By Topic

Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2008

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (67 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (46 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial IMTC 2007 Special Issue

    Page(s): 1502 - 1503
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (95 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Area-Based Image-Scaling Technique

    Page(s): 1504 - 1513
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (722 KB)  

    In this paper, we propose the design and implementation of an interpolation scheme for performing image scaling by utilizing a dynamic mask combined with a sophisticated neighborhood averaging fuzzy algorithm. The functions that contribute to the final interpolated image are the areas of the input pixels, overlapped by a dynamic mask, and the difference in intensity between the input pixels. Fuzzy if-then rules for these two functions are presented to carry out the interpolation task. Simulation results have shown a fine high-frequency response and a low interpolation error, in comparison with other widely used algorithms. The interpolation can be applied to both gray-scale and color images for any scaling factor. The proposed hardware structure is implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip and is based on a sequence of pipeline stages and parallel processing to minimize computation times. The fuzzy image interpolation implementation combines a fuzzy inference system and an image-interpolation technique in one hardware system. Its main features are the ability to accurately approximate the Gaussian membership functions used by the fuzzy inference system with very few memory requirements and its high-frequency performance of 65 MHz, making it appropriate for real-time imaging applications. The system can magnify gray-scale images of up to 10-bit resolution. The maximum input image size is 1024 times 1024 pixels for a maximum of 800% magnification. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experimental Study of Coexistence Issues Between IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Networks

    Page(s): 1514 - 1523
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1049 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Coexistence issues between IEEE 802.11b wireless communication networks and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks, operating over the 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical band, are assessed. In particular, meaningful experiments that are performed through a suitable testbed are presented. Such experiments involve both the physical layer, through measurements of channel power and the SIR, and the network/transport layer, by means of packet loss ratio estimations. Different configurations of the testbed are considered; major characteristics, such as the packet rate, the packet size, the SIR, and the network topology, are varied. The purpose of this paper is to gain helpful information and hints to efficiently face coexistence problems between such networks and optimize their setup in some real-life conditions. Details concerning the testbed, the measurement procedure, and the performed experiments are provided. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurement of Water Jet Velocity Distribution Using Laser Velocimetry

    Page(s): 1524 - 1528
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A laser Doppler velocimetry technique has been implemented in this work to evaluate the water jet velocity distribution in water jet and abrasive water jet cutting applications. Knowledge of the water jet velocity is fundamental to determine the system cutting efficiency; in particular, it allows us to experimentally determine the specific performance of the orifices employed in the cutting process. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Frequency-Domain, Errors-in-Variables Estimation of Linear Dynamic Systems Using Data From Overlapping Subrecords

    Page(s): 1529 - 1536
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study the consistency of a frequency-domain, errors-in-variables estimator using data extracted from overlapping subrecords. While the classical approach without overlap needs six consecutive periods, we show in this paper that by using overlapping subrecords, consistent models can be found with only two periods of the steady-state response of a periodic excitation. Moreover, the system identification procedure used for data extracted from independent experiments is shown to be valid for data extracted from overlapping subrecords. This allows the user to considerably reduce the measurement time or the measurement uncertainty without changing the identification procedure. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experimental Characterization of Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Applications

    Page(s): 1537 - 1546
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effects of interference in the setup of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent a critical issue, and as such, it needs to be carefully addressed. To this aim, helpful information can be achieved through measurements to be carried out in advance on suitable prototypes and testbeds. In this paper, the measurement of industrial WSN performance is dealt with. In particular, a suitable testbed enlisting IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor nodes is presented along with the results of some experiments carried out even in the presence of interference. The purpose is to show how to evaluate some specific parameters of a WSN employed for industrial applications to obtain useful information for its setup optimization in the presence of interference. The analysis will show that from the measurement of these parameters (number of failed pollings, polling round-trip time, experimental cycle time, and alarm latency), interference effects can effectively be recognized, and the network setup can be optimized. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of Turbulent Flow Speed Profiles in Pressure Pipes Using the Dissimilar Similitude Technique Applied to an Electrolytic Tank: Implementation and Experimental Characterization

    Page(s): 1547 - 1553
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the analysis of speed profiles in pressure pipes, which is a fluodynamic problem that is still a matter of discussion, particularly for variable flow conditions, is presented. Even if the increasing performance of PCs allows the successful adoption of numerical techniques in the simulation of practically all systems, the actually available mathematical models can supply only approximate solutions in simulating the interaction of a real viscous fluid with a surface during a turbulent flow regime. To solve this problem, a theoretically more accurate method based on dissimilar similitude has been investigated, because of its cost-effective advantage over any other comparable experimental method. More specifically, the fluodynamic analysis was carried out by applying the analogies between the fluid speed profiles in a pressure pipe and the voltage profiles on an electrolytic tank. In the paper, the theoretical backgrounds regarding the idea are reviewed, and an experimental system based on an electrolytic tank is proposed. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented system, which has been evaluated by an experimental characterization, is discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comparison of Nonactive Powers for the Detection of Dominant Harmonic Sources in Power Systems

    Page(s): 1554 - 1561
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with an innovative technique for the detection of disturbing loads in distorted power systems. The technique is a single-point strategy based on a comparison among different ldquononactiverdquo power quantities already proposed in the literature, which are measured at the same metering section. In this paper, the effectiveness of the strategy is discussed, which also considered the errors of the measurement transducers; the analysis is supported by simulation tests, which were carried out on both a simple single-phase system and an IEEE standard three-phase test power system. The latter was used by other authors as a benchmark system for the analysis of multipoint measurement techniques for harmonic pollution monitoring. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hand Gesture Recognition Using Haar-Like Features and a Stochastic Context-Free Grammar

    Page(s): 1562 - 1571
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new approach to solve the problem of real-time vision-based hand gesture recognition with the combination of statistical and syntactic analyses. The fundamental idea is to divide the recognition problem into two levels according to the hierarchical property of hand gestures. The lower level of the approach implements the posture detection with a statistical method based on Haar-like features and the AdaBoost learning algorithm. With this method, a group of hand postures can be detected in real time with high recognition accuracy. The higher level of the approach implements the hand gesture recognition using the syntactic analysis based on a stochastic context-free grammar. The postures that are detected by the lower level are converted into a sequence of terminal strings according to the grammar. Based on the probability that is associated with each production rule, given an input string, the corresponding gesture can be identified by looking for the production rule that has the highest probability of generating the input string. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Novel Two-Axis CMOS Accelerometer Based on Thermal Convection

    Page(s): 1572 - 1577
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (823 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Accelerometers based on thermal convection use a tiny bubble of heated air and pairs of temperature sensors hermetically sealed inside the sensor package cavity. In this paper, we successfully design and fabricate a novel thermal-bubble-based micromachined accelerometer with the advantages of minimized solid thermal conductance and higher sensitivity. The proposed accelerometer consists of a microheater and two pairs of thermopiles floating over an etched cavity and is constructed by our proposed microlink structure. Two-dimensional acceleration detection is easily realized using the microlink structure, and it can be applied to the technology of inclinometers, anemometers, and flowmeters. The heater and thermopiles are connected by netlike microlink structures, which enhance the structure and greatly reduce the solid heat flow from the heater to the hot junctions of the thermopiles. The samples are fabricated by the TSMC 0.35-mum 2P4M CMOS process, which has been provided by the national chip implementation center (CIC). Our design has proved to be applicable for commercial batch production with outstanding strong structures and uniform quality. We measure the output signal by inclining the sensor to evaluate the performance of this accelerometer. The best sensitivity of 22 muV/g was obtained from acceleration versus output voltage under several experimental conditions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Three-Dimensional Head Tracking and Facial Expression Recovery Using an Anthropometric Muscle-Based Active Appearance Model

    Page(s): 1578 - 1588
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1043 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a novel 3-D model-based tracking algorithm allowing the real-time recovery of 3-D position, orientation, and facial expressions of a moving head. The method uses a 3-D anthropometric muscle-based active appearance model (3-D AMB AAM), a feature-based matching algorithm, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) pose and expression estimator. Our model is an extension of the classical 2-D AAM and uses a generic 3-D wireframe model of the face based on two sets of controls: the anatomically motivated muscle actuators to model facial expressions and the statistically based anthropometrical controls to model different facial types. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Using a Square-Wave Signal for Fault Diagnosis of Analog Parts of Mixed-Signal Electronic Embedded Systems

    Page(s): 1589 - 1595
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach to the detection and localization of single hard and soft faults of analog parts in embedded mixed-signal electronic systems controlled with microcontrollers, DSPs, or systems-on-a-chip (SoCs) (generally control units). The approach consists of three stages: a pretesting stage of creation of the fault dictionary using identification curves, a measurement stage based on stimulating the tested circuit by a square-wave signal generated by the control unit, and measurements of voltage samples of the circuit response by the internal ADC of the control unit. In the final stage, fault detection and localization are performed by the control unit. The measurement microsystem [the built-in self test (BIST)] consists only of internal devices of the control unit already existing in the system. Hence, this approach simplifies the structure of BISTs, which allows reduction of test costs. The results of experimental verification of the approach are included in this paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A CMOS Integrable Oscillator-Based Front End for High-Dynamic-Range Resistive Sensors

    Page(s): 1596 - 1604
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (934 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new oscillating circuit is proposed to estimate the resistance and parallel parasitic capacitance of resistive chemical sensors. The circuit is able to reveal the resistance in a wide range (from tens of kiloohms to more than 100 GOmega) due to the adopted resistance-to-time technique. In addition, the parallel capacitance (up to 50 pF) can be estimated. The circuit, which does not need any initial calibration, is very simple and compact and is suitable to be integrated with a standard CMOS technology to obtain a low-cost and low-power device for a sensor array interface. Different kinds of post layout simulations concerning the CMOS integrated implementation have been conducted. Experimental results obtained using a discrete prototype board, both on passive components and on real sensors (metal-oxide sensors), have shown good linearity and reduced percentage error with respect to the theoretical expectations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Vision-Based Technique for Edge Displacement and Vibration Estimations of a Moving Flexible Web

    Page(s): 1605 - 1613
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1781 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Web vibration phenomena that occur in winding/unwinding systems have a knock-on economical effect for the numerous firms that utilize this equipment. Among many sources of disturbances, out-of-plane and lateral displacements of a moving web are well known to be two main limiting factors of web transport velocity in the industry. To tackle this problem, we address, in this paper, a new approach for the detection and monitoring of the most significant web displacements encountered, which are the simultaneous edge web lateral displacements and out-of-plane web vibrations. This technique involves a fast vision system composed of two digital cameras ( ges 2 times100 i/s) and a laser stripe lines pattern device. It is a contactless technique that allows catching out-of-plane web vibration properties during the winding process. Due to a well-known edge-tracking algorithm and fast but simple image segmentation algorithms in the field of binary machine vision, both edge web and out-of-plane vibration frequencies and magnitudes are estimated in real time. The latter are extracted from the analysis of the relative depth variations of the web surface with respect to the common camera frame. Experiments have been conducted on a winding plant for elastic fabric. Together with the 3-D displacements of the web edges, the two most significant frequencies of web vibrations have been estimated for a sequence of images and compared with those computed with a simple elastic string model in motion. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A New Flexible Optical Fiber Goniometer for Dynamic Angular Measurements: Application to Human Joint Movement Monitoring

    Page(s): 1614 - 1620
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electronic measurement of the angle between two planes is generally performed by using the so-called electrogoniometers. The major drawback in using such devices is the presence of a fixed hinge that imposes a fixed center of rotation. This can cause problems when measuring the bending angle in some joints, such as Cardan or human joints, which have a variable rotation center. Based on an optical fiber, a sensor measuring the relative angle in a rotating joint has been developed. This joint makes use of the intensity modulation of a laser beam propagating in a single-mode optical fiber, due to the changes of its polarization status originated by the rotation of contiguous portions of the fiber, where controlled birefringence has been induced by the joint rotation. A prototype of this sensor has been developed with a range of the relative angle of 90deg , a resolution of less than 0.01deg, and a standard deviation of 0.1deg. The main advantages of this innovative sensor are lightness, flexibility, high speed of reaction, and high accuracy. This paper describes the development of the proposed sensor, with particular reference to the applications of human joint movement monitoring. Additionally, the equipment implemented for the test is illustrated, and results from laboratory tests are reported and discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Amperometric Glucose Biosensor With Enhanced Measurement Stability and Sensitivity Using an Artificially Porous Conducting Polymer

    Page(s): 1621 - 1626
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A conducting polymer [polypyrrole (PPy)]-based amperometric biosensor fabricated on a platinum-coated nanoporous alumina electrode has been described. This fabricating process introduced artificial porosity into the PPy film, and the template pore sizes were carefully chosen to match the size of the glucose oxidase (GOx) molecule. The PF6 --doped PPy film was synthesized with 0.05 M pyrrole and 0.1 M NaPF6 at a current density of 0.3 mA/cm2 for 90 s. Immobilization was done by physically adsorbing 5 muL of GOx on the nanoporous PPy film. Glutaraldehyde (0.1 wt.%, 5 muL) was used for cross-linking. The synthesized films were characterized by using an electrochemical technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Amperometric responses were measured as a function of different concentrations of glucose at 0.4 V. Nanoporous electrodes lead to high enzyme loading, whereas the use of a cross-linking agent increased stability, sensitivity, reproducibility, repeatability, and shelf life. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Prototype for 3-D Hand Tracking and Posture Estimation

    Page(s): 1627 - 1636
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we explain our experience in designing a prototype for 3-D hand tracking and dynamic gesture recognition. Our objective is to be able to continuously visually track the hand in a general background and to be able to recognize dynamic gestures in real time. The constraints and the conditions for our system to justify our approach are generic nonrestricted environment and generic nonspecific application. Our prototype has undergone several stages-from simulation to three different cycles of development and testing. We also present a road map for future development to reach the final goal. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • 20-A to 100-A AC–DC Coaxial Current Shunts for 100-kHz Frequency Range

    Page(s): 1637 - 1641
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes a set of four cylindrical coaxial ac current shunts used as the new National Research Council of Canada (NRC) working standards in the frequency range up to 100 kHz. They were designed for currents from 20 to 100 A. At the lower current range, the shunts were compared to NRC coaxial shunts built from discrete resistors. At the higher current range, they were compared to the old working standards: a set of commercial shunts. The paper presents the description of the shunt design as well as results of their experimental performance and uncertainty evaluation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Study of Measurement-Based Traffic Models for Network Diagnostics

    Page(s): 1642 - 1650
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (811 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the measurement and analysis of network flows are taken into account as a methodology for characterization and diagnosis of network behavior. The accuracy of flow models will be discussed, reviewing the basic underlying assumptions. A modeling approach based on multidomain analysis will be proposed, where flow measurements can be complemented by a limited amount of protocol data gathered from packet headers. By the analysis of experimental data, we argue that, in several situations, traffic may be more appropriately modeled by the superposition of multiple flows with different characteristics, which results in better measurements and improved diagnostic possibilities. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A New Concept of the Power Quality Temperature Factor and Its Experimental Verification

    Page(s): 1651 - 1660
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the features of ship power systems is the presence of different power quality disturbances, such as frequency and voltage root-mean-square (rms) value deviations, unbalance, and voltage waveform distortions. The disturbances (including their synergy) cause an increase in the windings temperature of marine induction machines that are exposed to overheating, even if the voltage parameters fulfill the requirements of ship classification societies. Effective protection of marine induction machines against overheating requires an appropriate method of power quality assessment. This paper proposes a new power quality factor, the value of which is proportional to the windings temperature of induction machines supplied with voltage of lowered quality. The power quality factor has been experimentally verified. The results of the thermal tests based on the dedicated laboratory stand to validate the new power quality factor are presented. The time characteristics of the power quality factor based on voltage monitoring on ships are shown. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Parameter Estimation Employing a Dual-Channel Sine-Wave Model Under a Gaussian Assumption

    Page(s): 1661 - 1669
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) is a lower bound on the error variance of any estimator. For a Gaussian scenario, the CRB is derived for a seven-parameter, dual-channel sine-wave model, which is a model relevant to applications such as impedance measurements and the estimation of particle size and velocity by laser anemometry. Four different parameterizations were considered: the common quadrature/in-phase and amplitude-phase models and two relative amplitude-phase models. The CRB indicated the achievable error variance of an unbiased estimator as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the number of samples, and noise power. A nonlinear least squares fit of the signal model to the collected data was employed. The problem at hand is separable and can be solved by a 1-D search followed by a linear least squares fit of the remaining parameters. The performance of the method was investigated with the aid of a simulation study, and the outcome was compared with that of the corresponding CRB and with a recently proposed seven-parameter fit. For high SNRs, the performance of the proposed method is close to optimal with an error variance close to the predictions made by the CRB. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Method Using Bilinear Transformation for Measurement of Impedance Parameters of a Multielement Two-Terminal Network

    Page(s): 1670 - 1677
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for the identification of the impedance parameters of objects, which can be modeled by two-terminal networks. The method uses the properties of bilinear transformation, which allows presentation of object impedance as a function of each parameter of the equivalent circuit of the object. Inverse bilinear transformation allows the determination of the value of each parameter on the basis of impedance measurement at a single frequency. The measurement frequency is selected for each identified element (on the basis of the minimal relative sensitivity of the identified element to changes of other elements), so the number of measurement frequencies is equal to the number of elements to be identified. This makes it possible to shorten the identification time when compared with the traditional identification method based on the impedance spectrum fitting method (complex nonlinear least squares). When the object model and the order of component values are known, the developed method fully assures conditions that allow an implementation in low-cost portable diagnostic instruments. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Application of Selected Linear Algebra Processing Methods in the Electromagnetic Flow Measurement for Open Channels

    Page(s): 1678 - 1684
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic flowmeters are said to be the best solution in many applications, because they measure the average velocity even when the filling of the channel varies and the local streams fluctuate. Despite the relatively simple principles of operation, the question of which signal processing method can handle flow parameter estimation in a noisy environment is still open. The estimators based on classical signal decomposition, with the use of the Euclidean inner product, have high variances. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of a trial that modifies the inner product in such a way that it would be ldquoblindrdquo to the existing disturbances with the approach based on the extension of the nonorthogonal basis. The presented methods were tested with real signals acquired in an open-channel laboratory model of the electromagnetic flowmeter. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703