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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 5 • Date September-October 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Front cover - IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine

    Page(s): C1
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • From the Editor

    Page(s): 3 - 4
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  • President's Message

    Page(s): 5 - 113
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  • Around the World

    Page(s): 6 - 7
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    On 13-15 May 2008, the 16th Annual Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering was held at Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, Iran. A total of 42 papers were presented in sessions on biomedical engineering that included biomedical system modeling, pattern recognition and classification, biological signal processing, signal processing, and image processing (three sessions). John Webster gave the keynote address ``Future Bioinstruments: Expectations and Challenges.¿¿ He also presented an all day workshop ``How to Develop and Implement State-of-the- Art Bioinstruments,¿¿ and gave other talks: ``Bioengineering Curricula: A Fresh Look and New Expectations,¿¿ and ``How to Find a Topic for Ph.D. Research in Biomedical Engineering.¿¿ View full abstract»

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  • Society News

    Page(s): 8 - 10
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  • Student's Corner

    Page(s): 9 - 10
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    An undergraduate student at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has learned very quickly that a spoonful of sugar really does help the medicine go down. In fact, with his invention, the sugar may actually be the medicine! View full abstract»

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  • Biomedical Engineering in China

    Page(s): 12 - 13
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    Biomedical engineering has had a remarkable growth in the past decade in China. With the significant increase in research funding in the past several years, our Chinese colleagues have enjoyed good times for biomedical engineering research and development. This special issue includes a collection of articles contributed by groups, which cover the broad spectrum of biomedical engineering research, including molecular imaging, cancer detection and treatment, health information technology, neural engineering, electrophysiology, and biomedical imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Heart Rate Variability in Myocardial Ischemic Periods

    Page(s): 14 - 19
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    The aim of this study is to detect the ischemia-induced changes of heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on time-frequency analysis and to investigate the patterns of change when the duration of ischemia is concerned. View full abstract»

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  • C-Sight Visual Prostheses for the Blind

    Page(s): 20 - 28
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    Visual prostheses based on a stimulating microelectrode array to restore vision offer a promising approach for the blind and has become a rapidly growing scientific field in neurorehabilitation engineering. A number of research groups from major developed countries lead the research activities in this field. The goal of the C-Sight Project is to develop an implantable microelectronic medical device that will restore useful vision to blind patients. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration are the two leading causes for blindness, for which there have been no effective treatments, both surgically and biologically, until now.The ultimate goal of our project is to develop a completely implantable visual prosthesis based on a penetrating microelectrode array at the optical nerve; to implement this, it requires many technical advances. However, in our study, an implantable microcamera, the wearable information processor, and the multichannel neurostimulator are investigated. Electrophysiological experiments were also performed to provide evidence for the feasibility of our approach. Some related psychophysical studies including simulated phosphene positioning and recognition of pixelized images are also reported in this article. View full abstract»

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  • Cortical Spreading Depression in Rats

    Page(s): 29 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an important neurophysiological phenomenon, which was first discovered more than 60 years ago. Optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) is a neuroimaging technique that can monitor a large region of the cortex with both higher temporal and spatial resolution. This technique is particularly suitable for the investigation of CSD wave propagation. However, all the previous work performed with OISI focused only on one hemisphere of animal brain, so the potential useful information from the contralateral side was lost. Although the feasibility of OISI of CSD has been demonstrated, reliable detection of small intrinsic optical signals associated with CSD is still challenging but very important for the better understanding of CSD. Previous investigations on OISI around 550 nm suggested three or four phases of optical responses associated with stimulation-evoked CSD, but this is still under debate. This is an important issue for considering the physiological sources of optical signals. The failure to unambiguously determine the phases of optical signals may be partly due to the loss of quantitative assessment of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in optical imaging. In biparietal imaging, the hemisphere without CSD would help to determine the noise level of optical recording. To our knowledge, no research visualizing the simultaneous CSD waves in the bilateral hemisphere has been conducted yet. In this study, OISI at 550 nm was selected to monitor the biparietal cortex simultaneously during CSD in rats. The study aimed to clarify the multiphases of reflectance and to compare the bilateral properties of CSD induced by pinprick or K+, and the results would improve the understanding of CSD. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Images of the Kidney

    Page(s): 36 - 41
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    In this article, an improved method to segment the renal cortex and medulla and to eliminate the influence of kidney motion produced by respiration is proposed. On the basis of an adaptive threshold estimated from the mean gray levels of the grown regions, a region-growing algorithm is presented to produce a three-dimensional (3-D) kidney contour and to segment the renal structures. Moreover, a shell mask of kidney margin is proposed to realize a coarse matching so as to eliminate the image translation, which makes the processing simple and direct in spatial processing without any image transform computations, and a correlation computation can be implemented with great efficiency. Then, a refined matching with a mask of cortex is completed through a 3-D correlation algorithm to ensure the accurate registration of the images in different phases. Comparing with the global mask including the whole kidney, both the shell mask and the cortex mask significantly contribute to decreasing the matching errors for images with nonuniform intensity signals, which much improves the registration quality of renal MR images. In this way, the effect of the respiration motions can be eliminated so that the intensity measurement in different phases becomes accurate within the respective structures. View full abstract»

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  • Perspectives on High Technologies for Low-Cost Healthcare

    Page(s): 42 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article discusses some of the unique demographic and epidemiological changes that China faces. As China is still a developing country, most of its people cannot afford expensive healthcare solutions. Especially in the poor rural areas, healthcare service is a luxury for some people. Therefore, this article summarizes several key strategies to reduce medical expenditures at the national level and proposes to develop a new information system in the form of a personal, home, community, and hospital (PHCH) four-layered architecture. Using the management of blood pressure (BP) as an example, we have shown that innovative technologies in wearable medical devices and body area networks (BANs) can be developed to collect information for this new system to overcome geographic and financial constraints and to provide a low-cost and effective solution to manage chronic health problems. View full abstract»

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  • Multimodality Molecular Imaging

    Page(s): 48 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1711 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we reported the progress of our research in molecular imaging. Two types of optical molecular imaging modalities are presented in the "Optical Molecular Imaging" section: fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT). Nuclide medical imaging and probe studies in molecular imaging are studied in the "Nuclide Molecular Imaging" and "Molecular Probe" sections, respectively. We discuss the biological applications related to molecular imaging in the "Biological Application" section and conclusions are drawn in the end. View full abstract»

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  • Linear and Nonlinear Quantitative EEG Analysis

    Page(s): 58 - 63
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    Presented is a progressive investigation on the EEG of Han Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Thus, an investigative project on Q-EEG was performed on the ethnic Han Chinese patients with AD by the Neural Engineering Lab of Tianjin University. This project was intended to contribute to the knowledge of EEG changes specific to AD in comparison with that to normal aging in the ethnic Han groups of China. With this aim, resting EEG was recorded from a large group of recruited volunteers including these two kinds of subjects. As normal elderly people, we mean people who could be age-matched with AD patients and who did not present any cognitive impairment or any potential condition altering the EEG profile. Our present studies were undertaken to examine the background activity of EEG in AD with three different entropy definitions: information entropy, mutual entropy, and approximate entropy (ApEn). The progress achieved in this project is expected to provide fruitful clues about local neuropathology of AD. View full abstract»

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  • Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Visual Evoked Potentials

    Page(s): 64 - 71
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    Recently, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain- computer interfaces (BCIs) have become a hot spot in the study of neural engineering, rehabilitation, and brain science. In this article, we review BCI systems based on visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Although the performance of this type of BCI has already been evaluated by many research groups through a variety of laboratory demonstrations, researchers are still facing many difficulties in changing the demonstrations to practically applicable systems. On the basis of the literature, we describe the challenges in developing practical BCI systems. Also, our recent work in the designs and implementations of the BCI systems based on steady-state VEPs (SSVEPs) is described in detail. The results show that by adequately considering the problems encountered in system design, signal processing, and parameter optimization, SSVEPs can provide the most useful information about brain activities using the least number of electrodes. At the same time, system cost could be greatly decreased and usability could be readily improved, thus benefiting the implementation of a practical BCI. View full abstract»

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  • Energy-Based Diagnostic and Treatment Techniques

    Page(s): 72 - 77
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    In this article, our previous research on the application of thermal energy transfer for tumor treatment and early diagnosis has been briefly reviewed. The work encompasses some mechanistic studies of the thermal effects on the breast cancer cells and microvascular networks. Accordingly, a new thermal system was designed for more effective thermal therapy and targeted drug delivery. It was clearly demonstrated that the thermal-physical treatment could be effectively applied to tumor therapy, and the therapeutic effect could be enhanced through rapid cooling and heating alternations in the tissue. View full abstract»

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  • Noninvasive Imaging of Head-Brain Conductivity Profiles

    Page(s): 78 - 83
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    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a recently introduced noninvasive conductivity imaging modality, which combines the magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and the traditional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) techniques. MREIT is aimed at providing high-spatial-resolution images of electrical conductivity because it avoids solving the well-known ill-posed problem in the traditional EIT. In this article, we review our research activities in MREIT imaging of head-brain tissue conductivity profiles. We have developed several imaging algorithms and conducted a series of computer simulations for MREIT imaging of the head-brain tissues. Our work suggests that MREIT brain imaging may become a useful tool in imaging conductivity distributions of the brain and head. View full abstract»

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  • Image-Guided 256-Element Phased-Array Focused Ultrasound Surgery

    Page(s): 84 - 90
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    In this article, the construction and functions of ultrasound-guided 256-element phased-array surgery system is described. An image-guided phase array therapy system has been developed. Several flexible multifocus control methods for accurate, highly efficient, and fit-to-shape ultrasound surgery are concentrated. The system experiment results show that the multiple foci are positioned exactly at designed locations. In addition, the experiment results agreed well with the simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Staying in Tune

    Page(s): 91 - 98
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    When performing daily life activities, appropriate sensory-motor transformations are required to successfully map the changing relationships among one's self, the environment, and objects moving in the environment. Our daily actions involve varying combinations of head-eye (gaze), arm-reaching, and whole-body (stepping and walking) movements. These movements depend on the interaction and transformation of both egocentric (self to object) and allocentric (object to object) representations of the environment. To successfully map these representations, appropriate sensory-motor transformations are required. For visually guided movements, the primary motor cortex and its interactions with the visual cortex, mainly through the dorsal stream, are largely responsible for mapping the sensory-motor actions. Many uncontrollable factors can contribute to the degradation of our balance system; hence, it is important to maintain or retrain our sensory- motor system. In this article, the position of a visible computer sprite is controlled through the movement of the center of foot pressure (COP), which changes when a person produces body sway. The visually guided movements of the COP require timely sensory-motor mappings of visually derived spatial information acquired in a two-dimensional (2D) virtual environment, i.e., sprite location relative to a target position. View full abstract»

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  • Announcement

    Page(s): 99
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  • Emerging Technologies

    Page(s): 100 - 113
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    This article provides engineering, regulatory and clinical details about spinal cord stimulators (SCSs), deep brain stimulators (DBSs), and vagus nerve stimulators (VNSs). View full abstract»

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  • Patents

    Page(s): 106
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    What should happen when a business method patent covers steps performed by more than one company? Can the company that coordinates the overall system be found to infringe even though it does not perform all of the steps of the patent¿s claims itself? That was the question before the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) in the recent case of BMC v. Paymentech. View full abstract»

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  • Retrospectroscope

    Page(s): 107 - 113
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    It is well known that Englishman William Harvey (1578¿1657), while studying in Padua, Italy, discovered the fact that blood flows in a closed circulatory system in the body. However, it is less well known how he made this remarkable and important discovery. It is the objective of this article to tell this story. View full abstract»

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  • Cellular/Tissue Engineering

    Page(s): 109 - 113
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    This article briefly reviews a few important technical challenges in the field of tissue engineering and describes current and potential strategies to advance the engineering of functional skeletal muscle toward potential clinical use in the repair of muscle damage. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

Full Aims & Scope