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Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date June 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—I: Regular Papers publication information

    Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Comparison of Pentacene and Amorphous Silicon AMOLED Display Driver Circuits

    Page(s): 1177 - 1184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays offer distinct advantages over liquid crystal displays for portable electronics applications, including light weight, high brightness, low power consumption, wide viewing angle, and low processing costs. They also are attractive candidates for highly flexible substrates. In active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) displays, a small transistor circuit is used to drive each OLED device. This paper compares the simulated performance of two state-of-the-art AMOLED drivers with a proposed 5 thin-film-transistor (TFT) voltage programmed driver circuit which combines the advantages of the first two configurations. A competitive evaluation is also done between amorphous silicon (alpha-Si) and organic TFTs (OTFTs,) using comparable empirical device models for alpha-Si) and pentacene OTFTs. The 5-TFT circuit is found to match the speed of the 2-TFT while achieving a stability closer to the 4-TFT circuits and demonstrating a better speed-stability tradeoff. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuit Model for DNA-Protein Regulatory Genetic Circuits and Genetic State Machines

    Page(s): 1185 - 1196
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    This paper discusses the formulation of ldquosilicon mimeticrdquo mixed-signal integrated circuit (IC) models for biocellular genetic circuits and state machines that utilize the rich variety of deoxyribonucleic acid and protein regulatory interactive pathways. A novel mixed-signal circuit model is reported for determining the state transitions of a genetic circuit. Using hysteretic electronic switch analogues for messenger ribonucleic acid transcription, a genetic state machine can be auto-triggered resulting in the self-timed transformation of an existing state of gene expression into another desired state of gene expression. Such an electronic model of genetic circuits and state machines focuses on the central theme of post-genomic research into gene-protein connectivity based cellular phenomenon. Novel synthetic genetic circuits designed using the mature resources of IC simulation will result in important outcomes for biomaterials based computation, bionanotechnology, as well as, gene and cell therapy. View full abstract»

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  • A Precision High-Voltage Current Sensing Circuit

    Page(s): 1197 - 1202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a precision current sensor featuring a high voltage, high gain (~ 140 dB), and low input offset ( < 1 mV) current sense amplifier. This amplifier does not require offset trimming even for low offset applications. It is a single stage amplifier that has a common gate pMOS differential input pair, which makes it inherently stable. This amplifier topology allows for a wide input common-mode range, thus increasing the versatility of current sensing circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Differential Type Class-AB Second-Order Log-Domain Notch Filter

    Page(s): 1203 - 1212
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (610 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new current-mode second-order differential type Class-AB log-domain notch filter is proposed. It is systematically designed using state-space synthesis method. The filter circuit is current-mode, Class-AB and differential type. In the circuit, the input and the output values, and dominant variables are all currents. Input and output currents are also differential signals. Only transistors and grounded capacitors are required to realize the filter circuit. Three cases of the second-order notch filter were obtained. The regular notch was obtained when omegan=omega0, the low-pass notch was obtained when omegan>omega0, and the high-pass notch was obtained when omegan>omega0. The center frequency, the notch frequency, the quality factor, and gain of the filter can be electronically tuned by changing external currents. Time and frequency-domain simulations are performed using PSPICE program for the filter to verify the theory and to show the performance of it. For this purpose, the filter is simulated by using idealized bipolar junction transistor models and AT&T CBIC-R (NR200N-2X NPN), (PR200N-2X PNP) type transistors. View full abstract»

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  • A Full On-Chip CMOS Clock-and-Data Recovery IC for OC-192 Applications

    Page(s): 1213 - 1222
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a fully integrated OC-192 clock-and-data recovery (CDR) architecture in standard 0.18-mum CMOS is described. The proposed architecture integrates the typically large off-chip filter capacitor by using two feed-forward paths configuration to generate zero and pole and satisfies SONET jitter requirements with a total power dissipation (including the buffers) of 290 mW. The measured RMS jitter of the recovered data is 0.74 ps with a bit-error rate less than 10-12 when the input pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) data pattern has a pattern length of 215 - 1 and a total horizontal eye closure of 0.54 peak-to-peak unit interval (Ulpp) due to the added intersymbol interference distortion by passing data through 9-in FR4 printed circuit board trace. The chip exceeds SONET OC-192 jitter tolerance mask, and high-frequency jitter tolerance is over 0.31 Ulpp by applying PRBS data with a pattern length of 231 - 1. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Receiver With Widely Tunable Sensitivity in BiCMOS Technology

    Page(s): 1223 - 1236
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver with voltage-controlled sensitivity in 0.6-m BiCMOS technology is presented. The transimpedance variations are achieved by varying the control voltage of the voltage-controlled resistor changing its equivalent resistance. The optical receiver design is based on a P-intrinsic-N photodiode and on a mixed current-mode and voltage-mode approach, by using a current conveyor and a voltage amplifier. Thanks to the current-mode signal processing, the bandwidth of the optical receiver is independent of the photodiode capacitance. A linearity error smaller than 2.92%, a sensitivity dynamic range of 83.2 (38.4 dB), an offset voltage smaller than 0.56 mV, a power consumption less than 4.7 mW, and a bandwidth up to 205.5 MHz are achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Using Linear Relations Between Experimental Characteristics in Stiff Identification Problems of Linear Circuit Theory

    Page(s): 1237 - 1247
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper treats an inverse problem posed in the time domain for a circuit described by a stiff system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Identification of model parameters (circuit elements) is performed by processing transient characteristics measured in the circuit. An illustrative example discussed throughout the paper shows that reducing the identification problem to curve fitting, which is the most general way, may be hardly used for a stiff model due to a ravine shape of the objective functional. Moreover, a necessity of solving the stiff ODE system to get a functional value makes the inverse problem be practically unsolvable. It has been shown that the initial inverse problem may be simplified significantly by taking into account linear relations which are observed between the experimental characteristics measured for a stiff system. The relation coefficients are discussed in the paper with regard to the accuracy of the approximation. Finally the initial identification problem has been reduced to a nonlinear system of algebraic equations which may be easily solved considering different sensitivity of the relation coefficients to the model parameters. The final solution is presented for different levels of "measurement" error involved in the simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Design of All-Pass Variable Fractional-Delay Digital Filters

    Page(s): 1248 - 1256
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a computational method for the optimal design of all-pass variable fractional-delay (VFD) filters aiming to minimize the squared error of the fractional group delay subject to a low level of squared error in the phase response. The constrained optimization problem thus formulated is converted to an unconstrained least-squares (LS) optimization problem which is highly nonlinear. However, it can be approximated by a linear LS optimization problem which in turn simply requires the solution of a linear system. The proposed method can efficiently minimize the total error energy of the fractional group delay while maintaining constraints on the level of the error energy of the phase response. To make the error distribution as flat as possible, a weighted LS (WLS) design method is also developed. An error weighting function is obtained according to the solution of the previous constrained LS design. The maximum peak error is then further reduced by an iterative updating of the error weighting function. Numerical examples are included in order to compare the performance of the filters designed using the proposed methods with those designed by several existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Desired-Response Influence on the Convergence of Gradient-Based Adaptive Algorithms

    Page(s): 1257 - 1266
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the convergence behavior of gradient-based adaptive algorithms, such as steepest descent and leas mean square (LMS), has been extensively studied, the influence of the desired response on the transient convergence has generally received little attention. However, empirical results show that this signal can have a great impact on the learning curve. In this paper we analyze the influence of the desired response on the transient convergence by making a novel interpretation, from the viewpoint of the desired response, of previous convergence analyses of SD and LMS algorithms. We show that, without prior knowledge that can be used to wisely select the initial weight vector, initial convergence is fast whenever there is high similarity between input and desired response whereas, on the contrary, when there is low similarity between these two signals, convergence is slow from the beginning. View full abstract»

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  • A Theoretical Study of the Quantization Noise in Split Delta–Sigma ADCs

    Page(s): 1267 - 1278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A theoretical analysis of the statistics of the quantization noise in split delta-sigma (DeltaSigma) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is presented. Sufficient conditions are derived that ensure that the quantization noise components of the constituent DeltaSigma modulators are asymptotically independent of each other, the input, delayed versions of themselves, and uniformly distributed. The application of the conditions is illustrated for two useful classes of split DeltaSigma ADCs. View full abstract»

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  • A New Mechanism Producing Discrete Spurious Components in Fractional- N Frequency Synthesizers

    Page(s): 1279 - 1288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1839 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fractional- frequency synthesizers have long been known to suffer from a set of spurious components, often referred to as fractional spurs, which are usually attributed to the operation of the modulator. This paper proposes a new phenomenon-based on cross-coupling and sampling of the nonharmonically related signals present in such synthesizers-which is capable of producing a family of spurious components of identical form to fractional spurs, with support from a range of analytic, simulated and measured results. A unique experimental arrangement is described, allowing controlled cross-coupling of signals within a synthesizer, which provides convincing experimental validation of this mechanism. Finally, techniques are suggested to allow at least partial mitigation of the effect. View full abstract»

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  • Noise–Power Optimization of Incremental Data Converters

    Page(s): 1289 - 1296
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Incremental data converters (IDCs) are useful in instrumentation and measurement applications, where low-frequency analog signals need to be converted into digital form with high accuracy and low power dissipation. They are particularly well suited for applications where a single analog-digital converter is multiplexed between many channels. This paper proposes an exact design methodology for IDCs, which optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the converter under practical design constraints. The process also allows the designer to apportion the noise budget in an arbitrary manner between thermal and quantization noise. The design process is illustrated by an example which describes the optimization of a third-order multiplexed IDC. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Oscillator Injection Locking Through Phase-Domain Impulse-Response

    Page(s): 1297 - 1305
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (514 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel approach to the analysis of oscillator injection locking due to weak external signals. From the intuitive concept of impulse-sensitivity function, a phase-domain macromodel is deduced which is able to capture high-order synchronization effects. Novel closed-form expressions for the synchronization regions are thus presented. The proposed phase-domain macromodel and the expressions derived for synchronization-regions are very general since they apply to any oscillator topology. View full abstract»

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  • Event-Driven Modeling of CDR Jitter Induced by Power-Supply Noise, Finite Decision-Circuit Bandwidth, and Channel ISI

    Page(s): 1306 - 1315
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (967 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the modeling of jitter in clock-and-data recovery (CDR) systems using an event-driven model that accurately includes the effects of power-supply noise, the finite bandwidth (aperture window) in the phase detector's front-end sampler, and intersymbol interference in the system's channel. These continuous-time jitter sources are captured in the model through their discrete-time influence on sample based phase detectors. Modeling parameters for these disturbances are directly extracted from the circuit implementation. The event-driven model, implemented in Simulink, has a simulation accuracy within 12% of an Hspice simulation-but with a simulation speed that is 1800 times higher. View full abstract»

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  • Neural-Network-Based Robust Linearization and Compensation Technique for Sensors Under Nonlinear Environmental Influences

    Page(s): 1316 - 1327
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel artificial neural network (NN)-based technique is proposed for enabling smart sensors to operate in harsh environments. The NN-based sensor model automatically linearizes and compensates for the adverse effects arising due to nonlinear response characteristics and nonlinear dependency of the sensor characteristics on the environmental variables. To show the potential of the proposed NN-based technique, we have provided results of a smart capacitive pressure sensor (CPS) operating under a wide range of temperature variation. A multilayer perceptron is utilized to transfer the nonlinear CPS characteristics at any operating temperature to a linearized response characteristics. Through extensive simulated experiments, we have shown that the NN-based CPS model can provide pressure readout with a maximum full-scale error of only 1.5% over a temperature range of 50 to 200 with excellent linearized response for all the three forms of nonlinear dependencies considered. Performance of the proposed technique is compared with a recently proposed computationally efficient NN-based extreme learning machine. The proposed multilayer perceptron based model is tested by using experimentally measured real sensor data, and found to have satisfactory performance. View full abstract»

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  • A Basis-Function Canonical Piecewise-Linear Approximation

    Page(s): 1328 - 1334
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a basis-function canonical piecewise-linear (BF-CPWL) function, which can approximate any continuous function using a weighted sum of PWL BFs. The BF-CPWL approximation integrates Breiman's hinging hyperplane model and Julian's high-level canonical PWL approximation into a common theoretical framework. Moreover, an approximation algorithm is developed, which fits and adds the PWL BFs iteratively using a modified Gauss-Newton method. This algorithm guarantees a local convergence, while achieving a good tradeoff between computational simplicity and approximation accuracy. The BF-CPWL approximation can find applications in nonlinear circuit synthesis, dynamic system identification and control. View full abstract»

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  • Chaos Synchronization in Complex Networks

    Page(s): 1335 - 1346
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study chaos synchronization in complex networks with time-invariant, time-varying and switching configurations based on the matrix measure of complex matrices. To begin with, we propose an analytical condition for chaos synchronization in complex networks with a time-invariant configuration. Secondly, we obtain some less conservative synchronization conditions for networks with a time-varying configuration. Thirdly, we consider chaos synchronization in networks with time-average and switching configurations. If complex subnetworks satisfy certain conditions, the networks with time-average and switching configurations are M-synchronizable. At last, we analyze the nonsynchronizability of complex networks. Chaos synchronization in complex networks can't be realized if the coupling configuration and the inner-coupling matrix satisfy certain conditions. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization criteria. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Stabilization and Synchronization for Chaotic Lur'e Systems With Time-Varying Delay

    Page(s): 1347 - 1356
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (587 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive scheme for the stabilization and synchronization of chaotic Lur'e systems with time-varying delay. Based on the invariant principle of functional differential equations, the strength of the feedback controller is enhanced adaptively to stabilize and synchronize chaotic Lur'e systems. The derivative-constraint that the time-varying delay is required to be differentiable and its derivation is less than one can be removed by using LaSalle-Razumikhin-type theorems. The time-varying delay is allowed to be bounded without any additional constraint or unbounded with derivative-constraint. This method is analytical, rigorous and simple to implement in practice. In addition, it is quite robust against the effect of parameters uncertainty and noise. Two examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The results of the paper demonstrate the fruitfulness of the modern feedback and adaptive control theory application to the stabilization and synchronization problems for delayed chaotic systems. View full abstract»

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  • Fully Automated RF/Microwave Filter Tuning by Extracting Human Experience Using Fuzzy Controllers

    Page(s): 1357 - 1367
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper introduces modeling of human experience by linguistic if-then rules in terms of fuzzy logic controllers for tuning RF/Microwave filters. The approach could be used for any circuit or system tuning problem that involves human expert information provided that the expert information could be described in terms of linguistic if-then rules. The tuning approach is both theoretically and practically illustrated in this paper. The tuning is done in two stages both taking advantage of fuzzy controllers. The first stage uses the phase response of the filter, while the second stage uses the magnitude response of the filter for adjustment of the tuning screws. A fully automated experimental setup is implemented by high resolution motors with flexible leads to make the tuning possible. 3-pole and 7-pole Chebyshev waveguide filters are used to demonstrate the concept. The measured results prove the validity of the method. View full abstract»

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  • A VHDL-AMS Simulation Environment for an UWB Impulse Radio Transceiver

    Page(s): 1368 - 1381
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1058 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrawideband (UWB) communication based on the impulse radio paradigm is becoming increasingly popular. According to the IEEE 802.15 WPAN low rate alternative PHY Task Group 4a, UWB will play a major role in localization applications, due to the high time resolution of UWB signals which allow accurate indirect measurements of distance between transceivers. Key for the successful implementation of UWB transceivers is the level of integration that will be reached, for which a simulation environment that helps take appropriate design decisions is crucial. Owing to this motivation, in this paper we propose a multiresolution UWB simulation environment based on the VHDL-AMS hardware description language, along with a proper methodology which helps tackle the complexity of designing a mixed-signal UWB system-on-chip. We applied the methodology and used the simulation environment for the specification and design of an UWB transceiver based on the energy detection principle. As a by-product, simulation results show the effectiveness of UWB in the so-called ranging application, that is the accurate evaluation of the distance between a couple of transceivers using the two-way-ranging method. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal PWM Control of Switched-Capacitor DC–DC Power Converters via Model Transformation and Enhancing Control Techniques

    Page(s): 1382 - 1391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an efficient and effective method for an optimal pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) control of switched-capacitor dc-dc power converters. Optimal switching instants are determined based on minimizing the output ripple magnitude, the output leakage voltage and the sensitivity of the output load voltage with respect to both the input voltage and the load resistance. This optimal PWM control strategy has several advantages over conventional PWM control strategies: 1) it does not involve a linearization, so a large-signal analysis is performed; and 2) it guarantees the optimality. The problem is solved via both the model transformation and the optimal enhancing control techniques. A practical example of the PWM control of a switched-capacitor dc-dc power converter is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Single-Transistor-Control LDO Based on Flipped Voltage Follower for SoC

    Page(s): 1392 - 1401
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2180 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design issues of a single-transistor-control (STC) low-drop-out (LDO) based on flipped voltage follower is discussed in this paper, in particular the feedback stability at different conditions of output capacitors, equivalent series resistances (ESRs) and load current. Based on the analysis, an STC LDO was implemented in a standard 0.35-mum MOS technology. It is proven experimentally that the LDO provides stable voltage regulation at a variety of output-capacitor/ESR conditions and is also stable in no output capacitor condition. The preset output voltage, minimum unregulated input voltage, maximum output current at a dropout voltage of 200 mV, ground current and active chip area are 1 V, 1.2 V, 50 mA, 95 muA, and 140 mum times 320 mum, respectively. The full-load transient response in the no output capacitor case is faster than a micro second and is about 300 ns. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—I: Regular Papers Information for authors

    Page(s): 1402
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (41 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The theory, analysis, design, and practical implementations of circuits, and the application of circuit techniques to systems and to signal processing.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Shanthi Pavan
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras