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Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Image Processing publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Geometry-Based Distributed Scene Representation With Omnidirectional Vision Sensors

    Page(s): 1033 - 1046
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of efficient representation of scenes captured by distributed omnidirectional vision sensors. We propose a novel geometric model to describe the correlation between different views of a 3-D scene. We first approximate the camera images by sparse expansions over a dictionary of geometric atoms. Since the most important visual features are likely to be equivalently dominant in images from multiple cameras, we model the correlation between corresponding features in different views by local geometric transforms. For the particular case of omnidirectional images, we define the multiview transforms between corresponding features based on shape and epipolar geometry constraints. We apply this geometric framework in the design of a distributed coding scheme with side information, which builds an efficient representation of the scene without communication between cameras. The Wyner-Ziv encoder partitions the dictionary into cosets of dissimilar atoms with respect to shape and position in the image. The joint decoder then determines pairwise correspondences between atoms in the reference image and atoms in the cosets of the Wyner-Ziv image in order to identify the most likely atoms to decode under epipolar geometry constraints. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method leads to reliable estimation of the geometric transforms between views. In particular, the distributed coding scheme offers similar rate-distortion performance as joint encoding at low bit rate and outperforms methods based on independent decoding of the different images. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlocal Discrete Regularization on Weighted Graphs: A Framework for Image and Manifold Processing

    Page(s): 1047 - 1060
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    We introduce a nonlocal discrete regularization framework on weighted graphs of the arbitrary topologies for image and manifold processing. The approach considers the problem as a variational one, which consists of minimizing a weighted sum of two energy terms: a regularization one that uses a discrete weighted -Dirichlet energy and an approximation one. This is the discrete analogue of recent continuous Euclidean nonlocal regularization functionals. The proposed formulation leads to a family of simple and fast nonlinear processing methods based on the weighted -Laplace operator, parameterized by the degree of regularity, the graph structure and the graph weight function. These discrete processing methods provide a graph-based version of recently proposed semi-local or nonlocal processing methods used in image and mesh processing, such as the bilateral filter, the TV digital filter or the nonlocal means filter. It works with equal ease on regular 2-D and 3-D images, manifolds or any data. We illustrate the abilities of the approach by applying it to various types of images, meshes, manifolds, and data represented as graphs. View full abstract»

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  • Phase-Shifting for Nonseparable 2-D Haar Wavelets

    Page(s): 1061 - 1068
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel and efficient solution to phase-shifting 2-D nonseparable Haar wavelet coefficients. While other methods either modify existing wavelets or introduce new ones to handle the lack of shift-invariance, we derive the explicit relationships between the coefficients of the shifted signal and those of the unshifted one. We then establish their computational complexity, and compare and demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach against classical interpolation tools in terms of accumulation of errors under successive shifting. View full abstract»

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  • Coherent Multiscale Image Processing Using Dual-Tree Quaternion Wavelets

    Page(s): 1069 - 1082
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dual-tree quaternion wavelet transform (QWT) is a new multiscale analysis tool for geometric image features. The QWT is a near shift-invariant tight frame representation whose coefficients sport a magnitude and three phases: two phases encode local image shifts while the third contains image texture information. The QWT is based on an alternative theory for the 2D Hilbert transform and can be computed using a dual-tree filter bank with linear computational complexity. To demonstrate the properties of the QWT's coherent magnitude/phase representation, we develop an efficient and accurate procedure for estimating the local geometrical structure of an image. We also develop a new multiscale algorithm for estimating the disparity between a pair of images that is promising for image registration and flow estimation applications. The algorithm features multiscale phase unwrapping, linear complexity, and sub-pixel estimation accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Nonlocal Means for Denoising of Textural Patterns

    Page(s): 1083 - 1092
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper contributes two novel techniques in the context of image restoration by nonlocal filtering. First, we introduce an efficient implementation of the nonlocal means filter based on arranging the data in a cluster tree. The structuring of data allows for a fast and accurate preselection of similar patches. In contrast to previous approaches, the preselection is based on the same distance measure as used by the filter itself. It allows for large speedups, especially when the search for similar patches covers the whole image domain, i.e., when the filter is truly nonlocal. However, also in the windowed version of the filter, the cluster tree approach compares favorably to previous techniques in respect of quality versus computational cost. Second, we suggest an iterative version of the filter that is derived from a variational principle and is designed to yield nontrivial steady states. It reveals to be particularly useful in order to restore regular, textured patterns. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelets, Ridgelets, and Curvelets for Poisson Noise Removal

    Page(s): 1093 - 1108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5819 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to denoise Poisson count data, we introduce a variance stabilizing transform (VST) applied on a filtered discrete Poisson process, yielding a near Gaussian process with asymptotic constant variance. This new transform, which can be deemed as an extension of the Anscombe transform to filtered data, is simple, fast, and efficient in (very) low-count situations. We combine this VST with the filter banks of wavelets, ridgelets and curvelets, leading to multiscale VSTs (MS-VSTs) and nonlinear decomposition schemes. By doing so, the noise-contaminated coefficients of these MS-VST-modified transforms are asymptotically normally distributed with known variances. A classical hypothesis-testing framework is adopted to detect the significant coefficients, and a sparsity-driven iterative scheme reconstructs properly the final estimate. A range of examples show the power of this MS-VST approach for recovering important structures of various morphologies in (very) low-count images. These results also demonstrate that the MS-VST approach is competitive relative to many existing denoising methods. View full abstract»

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  • Universal Impulse Noise Filter Based on Genetic Programming

    Page(s): 1109 - 1120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel method for impulse noise filter construction, based on the switching scheme with two cascaded detectors and two corresponding estimators. Genetic programming as a supervised learning algorithm is employed for building two detectors with complementary characteristics. The first detector identifies the majority of noisy pixels. The second detector searches for the remaining noise missed by the first detector, usually hidden in image details or with amplitudes close to its local neighborhood. Both detectors are based on the robust estimators of location and scale-median and MAD. The filter made by the proposed method is capable of effectively suppressing all kinds of impulse noise, in contrast to many existing filters which are specialized only for a particular noise model. In addition, we propose the usage of a new impulse noise model-the mixed impulse noise, which is more realistic and harder to treat than existing impulse noise models. The proposed model is the combination of commonly used noise models: salt-and-pepper and uniform impulse noise models. Simulation results show that the proposed two-stage GP filter produces excellent results and outperforms existing state-of-the-art filters. View full abstract»

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  • Markov Random Field Model-Based Edge-Directed Image Interpolation

    Page(s): 1121 - 1128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an edge-directed image interpolation algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, the edge directions are implicitly estimated with a statistical-based approach. In opposite to explicit edge directions, the local edge directions are indicated by length-16 weighting vectors. Implicitly, the weighting vectors are used to formulate geometric regularity (GR) constraint (smoothness along edges and sharpness across edges) and the GR constraint is imposed on the interpolated image through the Markov random field (MRF) model. Furthermore, under the maximum a posteriori-MRF framework, the desired interpolated image corresponds to the minimal energy state of a 2-D random field given the low-resolution image. Simulated annealing methods are used to search for the minimal energy state from the state space. To lower the computational complexity of MRF, a single-pass implementation is designed, which performs nearly as well as the iterative optimization. Simulation results show that the proposed MRF model-based edge-directed interpolation method produces edges with strong geometric regularity. Compared to traditional methods and other edge-directed interpolation methods, the proposed method improves the subjective quality of the interpolated edges while maintaining a high PSNR level. View full abstract»

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  • Minimum Variance Optimal Rate Allocation for Multiplexed H.264/AVC Bitstreams

    Page(s): 1129 - 1143
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Consider the problem of transmitting multiple video streams to fulfill a constant bandwidth constraint. The available bit budget needs to be distributed across the sequences in order to meet some optimality criteria. For example, one might want to minimize the average distortion or, alternatively, minimize the distortion variance, in order to keep almost constant quality among the encoded sequences. By working in the rho-domain, we propose a low-delay rate allocation scheme that, at each time instant, provides a closed form solution for either the aforementioned problems. We show that minimizing the distortion variance instead of the average distortion leads, for each of the multiplexed sequences, to a coding penalty less than 0.5 dB, in terms of average PSNR. In addition, our analysis provides an explicit relationship between model parameters and this loss. In order to smooth the distortion also along time, we accommodate a shared encoder buffer to compensate for rate fluctuations. Although the proposed scheme is general, and it can be adopted for any video and image coding standard, we provide experimental evidence by transcoding bitstreams encoded using the state-of-the-art H.264/AVC standard. The results of our simulations reveal that is it possible to achieve distortion smoothing both in time and across the sequences, without sacrificing coding efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Model-Based 2.5-D Deconvolution for Extended Depth of Field in Brightfield Microscopy

    Page(s): 1144 - 1153
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2754 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the limited depth of field of brightfield microscopes, it is usually impossible to image thick specimens entirely in focus. By optically sectioning the specimen, the in-focus information at the specimen's surface can be acquired over a range of images. Commonly based on a high-pass criterion, extended-depth-of-field methods aim at combining the in-focus information from these images into a single image of the texture on the specimen's surface. The topography provided by such methods is usually limited to a map of selected in-focus pixel positions and is inherently discretized along the axial direction, which limits its use for quantitative evaluation. In this paper, we propose a method that jointly estimates the texture and topography of a specimen from a series of brightfield optical sections; it is based on an image formation model that is described by the convolution of a thick specimen model with the microscope's point spread function. The problem is stated as a least-squares minimization where the texture and topography are updated alternately. This method also acts as a deconvolution when the in-focus PSF has a blurring effect, or when the true in-focus position falls in between two optical sections. Comparisons to state-of-the-art algorithms and experimental results demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Visual Tracking in High-Dimensional State Space by Appearance-Guided Particle Filtering

    Page(s): 1154 - 1167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2119 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new approach, appearance-guided particle filtering (AGPF), for high degree-of-freedom visual tracking from an image sequence. This method adopts some known attractors in the state space and integrates both appearance and motion-transition information for visual tracking. A probability propagation model based on these two types of information is derived from a Bayesian formulation, and a particle filtering framework is developed to realize it. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for high degree-of-freedom visual tracking problems, such as articulated hand tracking and lip-contour tracking. View full abstract»

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  • A Self-Organizing Approach to Background Subtraction for Visual Surveillance Applications

    Page(s): 1168 - 1177
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (809 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Detection of moving objects in video streams is the first relevant step of information extraction in many computer vision applications. Aside from the intrinsic usefulness of being able to segment video streams into moving and background components, detecting moving objects provides a focus of attention for recognition, classification, and activity analysis, making these later steps more efficient. We propose an approach based on self organization through artificial neural networks, widely applied in human image processing systems and more generally in cognitive science. The proposed approach can handle scenes containing moving backgrounds, gradual illumination variations and camouflage, has no bootstrapping limitations, can include into the background model shadows cast by moving objects, and achieves robust detection for different types of videos taken with stationary cameras. We compare our method with other modeling techniques and report experimental results, both in terms of detection accuracy and in terms of processing speed, for color video sequences that represent typical situations critical for video surveillance systems. View full abstract»

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  • Image-Based Human Age Estimation by Manifold Learning and Locally Adjusted Robust Regression

    Page(s): 1178 - 1188
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    Estimating human age automatically via facial image analysis has lots of potential real-world applications, such as human computer interaction and multimedia communication. However, it is still a challenging problem for the existing computer vision systems to automatically and effectively estimate human ages. The aging process is determined by not only the person's gene, but also many external factors, such as health, living style, living location, and weather conditions. Males and females may also age differently. The current age estimation performance is still not good enough for practical use and more effort has to be put into this research direction. In this paper, we introduce the age manifold learning scheme for extracting face aging features and design a locally adjusted robust regressor for learning and prediction of human ages. The novel approach improves the age estimation accuracy significantly over all previous methods. The merit of the proposed approaches for image-based age estimation is shown by extensive experiments on a large internal age database and the public available FG-NET database. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Face Tracking via Collaboration of Generic and Specific Models

    Page(s): 1189 - 1199
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    Significant appearance changes of objects under different orientations could cause loss of tracking, ldquodrifting.rdquo In this paper, we present a collaborative tracking framework to robustly track faces under large pose and expression changes and to learn their appearance models online. The collaborative tracking framework probabilistically combines measurements from an offline-trained generic face model with measurements from online-learned specific face appearance models in a dynamic Bayesian network. In this framework, generic face models provide the knowledge of the whole face class, while specific face models provide information on individual faces being tracked. Their combination, therefore, provides robust measurements for multiview face tracking. We introduce a mixture of probabilistic principal component analysis (MPPCA) model to represent the appearance of a specific face under multiple views, and we also present an online EM algorithm to incrementally update the MPPCA model using tracking results. Experimental results demonstrate that the collaborative tracking and online learning methods can handle large pose changes and are robust to distractions from the background. View full abstract»

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  • Active Learning Methods for Interactive Image Retrieval

    Page(s): 1200 - 1211
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    Active learning methods have been considered with increased interest in the statistical learning community. Initially developed within a classification framework, a lot of extension are now being proposed to handle multimedia applications. This paper provides algorithms within a statistical framework to extend active learning for online content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The classification framework is presented with experiments to compare several powerful classification techniques in this information retrieval context. Focusing on interactive methods, active learning strategy is then described. The limitations of this approach for CBIR are emphasized before presenting our new active selection process RETIN. First, as any active method is sensitive to the boundary estimation between classes, the RETIN strategy carries out a boundary correction to make the retrieval process more robust. Second, the criterion of generalization error to optimize the active learning selection is modified to better represent the CBIR objective of database ranking. Third, a batch processing of images is proposed. Our strategy leads to a fast and efficient active learning scheme to retrieve sets of online images (query concept). Experiments on large databases show that the RETIN method performs well in comparison to several other active strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Rotation-Invariant Texture Retrieval via Signature Alignment Based on Steerable Sub-Gaussian Modeling

    Page(s): 1212 - 1225
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    This paper addresses the construction of a novel efficient rotation-invariant texture retrieval method that is based on the alignment in angle of signatures obtained via a steerable sub-Gaussian model. In our proposed scheme, we first construct a steerable multivariate sub-Gaussian model, where the fractional lower-order moments of a given image are associated with those of its rotated versions. The feature extraction step consists of estimating the so-called covariations between the orientation subbands of the corresponding steerable pyramid at the same or at adjacent decomposition levels and building an appropriate signature that can be rotated directly without the need of rotating the image and recalculating the signature. The similarity measurement between two images is performed using a matrix-based norm that includes a signature alignment in angle between the images being compared, achieving in this way the desired rotation-invariance property. Our experimental results show how this retrieval scheme achieves a lower average retrieval error, as compared to previously proposed methods having a similar computational complexity, while at the same time being competitive with the best currently known state-of-the-art retrieval system. In conclusion, our retrieval method provides the best compromise between complexity and average retrieval performance. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Image Processing EDICS

    Page(s): 1226
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  • IEEE Transactions on Image Processing Information for authors

    Page(s): 1227 - 1228
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  • IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing

    Page(s): 1229
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE copyright form

    Page(s): 1230 - 1231
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  • Order form for reprints

    Page(s): 1232
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  • IEEE Signal Processing Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing focuses on signal-processing aspects of image processing, imaging systems, and image scanning, display, and printing.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Scott Acton
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA, USA
E-mail: acton@virginia.edu 
Phone: +1 434-982-2003