulting system of systems is simplifying access to resources for any and all users, including decision makers across the GEO societal benefit areas. This paper explains key GEOSS architecture principles and how GEOSS clearinghouse applies international standards and interoperability arrangements. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Benefits of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 338 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (745 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of the Global Earth Observation System-of-Systems (GEOSS) is to improve the information available to decision makers, at all levels, relating to human health and safety, protection of the global environment, the reduction of losses from natural disasters, and achieving sustainable development. Specifically, GEOSS proposes that better international cooperation in the collection, interpretation, and sharing of Earth observation information is an important and cost-effective mechanism for achieving this aim. While there is a widespread intuition that this proposition is correct, at some point the following question needs to be answered: how much additional investment in Earth observation (and specifically, in its international integration) is enough? This leads directly to some challenging subsidiary questions, such as how can the benefits of Earth observation be assessed? What are the incremental costs of GEOSS? Are there societal benefit areas where the return on investment is higher than in others? The Geo-Bene Project has developed a ldquobenefit chainrdquo concept as a framework for addressing these questions. The basic idea is that an incremental improvement in the observing system (including its data collection, interpretation and information-sharing aspects) will result in an improvement in the quality of decisions based on that information. In turn, this will lead to better societal outcomes, which have a value. This incremental value must be judged against the incremental cost of the improved observation system. Since in many cases there will be large uncertainties in the estimation of both the costs and the benefits, and it may not be possible to express them in comparable monetary terms, we show how order-of-magnitude approaches and a qualitative understanding of the shape of the cost and benefit curves can help guide rational investment decisions in Earth Observation Systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Valuing Weather Observation Systems For Forest Fire Management

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 349 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1030 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Weather information is an integral part of modern fire management systems. In this paper, we investigate, by means of simulation studies, how improvements in the weather observation systems help to reduce burned area by targeting and monitoring places ripe fires are likely to occur. In our model, the air patrolling schedule is determined by the Nesterov index, which is calculated from observed weather data. We use two weather data sets based on ldquoroughrdquo and ldquofinerdquo grids. The reduction of the total burned area, associated with an air patrolling schedule based on the ldquofinerdquo grid, indicates the benefits of using better weather observations. We, also, consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. Finally, we investigate the system of systems effect. We find the largest marginal improvement from the rough grid results when we increase the quality of observations in most critical areas. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Information Semantics Approach for Knowledge Management and Interoperability for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 358 - 365
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (801 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The global earth observation system of systems (GEOSS) is built on current international cooperation efforts among existing distributed earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable earth observation (EO) data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. EOs are obtained from a multitude of sources and require tremendous efforts and coordination among different governments and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. Semantic metadata play a crucial role in resolving the differences in meaning, interpretation, and usage of the same or related data. Also, the knowledge about the geopolitical background of the originating datasets could be encoded in the metadata that would address the diversity on a global scale. In distributed environments like GEOSS, modularization is inevitable. In this paper, we describe the need for an information semantics-based approach for knowledge management and interoperability between heterogeneous GEOSS systems. Further, considering the magnitude of concepts involved in GEOSS, we explore the possibility of using modular ontologies for formulating smaller interconnected ontologies. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • DataFed: An Architecture for Federating Atmospheric Data for GEOSS

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 366 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    DataFed is a distributed web-services-based computing environment for accessing, processing, and rendering environmental data in support of air quality management and science. The flexible, adaptive environment facilitates the access and flow of atmospheric data from provider to users by enabling the creation of user-driven data processing value chains. The approach of DataFed is mediation between users and data providers. DataFed non-intrusively wraps datasets for access by standards-based Web services. The mediator software, composed of Web services, provides homogeneous data views (e.g., geospatial, time views) using a global multi-dimensional data model. Application software written using Web services are data browsers, including Google Earth, and analysis tools for distributed AQ data. Its federated data pool consists of over 100 datasets and the tools have been applied in several air pollution projects. From the point of view of GEOSS, DataFed contributes air quality data (as services) to the shared data pool through the GEOSS Common Infrastructure. It also hosts a decision support system (DSS) in the societal benefit area of air quality. The developers of DataFed actively participate in the GEOSS process included work with Architecture and Data Committee (ADC) and the User Interface Committee (UIC) as well as in interoperability experiments. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design Principles and IT Overviews of the GEO Grid

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 374 - 389
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2706 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the Earth's ecosystem is a spatially and temporally complex system by nature, it is not sufficient to observe such events and phenomena locally; problems must be solved on a global scale. Therefore, the accumulation of knowledge about the Earth in various forms and a scientifically correct understanding of the Earth are necessary. The authors have been leading the ldquoGlobal Earth Observation (GEO) Gridrdquo project since 2005, which is primarily aimed at providing an e-Science infrastructure for the worldwide Earth sciences community. In the community, there are wide varieties of existing datasets including satellite imagery, geological data, and ground sensed data that each data owner insists own licensing policy. Also, there are so many related projects that will be configured as a virtual organization (VO) enabled by Grid technology. The GEO Grid is designed to integrate all of the relevant data virtually, again enabled by Grid technology, and is accessible as a set of services. In this paper, first we describe design principles of the GEO Grid that are determined based on accommodating users requirements for publishing, managing, and using data. Second, software architecture and its preliminary implementations are specified where we take the Grid computing and Web service technologies as the core components that comply with a standard set of technologies and protocols. In addition, GEO Grid has been recognized to contribute to GEO or Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as a part of the Japanese government's commitment. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • PVES: Powered Visualizer for Earth Environmental Science

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 390 - 400
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a powered visualizer for Earth environmental science (PVES) which can accommodate three-dimensional (3D) datasets. Though a data integration system called the information fusion reactor for Earth environmental science (IFRES) is being developed at the Institute of Industrial Science at the University of Tokyo, PVES is a part of the IFRES contribution to the global Earth observation system of systems (GEOSS). Three key functions are implemented. The first is a rather naive function that allows users to visualize 3D raw data through virtual reality modeling language. Second, the user can specify an arbitrary curve over the 3D dataset and then visualize its cross section. This has been proven to be very powerful for 3D analyses of flow phenomena. Third, users can easily specify various kinds of related data in IFRES to overlay on the cross section. This function also helps users to understand the flow phenomena deeply through the fusion of information, atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) data and its reanalysis data are provided as examples of applicable data in this paper; AIRS data is a satellite sensor product, and reanalysis data is a type of model outputs. We also present some observations extracted with the PVES and confirm effectiveness and usefulness of PVES. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • GEONETCast—Delivering Environmental Data to Users Worldwide (September 2007)

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 401 - 405
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (699 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    GEONETCast, a near real-time global environmental information-delivery system by which in situ, airborne, and space-based observations, products, and services are transmitted to users through communication satellites, was accepted as a GEO initiative by the second GEO Plenary. GEONETCast is an interconnected global network of regional dissemination systems that are each focused on a specific geographic region under the respective satellites' footprints. Data from each region can be disseminated outside the originating region through data-exchange links between regions, such as through dedicated lines, overlapping satellite footprints, or use of the Internet or other existing networks. The regional components include one or more data collection, management, and dissemination hubs that receive, process, prioritize, and schedule the incoming data streams or products originating within the particular region. These GEONETCast Network Centres (GNCs) forward the prioritized data stream to the uplink ground station, which receives it, wraps it in a DVB-S dissemination protocol, and uplinks it to a communication satellite for dissemination at Ku- or C-band frequency. The data GEONETCast delivers is specifically targeted to address nine society benefit areas such as natural and human-induced hazards, environment and health, environmental-related energy issues, climate change, water management, weather, ecosystem management, sustainable agriculture, and desertification and biodiversity, with the aim of reaching a global coverage and allow the reception of this data at very low cost (basic reception station below $US2000) by nearly anyone on the planet. GEONETCast is a prominent case in which typical obstacles such as interoperability of existing systems and components reuse of existing infrastructure and interfacing with newly developed components have been resolved successfully. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Advanced Quality Control System for the CEOP/CAMP In-Situ Data Management

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 406 - 413
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was proposed in 1997 as an initial step for establishing an integrated observation system for the global water cycle. The Enhanced Observing Period was conducted from October 2002 to December 2004, with satellite data, in-situ data, and model output data collected and available for integrated analysis. Under the framework of CEOP, the CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) was organized and provided the in-situ dataset in the Asian region. CAMP included 13 different reference sites in the Asian monsoon region during Phase 1 (October 2002 to December 2004). These reference sites were operated by individual researchers for their own research objectives. Therefore, the various sites' data had important differences in observational elements, data formats, recording intervals, etc. This usually requires substantial manual data processing to use these data for scientific research which consumes a great deal of researcher time and energy. To reduce the time and effort for data quality checking and format conversion, the CAMP Data Center (CDC) established a Web-based quality control (QC) system. This paper introduces this in-situ data management and quality control system for the Asian region data under the framework of CEOP. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Land-Cover Observations as Part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Progress, Activities, and Prospects

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 414 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1844 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Surface Mooring Network in the Kuroshio Extension

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 424 - 430
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1078 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As a contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is developing surface moorings that carry a suite of field-proven and cost-effective sensors to monitor air-sea heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes, carbon dioxide uptake, and upper ocean temperature, salinity, and currents. In June 2004, an NOAA surface mooring, referred to as the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO), was deployed in the Kuroshio Extension's (KE) southern recirculation gyre, approximately 300 nautical miles east of Japan. In 2006, a partnership between NOAA and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology was formed that deployed a second mooring (referred to as JKEO) north of the KE jet in February 2007. KE is a region of strong currents, typhoons, and winter storms. Designing and maintaining moorings in the KE is a challenging engineering task. All data are publicly available. A subset of the data are telemetered and made available in near real time through the Global Telecommunications System and web-based data distribution systems. Data from these time-series reference sites serve a wide research and operational community and are being used for assessing numerical weather prediction analyses and reanalyses and for quantifying the air-sea interaction in this dynamic region. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN): An Integrated System of Seismological Observatories

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 431 - 438
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2479 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN) is a non-governmental organization formed by institutions dedicated to seismological research and seismic monitoring. The FDSN is a successful complement to the International Seismological Centre (ISC) in pursuing a more than a century old tradition of global seismic data exchange. The main goal of the FDSN is the production and dissemination of seismic waveform data from high fidelity seismic observatories. The federation is formed by 65 organizations from 52 countries that contribute data to three main data centers in the United States, Europe, and Japan. A subset of the stations that conform the FDSN send real-time to the data management center (DMC) of the Incorporated Research Institutions of Seismology (IRIS) in the United States. Data from this real-time network is crucial to the determination of the seismic parameters of large earthquakes in a very short time after their occurrence and to support the efforts of institutions that are responsible for disaster relief or prevention. Most notably, tsunami warning centers use this information as a fundamental underpinning to issue warnings and alerts. The FDSN is an early participant of the global earth observation system of systems (GEOSS), contributing high-quality, timely and freely accessible seismic data. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the FDSN from the viewpoint of an integrated system of observatories and to share with other GEOSS networks the successes, challenges and lessons learned by the FDSN in promoting the open and free access of seismological data for the benefit of scientific research and disaster prevention and mitigation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Call for papers 3rd Annual IEEE International Systems Conference

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 439 - 440
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Systems Council Information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (26 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Systems Journal Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Systems Journal is created to provide a systems-level focused forum for application-oriented manuscripts that address complex systems and system-of-systems of national and global significance

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Vincenzo Piuri
Università degli Studi di Milano