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Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date June 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Front cover - IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): c1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2
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  • Let Your Voice Be Heard [From The Editor's Desk]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3
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  • The Commitment and the Reward [President's Message]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 4 - 5
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  • Computational Geometry in Navigation and Path Planning [From The Guest Editors]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 6 - 7
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  • Probabilistic Approaches to Robot Navigation [Position]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 8 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The robotics community requires techniques for real applications such as the lifelong existence of robots with humans in domestic homes, navigation through rain forests, or dealing with objects and complex 3-D structures. View full abstract»

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  • Society News - Summer School on Robot Learning

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 10 - 11
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  • T C Spotlight - Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 12 - 13
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  • RoboticsCourseWare.org: An Open Repository for Robotics Pedagogical Materials [Education]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 14 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Capturing an Evader in a Building - Randomized and Deterministic Algorithms for Mobile Robots

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 16 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (805 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A three-dimensional (3D) grid Gntimesntimesn, n ges 2, is the set of points (vertices) with integer coordinates in [0,n-1]times[0,n-1] together with their connecting edges, which is viewed as a connected 3D set. Alternatively, Gntimesntimesn can be viewed as the union of 2n2 horizontal line segments, called corridors, and n2 vertical line segments, called shafts. We view Gntimesntimesn as representing a building and consider a vision-based pursuit-evasion problem in which a group of mobile robots (pursuers) are required to search for and capture an evader (intruder) hiding in it. The robots and the evader-all called players-are represented by points that move continuously along the edges of Gntimesntimesn. (Two players can be at the same point at one time.) Any continuous move in Gntimesntimesn is allowed within the speed limit constraint, which is for the evader without loss of generality, and a constant s for the robots The evader is considered captured if there exists a time during the pursuit when his position coincides with the position of one of the robots. View full abstract»

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  • Ways to Tell Robots Where to Go - Directing Autonomous Robots Using Topological Instructions

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 27 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents our attempts to direct an autonomous robot using efficient and universal topological instructions, which can be incrementally interpreted by a moving robot that does not have its own map initially. Many real-world experiments are included, featuring autonomous exploration and mapping. Surprisingly, we conclude and show that for this type of navigation, abilities in object recognition are more important than better mapping. The article describes a GVD-derived topology of spatial affordances, in which junctions are defined by the physical capabilities of the navigating robot. Similar to the extended GVD, our topology follows walls in open spaces to ensure robust edge transition so that all features can be modeled egocentcally. The specified wall-following distance is calculated to maximize the stability of the egocentrically modeled topology even when obstacle detection is intermittent. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Control for Robot Navigation - A Hierarchical Q-Learning Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 37 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1834 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied and applied not only as a test bed to academically demonstrate the achievement of artificial intelligence but also as an essential component of industrial and home automation. Mobile robots have many potential applications in routine or dangerous tasks such as delivery of supplies in hospitals, cleaning of offices, and operations in a nuclear plant. One of the fundamental and critical research areas in mobile robotics is navigation, which generally includes local navigation and global navigation. Local navigation, often called reactive control, learns or plans the local paths using the current sensory inputs without prior complete knowledge of the environment. Global navigation, often called deliberate control, learns or plans the global paths based on a relatively abstract and complete knowledge about the environment. In this article, hybrid control architecture is conceived via combining reactive and deliberate control using a hierarchical Q-learning (HQL) algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Sensor-Based Robot Motion Planning - A Tabu Search Approach

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 48 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The new online motion planner developed in this article is based on the tabu search metaheuristic. Various components of the classic TS have been remodelled and integrated in a single algorithm to craft a motion planner capable of solving varieties of exploration and goal-finding problems. By employing different combinations of a number of parameters, the planner can react intelligently and promptly to the new situations it faces during the robotic navigation. The presented explanations on the parameters' definitions and attributes can help researchers in applying this algorithm to their real-world experiments and applications. Considering the online and sensor-based nature of the presented model, it is believed that it can be applied to dynamic environments as well. View full abstract»

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  • Roadmap-Based Path Planning - Using the Voronoi Diagram for a Clearance-Based Shortest Path

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 58 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Path planning still remains one of the core problems in modern robotic applications, such as the design of autonomous vehicles and perceptive systems. The basic path-planning problem is concerned with finding a good-quality path from a source point to a destination point that does not result in collision with any obstacles. In this article, we chose the roadmap approach and utilized the Voronoi diagram to obtain a path that is a close approximation of the shortest path satisfying the required clearance value set by the user. The advantage of the proposed technique versus alternative path-planning methods is in its simplicity, versatility, and efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Online Algorithms with Discrete Visibility - Exploring Unknown Polygonal Environments

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 67 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The context of this work is the exploration of unknown polygonal environments with obstacles. Both the outer boundary and the boundaries of obstacles are piecewise linear. The boundaries can be nonconvex. The exploration problem can be motivated by the following application. Imagine that a robot has to explore the interior of a collapsed building, which has crumbled due to an earthquake, to search for human survivors. It is clearly impossible to have a knowledge of the building's interior geometry prior to the exploration. Thus, the robot must be able to see, with its onboard vision sensors, all points in the building's interior while following its exploration path. In this way, no potential survivors will be missed by the exploring robot. The exploratory path must clearly reflect the topology of the free space, and, therefore, such exploratory paths can be used to guide future robot excursions (such as would arise in our example from a rescue operation). View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistic Self-Localization and Mapping - An Asynchronous Multirate Approach

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 77 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the main contributions of this article is related to the multirate asynchronous filtering approach for the SLAM problem based on PFs. Previous multirate filter contributions are mainly for linear systems. A Kalman filter is applied for linear quadratic regulator (LQG) control, while in a Kalman filter is developed using lifting techniques. In this article, significant improvements for robot pose estimation are obtained when introducing multirate techniques to FastSLAM. In particular, it is shown that multirate fusion aims to provide more accurate results in loop-closing problems in SLAM (localization and map building problems with closed paths). Additionally, in this article a pose estimation algorithm based on least squares (LS) fitting of line features is proposed. Since the complexity of LS fitting is linear to the number of features, this implies a low computational cost than other techniques. Therefore, methods based on PFs such as MCL and FastSLAM that require a large number of particles may benefit from this fact. In particular, this provides an accurate approximation of the posterior PDF for FastSLAM 2.0. View full abstract»

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  • A National Perspective on the Needs, Themes, and Major Groups - Robotics Research in Australia

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 89 - 95
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    This article summarizes current work in Australian robotics research. We outline the work in progress at the major research groups across Australia and draw themes emerging in Australian research. We focus on research groups rather than on industrial robotics. View full abstract»

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  • NanoKhod Exploration Rover - A Rugged Rover Suited for Small, Low-Cost, Planetary Lander Mission

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 96 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3579 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is currently concluding a dedicated technology development to mature and finalize the Nanokhod microrover into a complete engineering model with integrated geochemical payload package. The goal of this development is to build and test the Nanokhod such that it can serve a wide range of mission applications in the future. The rover will be able to deliver scientific payloads to not only atmospheric planets such as Mars but also environmentally more extreme nonatmospheric celestial bodies such as Mercury or the Moon. The Nanokhod rover is a payload-efficient system that can be used to send a maximum amount of scientific payload to a planetary surface with the minimum rover mass. The high payload to total mass ratio of about 0.27 can enable low-cost planetary surface exploration missions where total available mass and power is extremely restricted. View full abstract»

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  • Embeddedd System Design for Robots - Design Concept, System Architecture, and Implementation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 108 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Embedded system design is essential for successful intelligent robotic implementations. Constructing a robot that can perform complicated tasks requires significant computing power and system integration effort. This study presents a novel distributed embedded platform using Ethernet as the communications backbone, with three layers: 1) control and sensing layer, 2) gateway layer, and 3) Internet layer. This proposal regards the cerebrum, cerebellum and nerve as abstract concepts. An RT protocol named HRTP is proposed in the control and sensing layer. The HRTP is a distributed RT protocol with a small footprint, which is especially suitable for the embedded and distributed network-based robot control application. HRTP is the first distributed RTE protocol stack specifically for an embedded Ethernet network. Notably, traditional RTE technologies have centralized structures that are large and superfluous for small robot systems. The proposed HRTP, in contrast to a distributed RT protocol, is for embedded RTE environments and robot network development. View full abstract»

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  • Surgical and Interventional Robotics - Core Concepts, Technology, and Design [Tutorial]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 122 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents the first of a three-part tutorial on surgical and interventional robotics. The core concept is that a surgical robot couples information to action in the operating room or interventional suite. This leads to several potential benefits, including increased accuracy and the ability to intervene in areas that are not accessible with conventional instrumentation. We defined the categories of surgical CAD/CAM and surgical assistance. The former is intended to accurately execute a defined plan. The latter is focused on providing augmented capabilities to the physician, such as superhuman or auxiliary (additional) eyes and hands. These categories will be the focus of the final two parts of this tutorial. View full abstract»

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  • Lethality and Autonomous Systems: Survey Design and Results [Industry/Research News]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 131 - 134
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  • Regional

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 132
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  • Preliminary Call for Contributions

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 133
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  • Calendar

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 134
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  • Call for Papers - IEEE Transactions on Robotics - Special Issue on Rehabilitation Robotics

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 135
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine is a unique technology publication which is peer-reviewed, readable and substantive.  The Magazine is a forum for articles which fall between the academic and theoretical orientation of scholarly journals and vendor sponsored trade publications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Eugenio Guglielmelli
Laboratory of Biomedical Robotics
      and Biomicrosystems
Universita' Campus Bio-Medico
      di Roma