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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3  Part 2 • Date Aug. 2008

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 565
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • On the Modeling of Electric Railway Lines for the Assessment of Infrastructure Impact in Radiated Emission Tests of Rolling Stock

    Page(s): 566 - 576
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1013 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we address the problem of testing radiated emissions generated by rolling stock, when carried out on actual railway sites, as prescribed by the standard EN 50121. The idea of assessing infrastructure impact on test results is presented here by means of an electromagnetic model of railway sites. In the first part, modeling tools are introduced together with some results from the experimental validation. These tools are then applied to actual railway lines proving the importance of site resonances and the ambiguities in the application of the standard EN 50121 in the industrial domain. After pointing out the main difficulties in the simulation of actual railway sites, we present a feasibility study of an alternative procedure for the modeling of a site, based on magnetic field measurements and the solution of an inverse problem with no a priori information about the test site configuration. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Power-Line Filters and Electronic Equipment for Prediction of Conducted Emissions

    Page(s): 577 - 585
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    With present-day standards and measurement techniques, it is very difficult to accurately predict the conducted interference levels of an electronic device connected to a power-line filter (PLF). In this paper, a new modal model (which takes into account common- and differential-mode interactions) for an electronic device is presented and tested. This model is used to develop a new methodology for the accurate prediction of the conducted emissions generated by a filtered electronic device. The modal point of view clarifies such phenomena as the loss of efficiency of PLFs and the modal energy exchange due to mismatches and asymmetries in the circuits. This methodology allows an automatic software selection or design of the optimum PLF for a given electronic device. It has been successfully tested using both test devices and actual electronic equipment. View full abstract»

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  • EMI Reduction and ICs Optimal Arrangement Inside High-Speed Networking Equipment Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Page(s): 586 - 596
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a numerical approach to the modeling of electromagnetic interference (EMI) from the emissions of integrated circuits (ICs) and printed circuit boards (PCBs), inside rectangular metallic enclosures of communication devices, is presented. The ICs are modeled as small magnetic dipoles, and their interaction with the enclosures are formulated by means of dyadic Green's functions. Given the probability distribution describing the magnetic dipole sources, a Monte Carlo simulation is employed to derive the electric current density on the metallic walls as well as to perform a worse-case analysis. The EMI in a network switch and a network router are investigated by means of sources-device models developed for each one of the devices. These models are based on data obtained from magnetic probe measurements in various types of network equipment. Finally, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is utilized to indicate the optimal arrangement of ICs that results in significant reduction of the electric current density induced on the metallic walls. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Dimension-Independent Magnetic and Dielectric Properties for Mn–Zn Ferrite Cores and Its EMI Applications

    Page(s): 597 - 602
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    Simultaneously high permeability and permittivity results in a pronounced dimensional effect in Mn-Zn ferrite cores, which makes the measured complex permeability differ for cores with different dimensions. This paper provides a succinct method to solve an inverse problem of tracing dimension-independent or intrinsic complex permeability and permittivity for Mn-Zn ferrites using two toroidal and rectangular-cross-sectioned cores with different dimensions. The apparent complex permeability of ferrite cores with other dimensions can then be predicted from the traced intrinsic values, so will the effective impedance of common-mode chokes made of such cores. The traced intrinsic permeability is in good agreement with the measured apparent complex permeability of a very small toroidal ferrite core, in which dimensional effect can be ignored. The apparent complex permeabilities of ferrite cores with other dimensions are measured experimentally, and are also calculated from the determined intrinsic values. A very good agreement between the measured and calculated values is found. View full abstract»

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  • New Method Based on Immunity Tests for Shield Maintenance of Wired Electronic Systems

    Page(s): 603 - 611
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (727 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Shielding maintenance of a complex cable harnesses which transmit measurement, control, or other type of signals to electronic shielded devices is a difficult and unsolved task in the electromagnetic compatibility community. Several methods have been developed for this purpose during the past years. The vast majority of these methods needs to dismantle and then reconnect the wired electronic system for maintenance test purposes. This paper presents and analyzes a new method based on immunity tests for shielding maintenance of wired electronic systems. The proposed method avoids the cable system disconnection and attacks the problem from the immunity point of view. View full abstract»

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  • Phase Processing Techniques for the Prediction of Induced Current

    Page(s): 612 - 618
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    This paper reviews the currently used minimum phase algorithm approach for the prediction of induced current as a result of the incidence of a time-domain electromagnetic environment such as an electromagnetic pulse. An alternative to this approach is proposed that enables the user to identify a lower bound on the minimum phase prediction. The technique has been applied to over 500 transfer functions with three different high- power electromagnetic environments and the results are presented and discussed within this paper. The paper concludes that the proposed method is a useful technique in providing an alternative method of predicting the induced current. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation of UWB Transients in Low-Voltage Power Installation Networks

    Page(s): 619 - 629
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    In this paper, the propagation of ultra-wideband (UWB) transients through different types of junctions of low-voltage power cables and one real power network of a building were investigated. For the laboratory test, it was seen that the main mode of propagation in the cables and through the junctions tested is transverse electromagnetic (TEM). The received voltage could thus be, within a small error, estimated from transmission-line theory. The main cause for decreased voltage received at the loads of the branches of the junctions is reflections due to impedance mismatch of the junctions. Large voltages can be delivered to many unprotected loads connected to the junctions. UWB transients were also injected into a residential house using a power outlet available on the outside wall of the house. It was seen that the complexity of this network creates deviation from the TEM mode. However, relatively large voltages were still received at the various outlets inside the house. It is recommended that power outlets or lamp sockets outside buildings are controlled from inside using two-pole switches that reduce the received voltage to reduce the risk of conducted intentional electromagnetic interference. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of the North American Lightning Detection Network Based on Tall-Structure Lightning

    Page(s): 630 - 641
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using Canadian National (CN) Tower lightning data acquired during the summer of 2005, the performance characteristics of the North American Lightning Detection Network (NALDN) were evaluated, including the flash detection efficiency, stroke detection efficiency, absolute location error, location accuracy model error (50%, 90%, and 99% error ellipses), and peak current estimation. The NALDN detected seven out of the seven flashes recorded at the CN tower, resulting in a 100% flash detection efficiency. Furthermore, the NALDN detected 21 out of the 38 return strokes recorded at the tower, resulting in a stroke detection efficiency of 55%. Relative to the CN tower, the NALDN was found to have a median and mean absolute stroke location error of 0.358 and 0.395 km, respectively, for the 21 detected strokes. It was also demonstrated that the NALDN stroke location error seems to have a clear bias towards the north of the CN tower and a slight bias toward the east, with 18 of the 21 strokes predicted to be northeast of the tower. The 50%, 90%, and 99% error ellipses provided by the NALDN were also evaluated. It was found that 71% of the detected strokes (15 out of 21) were enclosed by the 50% error ellipse, 90% of the detected strokes (19 out of 21) were enclosed by the 90% error ellipse, and 95% of the detected strokes (20 out of 21) were enclosed by the 99% error ellipse. The minimum value for the 50% error ellipse axis is set at 0.4 km by Vaisala, Inc., and 20 of the 21 detected strokes had a semimajor axis length of 0.4 km, suggesting that the median location error for strokes hitting the CN tower is 0.4 km or less. The 0.358 km median location error obtained for the 21 detected strokes appears to support this. The dependence of stroke detection efficiency and location error on the characteristics of the current measured at the CN tower is evaluated. The NALDN is found to overestimate the current peak, which is possible to explain for tall-structure lightning. The depen- - dence of stroke detection efficiency and location error on the characteristics of the CN tower lightning-generated electromagnetic pulse, measured 2 km north of the tower, is also evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Correlating the Characteristics of the CN Tower Lightning Return-Stroke Current with Those of Its Generated Electromagnetic Pulse

    Page(s): 642 - 650
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    Simultaneous measurements of the lightning return-stroke current derivative at the Canadian National (CN) Tower and the corresponding lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) 2 km north of the tower have been performed since 1991 using broadband, high-resolution measurement systems. The recent installation of global positioning systems for time synchronization of CN Tower lightning measurement stations has enabled the correlation of the wavefront characteristics (peak, maximum derivative, and 10–90% rise time) of the return-stroke current with those of its LEMP. The characteristics of the tower's lightning electric and magnetic fields have also been correlated with each other. The current and field correlation analysis is based on August 19, 2005, CN Tower lightning return-stroke data. In addition to the strong linear correlations of the wavefront characteristics of the electric and magnetic field waveforms, an excellent linear correlation has been established between the magnetic field and current wavefront peaks. Also, a good linear correlation has been found between the magnetic field wavefront maximum derivative and that of the current. These findings are of interest in lightning detection methodology. For example, the current wavefront maximum derivative can be estimated from the detected magnetic field after taking into consideration the propagation effect on its derivative. Although weakly correlated, a general trend of increase in the magnetic field peak and maximum rate of rise has been observed as the current maximum rate of rise and peak increase, respectively. It is hoped that the field–current relationships developed in this paper, using the recent CN Tower lightning return-stroke data, will contribute to solving the inverse-source problem, one of the challenging problems in lightning research, where lightning current characteristics are estimated based on the characteristics of the measured LEMP. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Lightning-Induced Voltages on Overhead Lines Using a 2-D FDTD Method and Agrawal Coupling Model

    Page(s): 651 - 659
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the lightning-generated electromagnetic fields over lossy ground produced by lightning strikes either to flat ground or to a tall tower are calculated using the 2-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The resultant horizontal and vertical electric fields are used as forcing functions in the discretized Agrawal electromagnetic coupling equations for the calculation of induced voltages on overhead horizontal conductors without employing the Cooray–Rubinstein formula. Comparison of the results with those obtained using the 3-D FDTD method and with experimental data found in the literature is used to test the validity of the examined method. The approach employed here generally provides sufficient accuracy while allowing significant reduction in computation time and storage requirements as compared to the 3-D FDTD method. From the analysis carried out in this paper, induced voltages appear to be strongly dependent on ground conductivity, somewhat influenced by return-stroke speed, and essentially independent of return-stroke model [transmission-line (TL), modified transmission line with linear current decay with height (MTLL), or modified transmission line with exponential current decay with height (MTLE)]. View full abstract»

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  • Responses of Airport Runway Lighting System to Direct Lightning Strikes: Comparisons of TLM Predictions With Experimental Data

    Page(s): 660 - 668
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    A test airport runway lighting system, including a buried cable protected by a counterpoise and vertical ground rods, was subjected to direct lightning strikes, and currents and voltages measured in different parts of the system were reported earlier by Bejleri et al. In this paper, we attempt to model the lightning interaction with this system using the transmission line theory. Lumped devices along the cable such as current regulator and transformers are ignored; possible nonlinear phenomena (arcing) in the system are neglected; the soil is assumed to be homogeneous. The model-predicted currents in the counterpoise, ground rod, and the cable are compared with the measurements, and a reasonable agreement was found for the currents along the counterpoise. It is found that current in the counterpoise is not much influenced by the presence of the cable. Further, vertical ground rods connected to the counterpoise do not have significant influence on the current distribution along the counterpoise. It appears that the model is unable to predict cable currents and voltages in the test system, presumably due to neglecting nonlinear phenomena in the soil and in cable's insulation and electromagnetic coupling with the lightning channel. View full abstract»

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  • A Closed-Form Approach to the Inverse Fourier Transform and Its Applications

    Page(s): 669 - 677
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    The inverse Fourier transform of a complex-valued weighted exponential frequency-domain function is derived. A bounded causal frequency-domain transfer function can be approximated by a sum of exponential functions using numerical techniques such as the Prony's method or the matrix pencil method, which leads to the corresponding time-domain response through an exact inverse Fourier transform. The method is demonstrated in examples with given tabulated frequency-domain data for function interpolation and extrapolation, direct generation of time-domain pulse responses, and deriving time-domain reflectometry waveform from measured S-parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of Conducted Interference by Steel Armor in Buried Cables: Measurements and Modeling

    Page(s): 678 - 686
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (591 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Switched-mode power supplies in variable-frequency drives often combine good electrical efficiency with generous production of conducted emission. The common-mode (CM) current through the output-to-motor cable may perturb nearby systems via cable-to-cable crosstalk. Parameters relevant for the coupling are the rise--fall times and amplitude of the output current and voltage, and types and lengths of the cables. Of the many techniques to reduce the crosstalk, we investigated a particular one: reduction of the CM current by the armor of the motor cable. The armor is intended for mechanical protection, but may also substantially reduce the crosstalk. In an actual installation, we measured the transient current through the three phase leads of a motor cable. The cable length was 85 m, and it was buried in wet soil for most of its length. We also measured the transfer impedance of the armor up to 10 MHz, and used this to calculate the overall CM current in a coupled cable model using assumed reasonable values for the cable and soil parameters. Measurements and model results agreed well on the amplitude of the dominant resonance at about 300 kHz. The ratio of the inside transients to CM current was a factor of 20. View full abstract»

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  • Modal Analysis of Microstrip Lines Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis of FDTD Simulations

    Page(s): 687 - 696
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    A comprehensive modal analysis of microstrip circuits using the singular value decomposition analysis of finite-difference time-domain simulation results has been performed. The detailed information have revealed new physical features, which are, to our best knowledge, seen for the first time. This realistic approach includes the 3-D configuration of structures and the full-wave electromagnetic properties. Increasing the aspect ratio of a continuous microstrip line strengthens the fundamental transverse electromagnetic mode and weakens the higher order transverse magnetic modes. However, the introduction of gap discontinuity in the line enhances the mode strength in the vicinity of the gap. The physical interpretations of these results have been discussed in the paper. Moreover, the effects of line topology on the evolution of modes are illustrated. This investigation has physical significance in the practical design of high-speed interconnects and system-on-chip. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of Electrical Parameters of Two-Wire Lines in Multiconductor Cables

    Page(s): 697 - 703
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A rigorous method for the calculations of the characteristics of two-wire lines (twisted pairs) located in a metal shield is considered. In this paper, it is first shown that the mutual coupling between lines in multiconductor cables results in the appearance of electromagnetic interference (crosstalk) in communication channels; second, the asymmetry of excitation and loads results in the appearance of common-mode currents in the cable. The voltage values (interference) in the loads placed at the beginning and the end of the adjacent line are determined at a given power in the main line. The effect of loads connected between wires and shield is examined. The proposed method allows generalization of the obtained results in the case of multiconductor cables with losses. View full abstract»

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  • Reconstruction of Dispersive Dielectric Properties for PCB Substrates Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Page(s): 704 - 714
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An effective method for extracting parameters of a Debye or a Lorentzian dispersive medium over a wideband frequency range using a genetic algorithm (GA) and a transmission-line model is presented. Scattering parameters (S-parameters) of the transmission-line sections, including a parallel plate, microstrip, and stripline, are measured. Wave equations for TEM/quasi-TEM mode with a complex propagation constant and a frequency-dependent wave impedance are used to evaluate the corresponding S-parameters in an analytical model. The discrepancy between the modeled and measured S-parameters is defined as the objective function in the GA. The GA is used for search of the dispersive-medium parameters by means of minimizing the objective function over the entire frequency range of interest. The reconstructed Debye or Lorentzian dispersive material parameters are corroborated by comparing the original measurements with the FDTD modeling results. The self-consistency of the proposed method is demonstrated by constructing different test structures with an identical material, i.e., material parameters of a substrate extracted from different transmission-line configurations. The port effects on the material parameter extraction are examined by using through-reflection-line calibration. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Transient Simulation of Interconnects Characterized by Band-Limited Data With Propagation Delay Enforcement in a Modified Nodal Analysis Framework

    Page(s): 715 - 729
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    A numerical-convolution-based approach has been proposed for the accurate transient simulation of interconnects characterized by band-limited (b.l.) frequency-domain (f.d.) data and terminated by arbitrary equivalent circuits. Propagation delay is enforced in the transient results by obtaining causal impulse responses from b.l.f.d. data, extracting the propagation delays from them, and enforcing the delays in the causal impulse responses. Causal impulse responses are obtained through a new minimum- phase/all-pass decomposition of the frequency data. In this decomposition, a new form for the all-pass component has been proposed that preserves the sign of the original frequency response in the reconstructed response, unlike the prior approaches, leading to an accurate transient result. Arbitrary terminations are conveniently handled by integrating the numerical convolution in a modified nodal analysis (MNA) framework, a framework used by commercial circuit simulators, through a new transient simulation formulation. Numerical results demonstrating the accuracy and capability of the proposed procedure have been presented. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Determination of the Electromagnetic Field Due to WiMAX Base Station Antennas

    Page(s): 730 - 735
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    A method for accurate determination of electromagnetic fields around the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) base stations (BSs) is developed in this paper. The influence of the characteristics of the WiMAX signal on the settings and parameters of the spectrum analyzer (SA) used for exposure assessment is investigated. Optimal settings of the SA are proposed, and the results obtained using simulations and measurements agree very well. A practical application in the neighborhood of a WiMAX BS is performed. The obtained electric field values correspond very well for the different settings and are compared with the reference levels for the general public and those for occupational exposure. The results of this paper can be used for practical measurement procedures of the exposure due to WiMAX signals. View full abstract»

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  • Amplitude Probability Distribution Measurement for Electric Field Intensity Assessment of Cellular-Phone-Base Stations

    Page(s): 736 - 739
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In compliance assessments of radio-frequency exposure from cellular-phone-base station antennas, the root of 6-min time average of the squared electric fields is commonly required. Under the assumption that the time-varying electric fields belong to an ergodic process, a new approach has been proposed to estimate the 6-min time average from the ensemble average of the squared electric fields based on amplitude probability distribution (APD) measurements for a shorter time, much less than 6 min. The usefulness of the approach has been demonstrated at the 800-MHz band and the 1.5-GHz band, and the results have shown that by using a fast sampling rate, 1-min APD measurements could give a good estimate of the 6-min time average with an accuracy of within 10%. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Modeling of Rerouted Return Currents in Multilayered Power-Ground Planes by Using Integral Equation

    Page(s): 740 - 743
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilayered power-ground (PG) planes are commonly used to supply power to circuits in high-speed electronic packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs). In this paper, we propose an efficient integral equation equivalent network method to simulate the interference produced by the rerouted return currents of signal traces inside such PG planes. The integral equation is created based on the geometrical features of the PG planes. Therefore, it could reduce the computing time and will be maintaining good accuracy. By discretizing the integral equation, a multiport equivalent network model is derived for each layer of the PG planes. Their [ $Z$] matrices are then obtained. These [ $Z$] matrices can be smoothly integrated with signal traces and other circuit models of lumped components mounted in the package and on the PCB, so that the system-level signal integrity and power integrity can be simulated efficiently. View full abstract»

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  • The Influence of Attachment Height on Lightning-Induced Voltages

    Page(s): 743 - 747
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of the attachment height on the amplitude of lightning-induced voltages is evaluated by computational simulation. The reduction of voltage amplitude with increasing height is observed, and this effect is attributed to the electrostatic component of the induced voltages. Simulation of lightning strikes with typical parameters of first and subsequent negative strokes, including the height of attachment, indicated that induced voltages caused by first strokes have larger amplitude. View full abstract»

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  • A New Type of Robot System for High-Resolution Field Mapping

    Page(s): 747 - 751
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a high-resolution field scanner that accomplishes a measurement of the field distribution inside a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell. Further, simulations have been carried out in order to back up measurement results. The field inside the cell has been measured under different loading conditions for different frequencies. Each loading condition distorts the field inside the cell differently. In order to show these distortions, a special flexible scanning robot has been developed and constructed. It moves an isotropic $E$-field sensor while distorting the field very little due to its nonmetallic materials. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Passengers on Mutual Coupling in a Simplified Fuselage: Simulations and Measurements

    Page(s): 751 - 755
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    In this paper, the effects of human passengers on mutual coupling in a rectangular simplified scale model Boeing 757 fuselage are examined. The coupling effects are compared to those in an empty fuselage. Both measured and finite-difference time-domain-simulated results are presented. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch