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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1 - 2097
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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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  • A Digital Signal Processing Instrument for Real-Time Phase Noise Measurement

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2098 - 2107
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital-signal-processing-based instrument for phase noise measurement on sinusoidal signals is described. It incorporates a special hardware architecture, which is made up of a core digital signal processor that is connected to a data acquisition board, and takes advantage of a new measurement procedure based on a quadrature demodulation scheme, which has been proposed by the authors. Thanks to an optimized implementation of this procedure, the instrument exploits all its hardware resources to achieve high performance and real-time operation. For input frequencies of up to some hundreds of kilohertz, the instrument proves to be capable both of updating phase noise power spectrum while seamlessly capturing the analyzed signal into its memory and of granting frequency resolution as good as a few units of hertz. View full abstract»

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  • Power Measurements in DVB-T Systems: New Proposal for Enhancing Reliability and Repeatability

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2108 - 2117
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1633 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rapid growth of digital video broadcasting by terrestrial transmission (DVB-T) has created the need for new measurement methods, as well as new test equipment that is capable of providing reliable and repeatable results. Some problems are, in fact, being experienced with power measurements, particularly with those involving the integration of the input signal power spectrum over a certain frequency interval. Trying to give a proper answer to the cited need, a digital signal processing method, which has already been proposed in the literature and specialized for power measurements in spread spectrum systems, is optimized here to be operative in the presence of DVB-T signals as well. Suitable stages, in simulation and emulation environments, are designed and applied to optimally regulate key parameters of the method, thus making it assure negligible bias and high repeatability in most operative conditions. The results of a number of experiments on actual DVB-T signals also give evidence of the method's efficacy with respect to competitive measurement solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigation of the Electromagnetic Interference of ZigBee Transmitters on Measurement Instruments

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2118 - 2127
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1009 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the electromagnetic susceptibility of measurement systems when subjected to interference generated by short-range, low-power wireless transmitters. A ZigBee transmitter was used as an interfering source operating close to the instrumentation under test. The results of numerous tests prove that different kinds of measurement instrumentation can be affected by the wireless module interference. Significant metro- logical performance decay was observed for both frequency- and time-domain measurements carried out by instrumentation whose bandwidth includes the ZigBee frequency operating range. View full abstract»

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  • An XML Model for Use Across Heterogeneous Client–Server Applications

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2128 - 2135
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Applications that use directory services or relational databases operate in a client-server model, where a client requests information from a server, and the server returns a response to the client. These client-server applications typically have a specific message protocol that is unique to that application. Systems with multiple client-server applications require that there are separate client programs that individually communicate with their respective server programs. A need exists to access information from heterogeneous systems in a standard message request-response format. A generic eXtensible Markup Language (XML) model was developed to obtain data from diverse measurement systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the XML model that abstracts the differences in the underlying heterogeneous client-server message formats and provides a common XML message interface. The XML messages are parsed through a common XML gateway that decides to which application server to forward the messages. The generic XML messages are translated to the correct application server format before being sent to the application server. View full abstract»

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  • Plug-n-Play Smart Sensor Network With Dynamic Web Service

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2136 - 2145
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1017 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the authors present an implementation of a plug-n-play Web sensor based on a Web service approach, utilizing the extensible markup language, which is an open-source software, to exchange information and adopting a low-cost hardware. After an introduction to the Web service technology, the problem of the dynamic services and one possible solution will be presented. The proposed solution allows us to have, at all times, an overview of the state of connected sensors and of the available services. Thus, when a new sensor is inserted in the network, its services are automatically "published" without reconfiguring the net; this is important with sensor networks, which are frequently upgraded. The sensor is presented in the framework of a hierarchical distributed system for metrological monitoring applications. Particular attention is devoted to synchronization problems among all composing devices of the proposed distributed system, taking into account the characteristics of main synchronization standards. Measurement results supplied by the sensors are made available as Web services so that all users can build up their own applications. To show some preliminary results of the proposed distributed monitoring network, the monitoring of rms values in three-phase power networks was analyzed. A proper synchronization protocol was adopted in order to synchronize the different hardware sections of a sensor to perform a particular measurement. View full abstract»

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  • On a New Graph Theory Approach to Designing Zero-Aliasing Space Compressors for Built-In Self-Testing

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2146 - 2168
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The realization of space-efficient support hardware for built-in self-testing (BIST) is of great significance in the design of present-day very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits and systems, particularly in the context of the recent paradigm shift from system-on-board to system-on-chip (SOC). A new approach in designing zero-aliasing space-compaction hardware, specifically in relation to embedded core-based SOC, is proposed in this paper for single stuck-line faults, extending the well-known concepts of conventional switching theory and of incompatibility relation to generate the maximal compatibility classes using graph theoretic concepts, based on optimal generalized sequence mergeability, as developed and applied by the authors in earlier works. This is novel in the sense that zero-aliasing is obtained without any modification of the original module under test, while a maximal compaction is achieved in almost all cases in reasonable time utilizing some simple heuristics. The method is illustrated with design details of space compactors for the international symposium on circuits and systems (ISCAS) 85 combinational and ISCAS 89 full-scan sequential benchmark circuits using simulation programs ATALANTA and FSIM, attesting to the usefulness of the technique for its relative simplicity, resulting in low area overhead, and full fault coverage for single stuck-line faults, thus making it suitable in a VLSI synthesis environment. With advances in computational resources in the future, the heuristics applied in the design algorithm may be further improved upon to significantly lower the simulation CPU time and storage. View full abstract»

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  • A Statistical Inference Comparison for Measurement Estimation Using Stochastic Simulation Techniques

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2169 - 2180
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of different techniques for making statistical inference about a measurement system model. This comparison involves results when two main assumptions are made: 1) the unknowable behavior of the probability density function (pdf) p (e) of errors since the real measurement systems are always exposed to continuous perturbations of an unknown nature and 2) the assumption that, after some experimentation, one can obtain sufficient information that can be incorporated into the modeling as prior information. The first assumption leads us to propose the use of two approaches, which permit building hybrid algorithms; such approaches are the nonparametric bootstrap and the kernel methods. The second assumption makes possible the exploration of a Bayesian framework solution and Monte Carlo Markov chain auxiliary that is used to access the a posteriori pdf of the measurement. For both assumptions over p (e) and the model, different classical criteria can be used; one also uses an extension of a recent criterion of entropy minimization. The entropy criterion is constructed on the basis of a symmetrized kernel estimate p n,h (e) of p(e). Finally, a comparison between results obtained with the different schemes proposed by De la Rosa is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Passivity Enforcement of Transfer Functions

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2181 - 2187
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Passivity of an identified model is crucial in simulation and prediction applications. This paper proposes a two-step procedure that generates guaranteed passive transfer function models from noisy data. It consists of an unconstrained optimal noise removal step, followed by passivity enforcement of the unconstrained model. View full abstract»

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  • Design Optimization of a Digital Sun Sensor for Use With Parametric Processing

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2188 - 2195
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (687 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we use genetic algorithms (GAs) as a heuristic for optimizing the illumination pattern for a single-axis digital sun sensor. Previous work has demonstrated that parametric algorithms can be used to provide better estimates of sun position than conventional centroiding techniques. The performance of these algorithms depends, in part, on the illumination pattern on the detector. Using a linear-phase superresolution technique that is combined with GA, we alter the number, shape, and placement of illuminating features. The GA estimator discovered high-fitness solutions that offer threefold to fivefold improvements over the baseline sensor design. We contend that these multiple peak patterns can greatly improve the performance of the sun sensor when they are coupled with parametric methods for sun position estimation. The optimal illumination pattern can be implemented, at minimal cost, by fabricating a replacement aperture mask. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Investigations on Computer-Based Methods for Determination of Static Electromagnetic Characteristics of Switched Reluctance Motors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2196 - 2211
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because of the doubly salient structure of the switched reluctance motor (SRM) and its intentional operation in deep magnetic saturation for higher power density, its static electromagnetic characteristics are highly nonlinear functions of rotor position and phase current. This makes the accurate experimental measurement/determination of these characteristics a difficult task. This paper presents a comprehensive discussion and analysis on the different (most practiced) computer-based methods for the determination of these characteristics for a typical SRM. A digital signal processor (DSP)-based completely automated SRM drive system has been used for these studies. For all the offline computations, user-friendly MATLAB/Simulink-based models have been developed. The experimental methods, computational models, measurement results, and appropriate postmortem discussions for the determination of static flux linkage, inductance, and electromagnetic torque characteristics for an 8/6 four-phase SRM are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Reevaluation of the Optically Pumped Cesium Frequency Standard NRLM-4 With an H-Bend Ring Cavity

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2212 - 2217
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The largest source of uncertainty of the optically pumped cesium (Cs) frequency standard (NRLM-4), i.e., the distributed cavity phase shift, was reduced by replacing the microwave cavity with a new ring-type one. An H-bend-type ring cavity is adopted for the first time. Due to the novel cavity and the improvement of the Cs beam alignment, the distributed cavity phase shift was significantly reduced from 2 x 10-14 to 1.4 x 10-15. The frequency stability was measured to be 8 x 10-13 tau-1/2 . The total uncertainty was reevaluated to be 6.7 x 10-15, which is four times better than the previous value. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Validation of Dedicated Methods to In-Vehicle Estimation of Atmospheric Visibility Distance

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2218 - 2225
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the framework of the French Research Action For Secure Driving (ARCOS) project, we developed a system that uses in-vehicle charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, aiming to estimate the visibility distance in adverse weather conditions, particularly fog situations. The topic of this paper is the validation of the system. First, we present Koschmieder's model of apparent luminance of objects observed against the background sky on the horizon and deal with the definitions of the different visibility distances we use in our measurement framework, as well as the links that bind them. Then, we describe the two specific onboard techniques we designed to estimate the visibility distance. In the third section, we present a dedicated site and how we use it to validate the previous techniques. Finally, we give the results of a quantitative validation of our onboard techniques, using actual pictures of the validation site in foggy weather. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Design of Discrete-Time Differentiators via Semi-Infinite Programming Approach

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2226 - 2230
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a general optimum full-band, high-order discrete-time differentiator design problem is formulated as a peak-constrained least squares optimization problem. That is, the objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the total weighted square error of the magnitude response subject to the peak constraint of the weighted error function. This problem formulation provides great flexibility for the tradeoff between the ripple energy and the ripple magnitude of the discrete-time differentiator. The optimization problem is actually a semi-infinite programming problem. Our recently developed dual parameterization algorithm is applied to solve the problem. The main advantages of employing the dual parameterization algorithm to solve the problem are as follows: (1) the guarantee of the convergence of the algorithm and (2) the obtained solution being the global optimal solution that satisfies the corresponding continuous constraints. Moreover, the computational cost of the algorithm is lower than that of algorithms that are implementing the semidefinite programming approach. View full abstract»

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  • Networked Predictive Control Over the Internet Using Round-Trip Delay Measurement

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2231 - 2241
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the rapid development of network technology, the potential use of networked real-time control and automation is enormous and appealing. However, closed-loop control systems via the Internet are very difficult to implement practically due to their stochastic nature. The large and random time delay and data dropout caused by data transmission impact the performance of the control system and even result in system instability. To address this problem, this paper proposes a methodology to modify and enhance the conventional system so that it can be used over the Internet. This paper describes a model-based networked predictive control scheme based on round-trip time delay measurement rather than separate consideration of the feedback channel delay (between the sensor and controller) and the forward channel delay (between the controller and actuator), which successfully avoids the requirement of synchronization. It is required by many schemes but is actually hard to achieve over the Internet. Stability for both fixed and random network transmission delays is also investigated in this paper. To illustrate the control performance improvement of the proposed control scheme, the results of off-line simulations and real-time experiments via the Internet are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Method for Design of Adaptive Filters for Sinusoidal Signals

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2242 - 2249
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Filtering of input signals in algorithms for measurement of power system electrical parameters is very important. Filters are used to minimize the noise effect and eliminate the presence of higher order harmonics. In addition to that, a number of measurement algorithms apply orthogonal signal components obtained by two orthogonal finite-impulse response filters. The frequency response of the filters must have nulls at the higher order harmonic frequencies that are expected to be present in the signal and must have a unity gain at the main harmonic frequency. In the case of a time-varying frequency, the filter parameters have to be adapted during frequency estimation. In this paper, a simple method for online design of digital filters for sinusoidal signals is proposed. It is based on closed-form solutions for calculating filter coefficients. A simple linear algorithm for frequency estimation was used, and a derived algorithm for online adaptation of the filter coefficients is computationally very efficient. The number of subsections in the cascade and data window lengths can also be changed, depending on the frequency variations during measurement. View full abstract»

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  • A Remotely Controlled Onboard Measurement System for Optimization of Energy Consumption of Electrical Trains

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2250 - 2256
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (689 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reduction in energy consumption in electrical railway traction systems has become a vital need. The effort spent in providing better quality services implies increasing speed and, therefore, an increase in energy consumption. Various techniques are usually adopted to improve train performances. They span from modifying the vehicle structure to improving the motor. In this paper, a different way to reduce power absorption is presented, which is based on an appropriate interpretation of the traction diagram, along with the absorption curves. Measurement data are available by means of an onboard monitoring system that measures all the electromechanical quantities of the train course and sends them through a network connection to a remote control station. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty, the procedure to obtain the optimized protocol for train operation, and the experimental data obtained when the optimized protocol is applied are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Nonlinear Block Structure Identification Procedure Using Frequency Response Function Measurements

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2257 - 2264
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on simple frequency response function (FRF) measurements, we give the user some guidance in the selection of an appropriate nonlinear block structure for the system to be modeled. The method consists in measuring the FRF using a Gaussian-like input signal and varying in a first experiment the root-mean-square (rms) value of this signal while maintaining the coloring of the power spectrum. Next, in a second experiment, the coloring of the power spectrum is varied while keeping the rms value constant. Based on the resulting behavior of the FRF, an appropriate nonlinear block structure can be selected to approximate the real system. The identification of the selected block-oriented model itself is not addressed in this paper. A theoretical analysis and two practical applications of this structure identification method are presented for some nonlinear block structures. View full abstract»

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  • Effective and Economic Phase Noise Testing for Single-Chip TV Tuners

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2265 - 2272
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Phase noise testing for TV tuners is time consuming and expensive because of the large number of TV channels. This paper presents a hierarchical simulation method for a complex single-chip TV tuner. Based on the simulation results, an effective and economic test method is proposed to save the test application time. This method determines the most effective channels and frequencies to test so that the number of phase noise measurements is reduced. Experimental results on commercial chips show that our proposed method reduces the test time by a factor of ten without test escapes. View full abstract»

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  • E-Nose Vapor Identification Based on Dempster–Shafer Fusion of Multiple Classifiers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2273 - 2282
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electronic noses (e-noses) are commonly used to monitor air contaminants in space stations and shuttles. Data preprocessing (measurement denoising and feature extraction) and pattern classification are important problems of an e-nose system. In this paper, the application of a wavelet-based denoising method and a Dempster-Shafer (DS) classification fusion method in an e-nose system are proposed. Six transient-state features are extracted from the sensor measurements filtered by the wavelet denoising method and are used to train multiple classifiers such as multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), support vector machines (SVMs), k -nearest neighbors (KNNs), and the Parzen classifier. The DS technique is used at the end to fuse the results of the multiple classifiers to get the final classification. Experimental analysis based on real vapor data shows that the wavelet denoising method can successfully remove both random noise and outliers, and the classification rate can be improved by using classifier fusion. View full abstract»

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  • A Low-Cost Open-Hardware Wideband Multiple-Input–Multiple-Output (MIMO) Wireless Channel Sounder

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2283 - 2289
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the complexity of multiple-input-multiple- output (MIMO) wireless channels, direct measurement is the main viable option for accurate characterization. Details on a new low-cost wideband channel sounder are presented, which was mainly constructed from conventional instruments and components. This switched architecture system is similar to commercial channel sounders and has modest cost (< US$ 50000). The sounder operates in the 2- to 8-GHz range with up to 100 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth and supports eight transmitters and receivers, which are sufficient to support the development and assessment of current and future MIMO wireless systems. In this "open-hardware" project, the hardware design and software components are openly available to other researchers interested in developing or enhancing the MIMO measurement capability. The actual systems built at the University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, and Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, are presented, as are some example studies. View full abstract»

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  • Constant Current Drive for Resistive Sensors Based on Generalized Impedance Converter

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2290 - 2296
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (673 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A generalized impedance converter (GIC) is presented in this paper as a programmable current source. A study of its properties and limitations is shown. Its current efficiency is compared with that of Howland topologies, and it is improved in this paper. The contribution of the operational amplifier static offsets to the current source is obtained by presenting typical values of these parameters, and an equivalent circuit with its differential and common modes is presented. The calculated and experimental GIC input impedances are obtained, showing its bandwidth limitation and proposing the possibility of extending the input impedance frequency response without varying its low-frequency value. In this paper, the GIC is used to provide constant current to a series sensor loop and a magnetoresistive current sensor (Wheatstone bridge), which are located within the GIC itself. In both cases, the GIC works under the DC regime, unlike usual AC use. View full abstract»

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  • A Low-Power Datalogger Based on CompactFlash Memory for Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2297 - 2303
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the last decade, marine scientific instruments have been in high demand, particularly autonomous instruments that are capable of staying under water for a long time while performing continuous data acquisition and storage. This paper introduces an instrument under development that is used for the study of ocean bottom sublayers and microseismic detection. The power consumption of the equipment has been minimized to increase autonomy, and Compact Flash memory cards have been used as the storage element. Development of such equipment is a joint effort between different disciplines, such as electronics, mechanics, geophysics, underwater communications, etc. The acquisition system was tested both in the laboratory and under real environmental conditions in the summer of 2005, and the results have been evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Crosstalk Minimization in Optical Current Sensors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2304 - 2308
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate that the magnetic crosstalk-induced errors associated with point-type optical (Faraday) current sensors working in three-phase electric systems may be minimized by properly designing the geometry of the system. We propose a novel architecture in which the optical path inside the magnetooptical material is parallel to the direction of the neighboring conductors, except in a small loop around the sensor head. This renders the crosstalk effect at least one order of magnitude smaller than in conventional Faraday sensor architectures. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
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