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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2008

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Effect of Process Mismatches on Integrated CMOS Phased Arrays Based on Multiphase Tuned Ring Oscillators

    Page(s): 1305 - 1315
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    Tuned ring oscillators are used to generate multiple phases of a sinusoid for a variety of applications including phased- array transceivers and clock and data recovery circuits. A variable-phase ring oscillator (VPRO) is presented that generates outputs with a controllable phase progression, enabling its use in a compact low-power single-chip phased-array transceiver architecture. The VPRO functionality is shown to be robust with respect to process and layout mismatches. This enables the implementation of integrated phased arrays with acceptable array performance even in the absence of mismatch calibration circuitry, which are essential in other phase-shifterless schemes such as coupled oscillator arrays. A prototype 24-GHz four-channel single-chip phased-array transceiver implemented in a 0.13-mum CMOS process is presented to validate these claims. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of High-Accuracy Indoor 3-D Positioning Using UWB Technology

    Page(s): 1316 - 1330
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    There are many challenges in building an ultra-wideband (UWB) indoor local positioning system for high-accuracy applications. These challenges include reduced accuracy due to multipath interference, sampling rate limitations, tag synchronization, and antenna phase-center variation. Each of these factors must be addressed to achieve millimeter or sub-millimeter accuracy. The developed system architecture is presented where a 300-ps Gaussian pulse modulates an 8-GHz carrier signal and is transmitted through an omni-directional UWB antenna. Receiver-side peak detection, a low-cost subsequential-sampling mixer utilizing a direct digital synthesizer, high fidelity 10-MHz crystals, and Vivaldi phase-center calibration are utilized to mitigate these challenging problems. Synchronized and unsynchronized experimental results validated with a sub-millimeter accurate optical tracking system are presented with a detailed discussion of various system errors. View full abstract»

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  • Bandwidth Potential of Cascode HBT-Based TWAs as a Function of Transistor { f} _{\max } /{ f} _{ T} Ratio

    Page(s): 1331 - 1337
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    The bandwidth potential of cascode HBT-based broadband amplifiers following the traveling-wave amplifier (TWA) concept is studied. An approximate expression for the gain of the circuit is derived, which is based on the transistor small-signal model and the artificial transmission-line parameters. In this way, a relation between the HBT cutoff frequencies fT and fmax and the 3-dB cutoff frequency fc of the amplifier is obtained. This is very useful for assessing the gain-bandwidth potential of a given HBT technology for cascode-based TWAs. Applying these results, we study the potential of two technologies with different fmax / fT ratios, an InP technology with fmax / fT of 120 GHz/190 GHz, and a GaAs technology with fmax / fT of 170 GHz/36 GHz. The higher influence of /max (compared to ft) on fc is quantitatively demonstrated. TWAs in both technologies were realized and measured, and good agreement between measurement and theory is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • A 1-V 5-GHz CMOS Multiple Magnetic Feedback Receiver Front-End

    Page(s): 1338 - 1348
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    In this paper, a receiver front-end module operating at 5 GHz and suitable for low-voltage operation is presented. The design consists of a single amplifying transistor low-noise amplifier topology that utilizes multiple magnetic feedback in order to simultaneously achieve high gain and high reverse isolation. In addition, a mixer topology for optimum performance regarding gain, noise, and linearity under low-voltage operation is presented. The design has been fabricated in IBM's 0.13-mum CMOS technology, and the measured performance indicates a receiver conversion gain of 22.3 dB, a noise figure of 2.64 dB, and a third-order input intercept point of . View full abstract»

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  • An Ultra-Compact CMOS Variable Phase Shifter for 2.4-GHz ISM Applications

    Page(s): 1349 - 1354
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    An ultra-compact monolithic microwave integrated circuit active variable phase shifter is proposed and implemented using CMOS technology. It is a reflective-type phase shifter consisting of a compact three-transistor active circulator and a second-order LC network. The use of an active inductor in the second-order LC network makes this phase shifter all active and ultra compact with a size of only 0.357 including bonding pads. The phase shifter was designed and demonstrated at 2.4 GHz and has a linear and continuously tunable range of 120 across the 2.4-GHz industrial-scientific-medical band. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of Intermodulation Distortion Asymmetry Characteristics With Wideband Microwave Signals in High Power Amplifiers

    Page(s): 1355 - 1363
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    This paper presents the improvement techniques of intermodulation-distortion asymmetries with wide carrier-spacing signals in L/S-band high power amplifiers. We proposed a novel circuit technique to directly connect LC series resonant circuits to the gate and drain electrodes of the transistor die in a package for baseband terminations with a wide frequency range. By applying this circuit technique to a 28-V operation 200-W GaAs heterojunction field-effect transistor (HJFET) amplifier, the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) asymmetries were improved even if the two-tone carrier spacing (Deltaf) exceeds 100 MHz. In addition, we analyzed the IMD3 asymmetries of a Doherty amplifier through the IMD3 vector combination of the main and peak amplifiers. A newly developed 28-V operation 200-W GaAs HJFET Doherty amplifier with source and load baseband terminations also delivered flat IMD3 characteristics against the Deltaf over 50 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Ka -Band Low-Loss and High-Isolation Switch Design in 0.13- \mu{\hbox {m}} CMOS

    Page(s): 1364 - 1371
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    This paper presents designs and measurements of Ka-band single-pole single-throw (SPST) and single-pole double-throw (SPDT) 0.13-CMOS switches. Designs based on series and shunt switches on low and high substrate resistance networks are presented. It is found that the shunt switch and the series switch with a high substrate resistance network have a lower insertion loss than a standard designs. The shunt SPST switch shows an insertion loss of 1.0 dB and an isolation of 26 dB at >35 GHz. The series SPDT switch with a high substrate resistance network shows excellent performance with 2.2-dB insertion loss and isolation at 35 GHz, and this is achieved using two parallel resonant networks. The series-shunt SPDT switch using deep n-well nMOS transistors for a high substrate resistance network results in an insertion loss and isolation of 2.6 and 27 dB, respectively, at 35 GHz. For series switches, the input 1-dB compression point (1P1) can be significantly increased to with the use of a high substrate resistance design. In contrast, of shunt switches is limited by the self-biasing effect to 12 dBm independent of the substrate resistance network. The paper shows that, with good design, several 0.13- CMOS designs can be used for state-of-the-art switches at 26-40 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Six-Port Interferometric Technique for Accurate W -Band Phase-Noise Measurements

    Page(s): 1372 - 1379
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    An innovative six-port (SP) phase-noise measurement technique for millimeter-wave high-power sources is proposed in this paper. Simulation results using a 94-GHz rectangular waveguide SP circuit model validates the measurement principle for both millimeter-wave oscillators and amplifiers. Phase-noise measurement results of a 100-W extended interaction Klystron amplifier are presented and discussed. Compared to conventional methods, this new method allows accurate low-cost phase-noise measurements. View full abstract»

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  • A Submillimeter-Wave HEMT Amplifier Module With Integrated Waveguide Transitions Operating Above 300 GHz

    Page(s): 1380 - 1388
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    In this paper, we report on the first demonstration of monolithically integrated waveguide transitions in a submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuit (S-MMIC) amplifier module. We designed the module for a targeted frequency range of 300-350 GHz, using WR2.2 for the input and output waveguides. The waveguide module utilizes radial -plane transitions from S-MMIC to waveguide. We designed back-to-back radial probe transitions separated by thru transmission lines to characterize the module, and have incorporated the radial -plane transitions with an S-MMIC amplifier, fabricated monolithically as a single chip. The chip makes use of an S-MMIC process and amplifier design from the Northrop Grumman Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA, using 35-nm gate-length InP transistors. The integrated module design eliminates the need for wire bonds in the RF signal path, and enables a drop-in approach for minimal assembly. The waveguide module includes a channel design, which optimizes the -plane probe bandwidth to compensate for an S-MMIC width, which is larger than the waveguide dimension, and is compatible with S-MMIC fabrication and design rules. This paper demonstrates for the first time that waveguide-based S-MMIC amplifier modules with integrated waveguide transitions can be successfully operated at submillimeter-wave frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • 3-D Aspect in the Five-Port Technique for Zero-IF Receivers and a New Blind Calibration Method

    Page(s): 1389 - 1396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The five- or six-port circuit uses one or two additional outputs in comparison with classical homodyne demodulators. This paper demonstrates that the five- or six-port technique can take advantage of this particularity. The geometrical approach allows us to represent the 3-D aspect of the five-port technique. This study in space demonstrates the natural rejection of the even-order signal at the output of the direct receiver five-port circuit. Another benefit of this geometrical approach is a new blind calibration method. Many calibration methods have been proposed for the five-port circuit used as a homodyne receiver. Most of these methods were hard to be embedded and updated. This paper presents a new blind calibration method without any constraint on the system or the signal and with less algorithm computation cost. View full abstract»

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  • A 2.45-GHz Near-Field RFID System With Passive On-Chip Antenna Tags

    Page(s): 1397 - 1404
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    The design of a 2.45-GHz near-field RF identification (RFID) system with passive on-chip antenna (OCA) tags is very challenging as the efficiency of RF power conversion is very low. It poses multidisciplinary research challenges such as ultra-low-power circuits design, semiconductor process technology, and integrated antenna design. This paper describes the designs of such an RFID system, the reader, and OCAs, as well as the passive tag integrated circuits in detail. The passive tag chip with 128-bit nonvolatile memory has been realized using CMOS 0.13- technology. The OCA is fabricated on top of the chip using post-processing technology. The complete RFID tag with an integrated OCA is smaller than 0.5- with a thickness of 0.1 mm. With the reader generating an output power of 0.5 W, the RFID system is able to perform with RF read/write functions at a distance of . View full abstract»

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  • Novel Microwave Network for the Leaky-Wave Analysis of Evanescent Fields in Stub-Loaded Structures

    Page(s): 1405 - 1412
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    In this paper, a new transverse equivalent network for the modal analysis of stub-loaded leaky-wave antennas is developed. The derived network is useful for the study of the radiation of evanescent fields that occurs when they reach the top aperture of the parallel-plate stub. This transverse network is based, for the first time, on a nonhybrid formulation of the constituent parallel-plates modes of order 1 (TE1 Z and TE1 Z ). The obtained network is an alternative to the one based on hybrid TE1 Vand TE1 V modes, and leads to a simpler transverse resonance equation. The new equivalent network is validated by obtaining leaky-mode dispersion curves for a previously studied leaky-wave antenna in non- radiative dielectric guide technology. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Procedure to Accurately Determine Leaky Modes in Multilayered Planar Dielectric Substrates

    Page(s): 1413 - 1422
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    Leaky modes of multilayered substrates play an important role in efficient numerical electromagnetic solvers. In this paper, the location of the propagation constants of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic leaky modes are determined in an efficient way for multilayered substrates with commensurable layer thicknesses. It is shown that, for all practical applications, accurate quasi-static approximations for high mode orders can be derived rapidly by finding the roots of an analytically obtained polynomial. Furthermore, simple closed-form expressions are derived for some particular cases. Starting from these estimates, only a few additional Newton steps are required for a very precise determination of the propagation constants. The proposed method is validated by means of several illustrative numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Determining the Effective Constitutive Parameters of Finite Periodic Structures: Photonic Crystals and Metamaterials

    Page(s): 1423 - 1434
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1083 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel approach to find the effective electric and magnetic parameters of finite periodic structures is proposed. The method uses the reflection coefficients at the interface between a homogenous half-space and the periodic structure of different thicknesses. The reflection data are then approximated by complex exponentials, from which one can deduce the wavenumber, and the effective electric and magnetic properties of the equivalent structure by a simple comparison to the geometrical series representation of the generalized reflection from a homogenous slab. Since the effective parameters are for the homogenous equivalent of the periodic structure, the results obtained are expected to be independent of the number of unit cells used in the longitudinal direction. Although the proposed method is quite versatile and applicable to any finite periodic structure, photonic crystals and metamaterials with metallic inclusions have been used to demonstrate the application of the method in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Finite-Element Time-Domain Simulation of Electric Discharges

    Page(s): 1435 - 1439
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    A formulation to deal with materials having dispersive and nonlinear characteristics in the finite-element time-domain method is proposed. The approach is illustrated by an electric discharge simulation in a spark gap switch based on the collision plasma vector differential equation with a polarization current dependent resistivity. The simulated voltage response across the spark gap switch matches the waveform of the measured curve and allows the extraction of the unknown plasma frequency for the electric discharge in air. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Finite-Difference Time-Domain Algorithm Based on Error Control for Lossy Materials

    Page(s): 1440 - 1445
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    This paper discusses the development of a reduced-error finite-difference time-domain algorithm, capable of handling conducting media in an efficient manner. Founded on a spatially extended stencil, the proposed scheme introduces a novel design procedure, whose basic idea is to enforce conditions of the continuous space to the discrete level. In this way, we derive reliable space-time models for 2-D Maxwell's equations, minimizing the inherent phase and amplitude deviations. A high degree of adaptivity is also accomplished, as the spectral reliability range can be adjusted according to problem-dependent needs. Consequently, an upgraded discretization strategy is provided, which exhibits the same computational complexity with the conventional scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Computation of Layered Medium Green's Functions of Multilayers and Lossy Media Using Fast All-Modes Method and Numerical Modified Steepest Descent Path Method

    Page(s): 1446 - 1454
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fast and accurate approach, based on the fast all-modes method (FAM) and the numerical modified steepest descent path method (NMSP), was previously used to calculate the spatial Green's function for a single-layer lossless dielectric medium over a perfect electric conductor. This paper successfully extends that approach to two new cases. The first is the multilayer case where the medium has an arbitrary number of layers. The second is lossy media over an imperfect conductor. The FAM locates all modes accurately on the complex plane. The modes include surface wave modes, leaky wave modes, and improper modes. For a typical six-layer case over a ground plane, the FAM requires only 2.265 s of pre-processing that includes computing 200 mode locations by using a P4 3.2-GHz PC with Matlab. The NMSP is then used to evaluate the steepest descent path integral. Accuracy within 0.2% is achieved in comparison with the benchmark calculations. Within this context of accuracy, the total CPU per distance point is less than 7.6 ms for distances larger than 0.02 free-space wavelength and is less than 2.7 ms for distances larger than two free-space wavelengths. This method is shown to be fast and accurate, even for large-distance interactions in the multilayer and lossy media. View full abstract»

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  • A Dual-Band Balun Using Partially Coupled Stepped-Impedance Coupled-Line Resonators

    Page(s): 1455 - 1460
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a recently proposed dual-band resonator structure consisting of a pair of partially coupled stepped-impedance lines is theoretically investigated. The new resonator configuration contains a number of attractive features for dual-band applications. A new type of dual-band balun that is constructed using a pair of such coupled stepped-impedance resonators is fully studied both theoretically and experimentally. Design equations for the balun are derived by an even- and odd-mode approach. A prototype of such dual-band balun operating at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured. Good agreement between the designed and measured responses proves the concept of the dual-band balun and validates the design formulas. View full abstract»

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  • A New Approach to the Realization of a Dual-Band Microstrip Filter With Very Wide Upper Stopband

    Page(s): 1461 - 1467
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    This paper presents the design of a new dual-band filter with very wide upper stopband. The proposed circuit offers a simple and compact structure with low insertion loss. Spurious suppression is achieved by using specially designed coupling and resonator sections. Moreover, a systematic analysis is applied to the proposed topology with closed-form design equations derived. For verification purposes, the measured performance of a microstrip filter operating at 1 and 2 GHz is shown with stopband attenuation of greater than 20 dB over the frequency range from 2.5 to 8.0 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • A Microstrip Bandpass Filter With Ultra-Wide Stopband

    Page(s): 1468 - 1472
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    This paper develops a novel microstrip bandpass filter with ultra-wide stopband. With the assistance of open stubs and interdigital capacitors, a very wide stopband with a sufficient rejection level can be achieved easily. Detailed design and synthesis procedures are provided. Moreover, the electromagnetic simulator IE3D is used, and the prototype of the bandpass filter is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between measured and theoretically predicted results demonstrates feasibility of the proposed filter. View full abstract»

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  • Eight-Way Substrate Integrated Waveguide Power Divider With Low Insertion Loss

    Page(s): 1473 - 1477
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a compact radial cavity power divider based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology in this paper. The equivalent-circuit model is used to analyze the multiport structure, and a design procedure is also established for the structure. An eight-way C-band SIW power divider with low insertion loss is designed, fabricated, and measured. Good agreement between simulated and measured results is found for the pro posed power divider. The measured minimum insertion loss of the eight-way power divider is approximately 0.2 dB and return loss is approximately 30 dB at 5.25 GHz. The measured 15-dB return-loss bandwidth is found to be approximately 500 MHz, and its 1-dB insertion-loss bandwidth is approximately 1.2 GHz. Furthermore, the isolations between the output ports of the eight-way power divider are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Conical Transmission Line Power Combiners Using Tapered Line Matching Sections

    Page(s): 1478 - 1484
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    An axially symmetric power combiner, which utilizes a tapered conical impedance matching network to transform ten 50-Omega inputs to a central coaxial line over the X-band, is presented. The use of a conical line allows standard transverse electromagnetic design theory to be used, including tapered impedance matching networks. This, in turn, alleviates the problem of very low impedance levels at the common port of conical line combiners, which normally requires very high-precision manufacturing and assembly. The tapered conical line is joined to a tapered coaxial line for a completely smooth transmission line structure. Very few full-wave analyses are needed in the design process since circuit models are optimized to achieve a wide operating bandwidth. A ten-way prototype was developed at X-band with a 47% bandwidth, very low losses, and excellent agreement between simulated and measured results. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainties Caused by Common and Cross Modes in Differential Measurements Using Baluns

    Page(s): 1485 - 1492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1077 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two-port vector network analyzers can be used for measuring differential circuits by integrating baluns. However, due to the imperfection of the baluns, measurement uncertainties occur even under the most accurate calibration conditions. These uncertainties are caused by the common and cross modes of the baluns and the device-under-test. This paper proposes a new algorithm, which evaluates these measurement uncertainties, by using a few sets of assumptions that can approximately correspond to the worst conditions in which the common and cross modes maximally affect the measurements. The proposed algorithm can be used in post measurement processes by which the users can be informed of their measurements' uncertainties. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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