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Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • [Inside front cover]

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  • Anonymous Geo-Forwarding in MANETs through Location Cloaking

    Page(s): 1297 - 1309
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we address the problem of destination anonymity for applications in mobile ad hoc networks where geographic information is ready for use in both ad hoc routing and Internet services. Geographic forwarding becomes a lightweight routing protocol in favor of the scenarios. Traditionally the anonymity of an entity of interest can be achieved by hiding it among a group of other entities with similar characteristics, i.e., an anonymity set. In mobile ad hoc networks, generating and maintaining an anonymity set for any ad hoc node is challenging because of the node mobility, consequently the dynamic network topology. We propose protocols that use the destination position to generate a geographic area called an anonymity zone (AZ). A packet for a destination is delivered to all the nodes in the AZ, which make up the anonymity set. The size of the anonymity set may decrease because nodes are mobile, yet the corresponding anonymity set management is simple. We design techniques to further improve node anonymity and reduce communication overhead. We use analysis and extensive simulation to study the node anonymity and routing performance, and to determine the parameters that most impact the anonymity level that can be achieved by our protocol. View full abstract»

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  • A More Practical Approach for Single-Packet IP Traceback using Packet Logging and Marking

    Page(s): 1310 - 1324
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1793 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tracing IP packets to their origins is an important step in defending Internet against denial-of-service attacks. Two kinds of IP traceback techniques have been proposed as packet marking and packet logging. In packet marking, routers probabilistically write their identification information into forwarded packets. This approach incurs little overhead but requires large flow of packets to collect the complete path information. In packet logging, routers record digests of the forwarded packets. This approach makes it possible to trace a single packet and is considered more powerful. At routers forwarding large volume of traffic, the high storage overhead and access time requirement for recording packet digests introduce practicality problems. In this paper, we present a novel scheme to improve the practicality of log-based IP traceback by reducing its overhead on routers. Our approach makes an intelligent use of packet marking to improve scalability of log-based IP traceback. We use mathematical analysis and simulations to evaluate our approach. Our evaluation results show that, compared to the state-of-the-art log-based approach called hash-based IP traceback, our approach maintains the ability to trace single IP packet while reducing the storage overhead by half and the access time overhead by a factor of the number of neighboring routers. View full abstract»

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  • Pseudo Trust: Zero-Knowledge Authentication in Anonymous P2Ps

    Page(s): 1325 - 1337
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1079 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the current trust models in peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are identity based, which means that in order for one peer to trust another, it needs to know the other peer's identity. Hence, there exists an inherent tradeoff between trust and anonymity. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no P2P protocol that provides complete mutual anonymity as well as authentication and trust management. We propose a zero-knowledge authentication scheme called pseudo trust (PT), where each peer, instead of using its real identity, generates an unforgeable and verifiable pseudonym using a one-way hash function. A novel authentication scheme based on zero-knowledge proof is designed so that peers can be authenticated without leaking any sensitive information. With the help of PT, most existing identity-based trust management schemes become applicable in mutual anonymous P2P systems. We analyze the security and the anonymity in PT, and evaluate its performance using trace-driven simulations and a prototype PT-enabled P2P network. The strengths of our design include (1) no need for a centralized trusted party or CA, (2) high scalability and security, (3) low traffic and cryptography processing overheads, and (4) man-in-middle attack resistance. View full abstract»

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  • Secure Collaboration in a Mediator-Free Distributed Environment

    Page(s): 1338 - 1351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3084 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Internet and related technologies have made multidomain collaborations a reality. Collaboration enables domains to effectively share resources; however it introduces several security and privacy challenges. Managing security in the absence of a central mediator is even more challenging. In this paper, we propose a distributed secure interoperability framework for mediator-free collaboration environments. We introduce the idea of secure access paths which enables domains to make localized access control decisions without having global view of the collaboration. We also present a path authentication technique for proving path authenticity. Furthermore, we present an on-demand path discovery algorithms that enable domains to securely discover paths in the collaboration environment. We implemented a simulation of our proposed framework and ran experiments to investigate the effect of several design parameters on our proposed access path discovery algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A Policy Evaluation Tool for Multisite Resource Management

    Page(s): 1352 - 1366
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enterprise typically operates multiple data center sites, each handling workloads according to an enterprise-level strategy. Sharing resources across multiple sites (or enterprises) brings up several important problems. Each site may have its own policies that govern its interactions with other remote sites. Different policies impact the system performance in different ways. The site administrators and system designers need to understand the effects of a given set of policies on different workloads. In this paper, we describe an analysis methodology that determines the impact of policies on the workloads, and we present results and validation for a prototypical multi-site resource sharing system. Our analytical tool is capable of evaluating complex policies on a large scale system and permits independent policies for each site, so that policy makers can quickly evaluate several alternatives and their effects on the workloads before deploying them. View full abstract»

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  • How to Choose a Timing Model

    Page(s): 1367 - 1380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When employing a consensus algorithm for state machine replication, should one optimize for the case that all communication links are usually timely or for fewer timely links? Does optimizing a protocol for better message complexity hamper the time complexity? In this paper, we investigate these types of questions using mathematical analysis as well as experiments over PlanetLab (WAN) and a LAN. We present a new and efficient leader-based consensus protocol that has O(n) stable-state message complexity (in a system with n processes) and requires only O(n) links to be timely at stable times. We compare this protocol with several previously suggested protocols. Our results show that a protocol that requires fewer timely links can achieve better performance, even if it sends fewer messages. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Breadth-First Search on the Cell/BE Processor

    Page(s): 1381 - 1395
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-core processors are a shift of paradigm in computer architecture that promises a dramatic increase in performance. But they also bring an unprecedented level of complexity in algorithmic design and software development. In this paper we describe the challenges involved in designing a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm for the Cell/B.E. processor. The proposed methodology combines a high-level algorithmic design that captures the machine-independent aspects, to guarantee portability with performance to future processors, with an implementation that embeds processor-specific optimizations. Using a fine-grained global coordination strategy derived by the bulk-synchronous parallel (BSP) model, we have determined an accurate performance model that has guided the implementation and the optimization of our algorithm. Our experiments on a pre-production Cell/B.E. board running at 3.2 GHz, show almost linear speedups when using multiple synergistic processing elements, and an impressive level of performance when compared to other processors. On graphs which offer sufficient parallelism, the Cell/B.E. is typically an order of magnitude faster than conventional processors, such as the AMD Opteron and the Intel Pentium 4 and Woodcrest, and custom-designed architectures, such as the MTA-2 and BlueGene/L. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction-Based Power-Performance Adaptation of Multithreaded Scientific Codes

    Page(s): 1396 - 1410
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computing has recently reached an inflection point with the introduction of multi-core processors. On-chip thread-level parallelism is doubling approximately every other year. Concurrency lends itself naturally to allowing a program to trade performance for power savings by regulating the number of active cores, however in several domains users are unwilling to sacrifice performance to save power. We present a prediction model for identifying energy-efficient operating points of concurrency in well-tuned multithreaded scientific applications, and a runtime system which uses live program analysis to optimize applications dynamically. We describe a dynamic, phase-aware performance prediction model that combines multivariate regression techniques with runtime analysis of data collected from hardware event counters to locate optimal operating points of concurrency. Using our model, we develop a prediction-driven, phase-aware runtime optimization scheme that throttles concurrency so that power consumption can be reduced and performance can be set at the knee of the scalability curve of each program phase. The use of prediction reduces the overhead of searching the optimization space while achieving near-optimal performance and power savings. A thorough evaluation of our approach shows a reduction in power consumption of 10.8% simultaneous with an improvement in performance of 17.9%, resulting in energy savings of 26.7%. View full abstract»

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  • A Key Management Scheme Using Deployment Knowledge for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1411 - 1425
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks pose new security and privacy challenges. One of the important challenges is how to bootstrap secure communications among nodes. Several key management schemes have been proposed. However, they either cannot offer strong resilience against node capture attacks, or require too much memory for achieving the desired connectivity. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using deployment knowledge. In our scheme, a target field is divided into a number of hexagon grids and sensor nodes are divided into the same number of groups as that of grids, where each group is deployed into a unique grid. By using deployment knowledge, we drastically reduce the number of potential groups from which a node's neighbors may come. Thus, a pairwise key can be generated efficiently for any two neighbor nodes. Compared with existing schemes, our scheme achieves higher connectivity with a much lower memory requirement and shorter transmission range. It also outperforms others in terms of resilience against node capture attacks. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Algorithms for p-Self-Protection Problem in Static Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1426 - 1438
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1658 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks have been widely used in many surveillance applications. Due to the importance of sensor nodes in such applications, certain level of protection need to be provided to them. We study the self protection problem for static wireless sensor networks in this paper. Self protection problem focuses on using sensor nodes to provide protection to themselves instead of the target objects or certain target area, so that the sensor nodes can resist the attacks targeting on them directly. A wireless sensor network is p-self-protected, if at any moment, for any wireless sensor (active or non-active), there are at least p active sensors that can monitor it. The problem finding minimum p-self-protection is NP-complete, and no efficient self protection algorithms have been proposed. In this paper, we provide efficient centralized and distributed algorithms with constant approximation ratio for minimum p-self-protection problem in sensor networks with either homogeneous or heterogeneous sensing radius. In addition, we design efficient distributed algorithms to not only achieve p-self-protection but also maintain the connectivity of all active sensors. Our simulation confirms the performances of proposed algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Silver Bullet Security Podcasts

    Page(s): 1439
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  • Build Your Career in Computing [advertisement]

    Page(s): 1440
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  • TPDS Information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS) is published monthly. It publishes a range of papers, comments on previously published papers, and survey articles that deal with the parallel and distributed systems research areas of current importance to our readers.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
David Bader
College of Computing
Georgia Institute of Technology