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Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date June 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Control of Freeway Traffic Flow in Unstable Phase by H_{\infty } Theory

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 193 - 208
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper devises a freeway controller that is capable of stabilizing traffic flow when the traffic system is in the unstable (congested) phase, in which a shock wave is likely to occur in the presence of any inhomogeneity and where the system is on the verge of a jam condition. Two types of traffic controllers are developed through the use of either a speed command approach that can be implemented in an intelligent transportation system (ITS) or ramp metering that is a typical way of preventing a freeway from overloading. By means of the feedback linearization technique, the discretized macroscopic traffic flow model is reformulated, in which the desired change of volume in each section is treated as a virtual input. By exploring the casual relations among density, speed, and flow change, the corresponding speed commands can be determined. The traffic flow control problem is formulated as an Hinfin control design problem so that uncertainties that are associated with the macroscopic model can be taken into account. Simulations show that the devised controller can effectively stabilize the traffic flow in the unstable phase. Design flexibilities associated with the method are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • ATOMS: Air Traffic Operations and Management Simulator

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 209 - 225
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1418 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce the air traffic operations and management simulator (ATOMS), which is an air traffic and airspace modeling and simulation system for the analysis of free-flight concepts. This paper describes the design, architecture, functionality, and applications of the ATOMS. It is an intent-based simulator that discretizes the airspace in equal-sized hyper-rectangular cells to maintain intent reference points. It can simulate end-to-end airspace operations and air navigation procedures for conventional air traffic, as well as for free flight. Atmospheric and wind data that are modeled in the ATOMS result in accurate trajectory predictions. The ATOMS uses a multiagent-based modeling paradigm for modular design and easy integration of various air traffic subsystems. A variety of advanced air traffic management (ATM) concepts that are envisioned in free flight are prototyped in the ATOMS, including airborne separation assurance (ASA), cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI), weather avoidance, and decision support systems (DSSs). Experimental results indicate that advanced ATM concepts make a sound case for free flight; however, there is a need to investigate and understand their complex interaction under nonnominal scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Scheduling In-Vehicle Messages

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 226 - 234
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (525 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In-vehicle information systems (IVISs) can enhance or compromise driving safety. Such systems present an array of messages that range from collision warnings and navigation instructions to tire pressure and e-mail alerts. If these messages are not properly managed, the IVIS might fail to provide the driver with critical information, which could undermine safety. In addition, if the IVIS simultaneously presents multiple messages, the driver may fail to attend to the most critical information. To date, only simple algorithms that use priority-based filters have been developed to address this problem. This paper presents a dynamic programming model that goes beyond the immediate relevance and urgency parameters of the current Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) message scheduling algorithm. The resulting algorithm considers the variation of message value over time, which extends the planning horizon and creates a more valuable stream of messages than that based only on the instantaneous message priority. This method has the potential to improve road safety because the most relevant information is displayed to drivers across time and not just the highest priority at any given instant. Applying this algorithm to message sets shows that scheduling that considers the time-based message value, in addition to priority, results in substantially different and potentially better message sequences compared with those based only on message priority. This method can be extended to manage driver workload by adjusting message timing relative to demanding driving maneuvers. View full abstract»

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  • Vehicle–Vehicle Channel Models for the 5-GHz Band

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 235 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (87)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1266 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe the results of a channel measurement and modeling campaign for the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) channel in the 5-GHz band. We describe measurements and results for delay spread, amplitude statistics, and correlations for multiple V2V environments. We also discuss considerations used in developing statistical channel models for these environments and provide some sample results. Several statistical channel models are presented, and using simulation results, we elucidate tradeoffs between model implementation complexity and fidelity. The channel models presented should be useful for system designers in future V2V communication systems. View full abstract»

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  • The Heterogeneous Systems Integration Design and Implementation for Lane Keeping on a Vehicle

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 246 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1959 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an intelligent automated lane-keeping system is proposed and implemented on our vehicle platform, i.e., TAIWAN i TS-1. This system challenges the online integrating heterogeneous systems such as a real-time vision system, a lateral controller, in-vehicle sensors, and a steering wheel actuating motor. The implemented vision system detects the lane markings ahead of the vehicle, regardless of the varieties in road appearance, and determines the desired trajectory based on the relative positions of the vehicle with respect to the center of the road. To achieve more humanlike driving behavior such as smooth turning, particularly at high levels of speed, a fuzzy gain scheduling (FGS) strategy is introduced to compensate for the feedback controller for appropriately adapting to the SW command. Instead of manual tuning by trial and error, the methodology of FGS is designed to ensure that the closed-loop system can satisfy the crossover model principle. The proposed integrated system is examined on the standard testing road at the Automotive Research and Testing Center (ARTC)1 and extra-urban highways. View full abstract»

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  • Online Behavior-Robust Feedback Information Routing Strategy for Mass Evacuation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 264 - 274
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Disaster response to manmade and natural events involves the quick evacuation of the affected population to safer areas. Given the potential for large-scale loss of life and property, there is a need for effective emergency strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of these disasters. Most existing evacuation traffic management strategies focus on increasing network capacity along the evacuation direction such as contraflow lanes, but other information or routing strategies have not been fully explored. Optimal routing strategies can be presented to evacuees as recommended routes. Advising evacuees that take system-optimal routes help balance the distribution of evacuation flows among multiple evacuation routes. However, a critical aspect in evaluating the effectiveness of such strategies is to properly account for the possible evacuation route-choice behavior. This study analyzed the situation in which evacuees are given a set of system-optimal paths; evacuees choose their evacuation routes, following a certain route-choice behavior (rational, panic, etc.). Discussions focus on the extent to which the routing effectiveness can be properly estimated, subject to the route-choice behavior. This paper further proposes a behavior-robust feedback information routing (FIR) strategy to further improve system performance. The FIR is based on the concept of closed-loop control that reacts to the system state and updates the advised routes. The FIR that targets the system-optimal routing strategy has been shown to be effective and robust for real-time evacuation traffic management. View full abstract»

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  • The Observability Problem in Traffic Models: Algebraic and Topological Methods

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 275 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the problem of observability of traffic networks, understanding as such the problem of identifying which is the subset of the origin-destination (OD)-pair and link flows that can be calculated based on a subset of observed OD-pair and link flows, and related problems. A modified topological version of an existing algebraic method for solving observability problems is given. The method is based on a step-by-step procedure, allowing us to update the information once each item of information (OD-pair or link flow) becomes available. In particular, three different observability problems are stated and solved using the proposed methodology, which is illustrated by its application to the Nguyen-Dupuis network and compared with the algebraic version. The topological version is much faster, uses much less memory, and presents no rounding errors or zero test problems but identifies fewer observable flows. View full abstract»

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  • Vehicle Detector Deployment Strategies for the Estimation of Network Origin–Destination Demands Using Partial Link Traffic Counts

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 288 - 300
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Making valid inferences about network origin-destination (OD) demands from limited link traffic count data requires a carefully structured data-collection strategy. Determination of the required number of vehicle detectors (VDs) and their installation in strategic locations for OD estimation purposes is essentially a network location problem. In this paper, a mathematical programming framework based on a user equilibrium assumption was developed to determine the most desirable locations for the deployment of VDs. A linearly independent model was also developed to deal with the network location problem. Proposed models were evaluated under different network sizes and varying OD demand levels. Numerical results are explained. These findings can beneficially contribute to the preparation of a desirable VD deployment plan in a general network. View full abstract»

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  • Binary-Representation-Based Genetic Algorithm for Aircraft Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 301 - 310
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (730 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Arrival sequencing and scheduling (ASS) at airports is an NP-hard problem. Much effort has been made to use permutation-representation-based genetic algorithms (GAs) to tackle this problem, whereas this paper attempts to design an efficient GA based on a binary representation of arriving queues. Rather than using the order and/or arriving time of each aircraft in the queue to construct chromosomes for GAs, this paper uses the neighboring relationship between each pair of aircraft, and the resulted chromosome is a 0-1-valued matrix. A big advantage of this binary representation is a highly efficient uniform crossover operator, which is normally not applicable to those permutation representations. The strategy of receding horizon control (RHC) is also integrated into the new GA to attack the dynamic ASS problem. An extensive comparative simulation study shows that the binary-representation-based GA outperforms the permutation-representation-based GA. View full abstract»

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  • Genetic Programming for the Automatic Design of Controllers for a Surface Ship

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 311 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the implementation of genetic programming (GP) to design a controller structure is assessed. GP is used to evolve control strategies that, given the current and desired state of the propulsion and heading dynamics of a supply ship as inputs, generate the commanded forces required to maneuver the ship. The controllers created using GP are evaluated through computer simulations and real maneuverability tests in a laboratory water basin facility. The robustness of each controller is analyzed through the simulation of environmental disturbances. In addition, GP runs in the presence of disturbances are carried out so that the different controllers obtained can be compared. The particular vessel used in this paper is a scale model of a supply ship called CyberShip II. The results obtained illustrate the benefits of using GP for the automatic design of propulsion and navigation controllers for surface ships. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Speed Sign Detection Using the Radial Symmetry Detector

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 322 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Algorithms for classifying road signs have a high computational cost per pixel processed. A detection stage that has a lower computational cost can facilitate real-time processing. Various authors have used shape and color-based detectors. Shape-based detectors have an advantage under variable lighting conditions and sign deterioration that, although the apparent color may change, the shape is preserved. In this paper, we present the radial symmetry detector for detecting speed signs. We evaluate the detector itself in a system that is mounted within a road vehicle. We also evaluate its performance that is integrated with classification over a series of sequences from roads around Canberra and demonstrate it while running online in our road vehicle. We show that it can detect signs with high reliability in real time. We examine the internal parameters of the algorithm to adapt it to road sign detection. We demonstrate the stability of the system under the variation of these parameters and show computational speed gains through their tuning. The detector is demonstrated to work under a wide variety of visual conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Pedestrian Detection and Tracking Using a Mixture of View-Based Shape–Texture Models

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 333 - 343
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1143 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a robust multicue approach to the integrated detection and tracking of pedestrians in a cluttered urban environment. A novel spatiotemporal object representation is proposed, which combines a generative shape model and a discriminative texture classifier, both of which are composed of a mixture of pose-specific submodels. Shape is represented by a set of linear subspace models, which is an extension of point distribution models, with shape transitions being modeled by a first-order Markov process. Texture, i.e., the shape-normalized intensity pattern, is represented by a manifold that is implicitly delimited by a set of pattern classifiers, whereas texture transition is modeled by a random walk. Direct 3-D measurements that are provided by a stereo system are further incorporated into the observation density function. We employ a Bayesian framework based on particle filtering to achieve integrated object detection and tracking. Large-scale experiments that involve pedestrian detection and tracking from a moving vehicle demonstrate the benefit of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • A Roadside ITS Data Bus Prototype for Intelligent Highways

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 344 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (383 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intelligent transport systems (ITSs) usually include three principal elements: vehicle, driver, and road (or, more generally, the environment). The use of ITS data bus (IDB) has been proposed to build sharable standard interfaces for in-vehicle information systems. Despite broadband communication technologies, such as dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), which have been developed to provide high-quality roadside-vehicle communication services for intelligent highways, the existing IDB model has not paid enough attention to the demands of information exchanges between the roadside and onboard units. In this paper, a new model of the roadside IDB (RIDB) is proposed to improve the existing IDB architecture. The physical layer, data-link layer, and application layer of the new model are also discussed. A prototype system of the RIDB, which is based on the wireless 802.11b protocol, has been developed in a test site. The experimental results demonstrated that the RIDB is feasible to provide high-quality roadside-vehicle and roadside-roadside communication services. Other potential applications of the IDB, such as probe cars and intersection collision prevention, are also discussed. The RIDB proposed in this paper is potentially useful for the construction of an intelligent transport infrastructure. View full abstract»

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  • Video-Based Automatic Incident Detection for Smart Roads: The Outdoor Environmental Challenges Regarding False Alarms

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 349 - 360
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video-based automatic incident detection (AID) systems are increasingly being used in intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Video-based AID is a promising method of incident detection. However, the accuracy of video-based AID is heavily affected by environmental factors such as shadows, snow, rain, and glare. This paper presents a review of the different work done in the literature to detect outdoor environmental factors, namely, static shadows, snow, rain, and glare. Once these environmental conditions are detected, they can be compensated for, and hence, the accuracy of alarms detected by video-based AID systems will be enhanced. Based on the presented review, this paper will highlight potential research directions to address gaps that currently exist in detecting outdoor environmental conditions. This will lead to an overall enhancement in the reliability of video-based AID systems and, hence, pave the road for more usage of these systems in the future. Last, this paper suggests new contributions in the form of new suggested algorithmic ideas to detect environmental factors that affect AID systems accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • A Misapplication of the Local Ramp Metering Strategy ALINEA

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 360 - 365
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a recent series of articles with largely identical contents and results, some claims are raised about the pertinence and performance of the well-known and widely field-applied local ramp metering algorithm ALINEA and of some extended versions thereof. The expressed claims are based on simulation results with a self-made microscopic simulator. This paper shows that the produced simulation results and derived conclusions are based on an insufficient understanding of the feedback character of the ALINEA algorithm, which led to an inappropriate application of the method. More specifically, the mainstream measurement that feeds ALINEA was misplaced so that any occurring congestion could not be monitored; this renders ALINEA blind to the traffic conditions under control and negates the very notion of feedback. View full abstract»

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  • Ensemble of Multiple Pedestrian Representations

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 365 - 369
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new approach for pedestrian detection is presented. We design an ensemble of classifiers that employ different feature representation schemes of the pedestrian images: Laplacian EigenMaps, Gabor filters, and invariant local binary patterns. Each ensemble is obtained by varying the patterns used to train the classifiers and extracting from each image two feature vectors for each feature extraction method: one for the upper part of the image and one for the lower part of the image. A different radial basis function support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained using each feature vector; finally, these classifiers are combined by the ldquosum rule.rdquo Experiments are performed on a large data set consisting of 4000 pedestrian and more than 25 000 nonpedestrian images captured in outdoor urban environments. Experimental results confirm that the different feature representations give complementary information, which has been exploited by fusion rules, and we have shown that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches among pedestrian detectors. View full abstract»

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  • A Sampling Theorem Approach to Traffic Sensor Optimization

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 369 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the objective of minimizing the total cost, which includes both sensor and congestion costs, the authors adopted a novel sampling theorem approach to address the problem of sensor spacing optimization. This paper presents the analysis and modeling of the power spectral density of traffic information as a 2-D stochastic signal using highly detailed field data. The field data were captured by the next-generation simulation (NGSIM) program in 2005. To the best knowledge of the authors, field data with such a level of detail were previously unavailable. The resulting model enables the derivation of a characterization curve that relates sensor error to sensor spacing. The characterization curve, concurring in general with observations of a previous work, provides much more detail to facilitate sensor deployment. Based on the characterization curve and a formulation relating sensor error to congestion cost, the optimal sensor spacing that minimizes the total cost can be determined. View full abstract»

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  • 11th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • MESA08-2008 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 376
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (699 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (28 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on ITS is concerned with the design, analysis, and control of information technology as it is applied to transportation systems. The IEEE ITS Transactions is focused on the numerous technical aspects of ITS technologies spanned by the IEEE. Transportation systems are invariably complex, and their complexity arises from many sources. Transportation systems can involve humans, vehicles, shipments, information technology, and the physical infrastructure, all interacting in complex ways. Many aspects of transportation systems are uncertain, dynamic and nonlinear, and such systems may be highly sensitive to perturbations. Controls can involve multiple agents that (and/or who) are distributed and hierarchical. Humans who invariably play critical roles in a transportation system have a diversity of objectives and a wide range of skills and education. Transportation systems are usually large-scale in nature and are invariably geographically distributed.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fei-Yue Wang
Professor
University of Arizona