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Magnetics in Japan, IEEE Translation Journal on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1993

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): c1
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  • List of contributors

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): nil1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): nil1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 825
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  • Combined Type Thin Film Head for DCC

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 826 - 832
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    An inductive head for recording and a yoke type MR head for playback have been employed in a DCC system. It is difficult to fabricate these heads on the same substrate while controlling the head properties. We therefore developed a new hybrid thin film head. The new combined structure of the head enables simplification of the production process, and the head proved to be suitable for use in DCC systems. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Trends in the Development of Interstitially Modified Rare-Earth Intermetallic Compounds Produced by Gas Phase Reactions

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 833 - 841
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    Recent trends in the development of interstitially modified rare-earth intermetallic compounds produced by solid-gas phase reactions are reviewed. The effects of the H, N and C contents on the intrinsic magnetic properties of R-Fe-based compounds are summarized. The process for nitriding such compounds is briefly described. The successful fabrication of permanent magnets starting from Sm2Fe17Nx is introduced. Future applications of solid-gas phase reactions to the development of new rare-earth compounds are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Research and Development of Sm2Fe17Nx Hard Magnetic Material

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 842 - 852
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    Research and development of Sm2Fe17Nx hard magnetic materials is reviewed. In order to investigate the effects of different interstitial elements on the Th2Zn17 parent crystal structure and on the magnetic properties of the material, research on Sm2Fe17Cy compounds is also reviewed. The lattice constants a and c of Sm2Fe17Cy compounds (y≪1.5) gradually increase with increasing carbon content. Both Sm2Fe17Nx and Sm2Fe17Cy (x,y≫2.0) compounds exhibited nearly constant lattice expansion rates of 2.3% along the a-axis and 1.7% along the c-axis. No report has appeared on compounds for which 1.5≪(x or y)≪2. In Sm2Fe17Cy (y≪1.5) compounds, the unit cell volume and Curie temperature (Tc) increase with increasing carbon content. In Sm2Fe17Nx (2.1≪x≪3) compounds, however, a nearly constant unit cell volume and Tc are reported. The differences in the magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx specimens prepared from the different starting alloys produced in various processes are reviewed. The mechanism of nitrogenation under various gas atmospheric conditions is also discussed and reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • An Analysis of the Segregated Microstructures of Electroless-Deposited CoNiP Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media Using Selective Chemical Etching

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 853 - 857
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    The segregated microstructures of electroless-deposited CoNiP perpendicular magnetic recording media with various Hc(¿) values-500, 1000 and 1500 Oe-were investigated using a selective chemical etching technique, in which Co-rich ferromagnetic regions were preferentially dissolved with an etchant of sodium hydroxide-m-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid-ethylenediamine aqueous solution. TEM observations of the etched 1500 Oe film revealed an "asteroid" pattern with sixfold symmetry, which was inferred to be a substructure with Ni-rich composition. It is thought that the Co-rich regions are segregated between the "arms" of the asteroid substructure. The shape of the substructure varied with the Hc(¿) of the films; no substructure was observed in the 500 Oe film, while a substructure with a needlelike shape as well as a quasi-asteroid shape were observed in different regions of the 1000 Oe film. The differences in the segregation conditions are strongly dependent on the Hc(¿) of the films. Further investigation of the 1500 Oe film in the thickness direction clearly indicated that the segregation occurs even in the initial deposition region (30 nm), and that the size of the substructure becomes larger with increasing film thickness. View full abstract»

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  • Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Media on Various Hard-Disk Substrates

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 858 - 863
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    Co-Cr perpendicular media on rigid substrates were studied. We used untextured glass substrates for perpendicular magnetic hard disks, but the reproduced output at short wavelengths was influenced by the surface roughness of the magnetic recording media. We therefore fabricated Co-Cr perpendicular hard disk media deposited onto different substrates: untextured glass, silicon single crystal, chemically textured alumite, and Mn-Zn ferrite. We compared these substrates with respect to their crystallographic properties, head-to-medium spacing, and record/playback characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • High-Frequency Permeability of Isotropic Co-Based Amorphous Films

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 864 - 869
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    The dependence of soft magnetic properties on the annealing conditions of Co-based amorphous films of different thicknesses was investigated in detail, in order to obtain films with a high isotropic initial permeability at high frequencies. It was found that the microscopic anisotropy of films annealed in a rotating field was increased isotropically by field-free annealing below the Curie temperature (Tc). Thinner films with a larger microscopic anisotropy exhibited a higher isotropic permeability at high frequencies. This occurred because the natural resonance frequency is increased by increases in the microscopic anisotropy, and the influence of the eddy current on the initial permeability becomes a dominant factor at high frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Magneto-Optical Properties of Cd1-xMnxTe Multiple Quantum Wells Prepared by the ICB Technique

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 870 - 874
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    Cd1-xMnxTe/MnTe multiple quantum well structures were successfully grown on a sapphire (0001) substrate by using the ionized-cluster beam (ICB) technique, and their optical and magnetooptical properties were investigated. Transitions to the subband levels formed in wells were observed in the optical absorption and magneto-circular dichroism (MCD) spectra. The transition energies shifted widely toward higher energies as the well width was decreased. The experimental results for subband energies agreed well with the results calculated using the Kronig-Penney band model. The change in MCD peak height with the well width can be explained by the Zeeman splitting of the subband levels and the oscillator strengths of transitions to those levels. View full abstract»

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  • Microstructure of Sputtered High-Coercive Fe-Pt Alloy Thin Films

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 875 - 880
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Fe-Pt alloy thin films were prepared by the rf-magnetron sputtering method. From X-ray diffraction results and TEM observations, the following results were obtained: (1) the as-deposited films are disordered and consist of micrograins of size roughly 150~200 Å; (2) the annealed films are ordered, with grain sizes about 400~500 Å. A lamellar microstructure, which is considered to be a microtwin structure, was observed within the grains. Magnetization measurements revealed that the coercive force, Hc, of the annealed films has a maximum (¿15.8 kOe) at about equiatomic concentration. The origin of the high Hc is considered to be related to the microtwin structure. It was found that Hc begins to increase at an annealing temperature of 300°C, which means that the ordered phase begins to grow at the same temperature. The magnetization, M, of the annealed films was smaller than that of as-deposited films. The decrease in M near equiatomic composition is ascribed to a change in the magnetic structure. View full abstract»

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  • Improvements in the Coercivity of Iron-Based Nanocrystalline Low-Rare-Earth Fe3B-Nd Permanent Magnets

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 881 - 887
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    Fe3B-based Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet materials containing Co and M as additives (M=Al, Si, Cu, Ga, Ag, Au) were prepared in an extremely low rare-earth concentration range centered on 4 at%. The hard magnetic properties develop as a result of heat treatment of rapidly solidified amorphous ribbons, which produces a metastable nanocrystalline structure consisting of Fe3B and Nd2Fe14B. Use of the additives considerably reduces the crystallite sizes, and consequently the alloys exhibit higher coercivity than that seen in alloys without additives. Compaction-molded resin-bonded magnets produced from such Nd-Fe-B-Co-M materials have the following magnetic properties: Hcj=300 kA/m to 470 kA/m; Br=0.7 T to 0.9 T; (BH)max=50 kJ/m3 to 73 kJ/m3. Typical values for the temperature coefficients of Br and Hcj of bonded magnets are ¿0.05%/K and ¿0.35 %/K, respectively, in the range from 297K to 413K. View full abstract»

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  • Soft Magnetic Properties and Structures of Nanocrystalline Fe-Al-Si-Nb-B Alloy Ribbons

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 888 - 894
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    The soft magnetic properties and structures of nanocrystalline Fe-Al-Si-Nb-B alloy ribbons crystallized from an amorphous state were investigated. The best soft magnetic properties (effective permeability at 100 kHz of 23,000, core loss at 100 kHz, Bm=0.1 T of 9 W/kg, and saturation magnetostriction ¿s of +0.5×10¿6) were obtained for Fe66Al8Si14Nb3B9 alloy ribbons. These new alloy ribbons were composed of bcc Fe-based alloy with grain diameters less than 200 Å. It is suggested that the good soft magnetic properties are due to the nanocrystalline microstructure of the Fe-Si-Al alloy. View full abstract»

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  • Soft Magnetic Properties of Microcrystalline Fe-Al-Si-Ni-Zr-B Alloys

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 895 - 900
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    The magnetic properties of Zr- and B-doped Supersendust (Fe-Al-Si-Ni) alloy ribbons were studied. Although the ribbons became brittle and their magnetization decreased with increases in the Zr and B contents, their soft magnetic properties were improved. Ribbons with ductility after melt quenching and fairly low coercivity after annealing were obtained when about 1.5 at% Zr and 8 at% B were added. The structural change from an amorphous to a microcrystal-line state led to a decrease in the magnetostriction and coercivity and an increase in the initial permeability. Microcrystalline Fe69.7Al7Si9.8Ni4Zr1.5B8 alloy exhibited high permeability of about 25,000. View full abstract»

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  • Very Thin Silicon Steel Tertiary Recrystallized by Continuous Annealing Method

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 901 - 905
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    It is well known that very thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet has a very low iron loss. A continuous annealing method was used to obtain a long (over 1 m) thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet. As a result, thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet 40 ¿m thick and 1 m long was obtained. The annealing temperature was 1423K and the sample speed was from 0.7 to 2.1 mm/s. The annealing time needed to complete the recrystallization of (110) [001] grains was only a few minutes. However, the grain size of the sample was not uniform. As a result, the magnetic properties depend on the position of the sample. View full abstract»

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  • Grain Size and Domain Width of a Very Thin 3% Si-Fe Sheet

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 906 - 911
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    Very thin (less than 0.1 mm thick) grain-oriented silicon sheets are known to have lower iron losses than iron-based amorphous materials. It is possible to reduce the iron loss of very thin grain-oriented silicon steel further by applying new magnetic domain refining techniques. One method of domain refinement is through control of the grain size. We observed magnetic domains and measured the iron loss of very thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheets with small (less than 1 mm) grains. These experiments showed that the domains can be made narrower by decreasing the grain size, which reduces eddy current losses. On the other hand, materials with larger grain sizes have lower Hc values and lower hysteresis losses. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Properties of Very Thin 3% Si-Fe Cores in Relation to the Number of Layers

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 912 - 916
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    We previously reported that the estimated eddy current losses of very thin 3% Si-Fe strip-wound cores in the 500 Hz to 5 kHz frequency range agreed comparatively well with measured values. The eddy current losses were estimated by employing the number of domain walls in a modified Pry and Bean model. We observed the number of domain walis on outermost surfaces by SEM. In this study, in order to investigate the difference between the measured eddy current losses and the estimated losses below 500 Hz, we removed one by one the layers of a 3% Si-Fe strip-wound core, and examined the relation between the number of domain walls and the eddy current losses. In these experiments, the cross-sectional area of a strip-wound core had to be large enough to maintain a sinusoidal flux waveform during core loss measurements after several layers were removed. We also examined the use of continuous annealing to fabricate a long and very thin grain-oriented 3% Si-Fe strip. View full abstract»

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  • Soft Magnetic Properties of Fe/Fe-N Multilayered Films Prepared at Various Sputtering Gas Pressures

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 917 - 921
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    Fe/Fe-N multilayered films were prepared by alternation of Fe sputtering at various Ar gas pressures and ECR nitrogen plasma exposure, and the structure and magnetic properties of the resulting films were investigated. Growth of columnar structures was observed in Fe film prepared at high Ar gas pressure. Fe/Fe-N multilayered films with an Fe layer prepared at low Ar gas pressure have a low Hc and high Bs. X-ray diffraction suggests that the lattice spacing of Fe (110) and the compressive stress in these films increase with decreasing Ar gas pressure. These structural changes are caused by nitrogen diffusion from the Fe-N layer into the Fe layer. Nitrogen exists in solid solution in Fe layers prepared at low Ar gas pressure, and in the form of nitrides in Fe layers prepared at high Ar gas pressure. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Properties of R2T17-Type Compounds Dy2Fe17-x-yAlx with Iron Deficiency

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 922 - 926
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The ternary R2T17-type alloys Dy2Fe17-x-yAlx with an Fe deficiency have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The single phase boundary of the R2T17-type structure was determined to be near the composition Dy2Fe9Alx for x¿4 and near Dy2Fe13-xAlx for x¿4. The crystal structure is of the Th2Ni17 type for alloys with x¿5, and of the Th2Zn17 type for 6¿×¿8. Thermomagnetic curves show that the magnetism changes from P-type to N-type ferrimagnetism with increasing Al content x. Three types of spin arrangements, in which x¿2, 2≪׿5 and 6¿×¿8, were proposed on the basis of the magnetic studies. It was concluded that the substitution of Al for Fe causes a decrease in the Fe magnetic moment, but that an Fe deficiency causes an increase in the Fe magnetic moment. View full abstract»

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  • Soft Magnetic Properties and Microstructure of Co-Ta-N Films

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 927 - 933
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    Co-(0 to 15 at%) Ta-N sputtered films were studied in order to clarify the correlation between the structure, induced magnetic anisotropy, local anisotropy fluctuation, and soft magnetic properties. The results for electrical resistivity and film magnetostriction indicate that the temperature Tx1 at which Co crystallites are formed from an amorphous structure is lower than the temperature at which crystallites of Ta-nitrides are formed. The difference was 150°C for Co-15 at% Ta-N films. A large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was induced at Tx1 by annealing in a magnetic field, and even after crystallization, a uniaxial anisotropy of magnitude 2×103 erg/cc could be reversibly induced by annealing in a magnetic field. View full abstract»

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  • Substrate Bias Effect on the Magnetic Properties of Fe-Ta-N Films

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 934 - 940
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
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    The effects of substrate bias on the magnetic properties and structure of Fe-TaN films deposited by a new sputtering method were investigated. Films sputtered using an rf bias of less than 80 W exhibit good soft magnetic properties and have a fine-grained microstructure consisting of ¿-Fe and TaN. The direction of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the films changes with the bias applied to the substrate. For films prepared at an rf bias of over 100 W, the soft magnetic properties deteriorate due to the change in the fine-grain microstructure from bcc-Fe to fcc-¿'-Fe4N(Ta). Sputtered FeTaN/SiO2 multi-layered films were also prepared with a substrate bias; in these films, the anisotropy direction of each FeTaN layer was different from that of adjacent FeTaN layers. The resulting multilayered films are isotropic with high permeability and excellent frequency response. Hence, they are suitable for use as laminated head core materials. View full abstract»

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  • 1993 Index - IEEE Translation Journal on Magnetics in Japan, Vol.8

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 941 - 954
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  • [Advertisement]

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 955
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  • [Advertisement]

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 956
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Translation Journal on Magnetics in Japan is a publication of the IEEE Magnetics Society published between 1985 and 1994.

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Editor-in-Chief
James E. Opfer
Hewlett-Packard