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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Front cover"

    Page(s): c1 - c2
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Elected Administrative Committee

    Page(s): c4
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  • Table of contents

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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Page(s): 1165 - 1169
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  • A multimedia example

    Page(s): 1170
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  • Call for front-cover images for the Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control

    Page(s): 1171
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  • 2006 Rayleigh Award [Yuri V. Gulyaev]

    Page(s): 1172
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  • 2006 Achievement Award [James G. Miller]

    Page(s): 1173
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  • 2006 Distinguished Service Award [Gerry V. Blessing]

    Page(s): 1174 - 1175
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  • 2005 Outstanding Paper Award

    Page(s): 1176
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  • Introduction to the special issue on diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound in bone - Part I

    Page(s): 1177 - 1178
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    The 13 papers and one item of correspondence in this special issue focus on diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound in bone. In Part I manuscripts discuss instrumentation, numerical modeling, applications, and guided waves. View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation for in vivo ultrasonic characterization of bone strength

    Page(s): 1179 - 1196
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although it has been more than 20 years since the first recorded use of a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technology to predict bone fragility, the field has not yet reached its maturity. QUS has the potential to predict fracture risk in several clinical circumstances and has the advantages of being nonionizing, inexpensive, portable, highly acceptable to patients, and repeatable. However, the wide dissemination of QUS in clinical practice is still limited and suffering from the absence of clinical consensus on how to integrate QUS technologies in bone densitometry armamentarium. Several critical issues need to be addressed to develop the role of QUS within rheumatology. These include issues of technologies adapted to measure the central skeleton, data acquisition, and signal processing procedures to reveal bone properties beyond bone mineral quantity and elucidation of the complex interaction between ultrasound and bone structure. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in technological developments applied to assess bone strength in vivo. We describe generic measurement and signal processing methods implemented in clinical ultrasound devices, the devices and their practical use, and performance measures. The article also points out the present limitations, especially those related to the absence of standardization, and the lack of comprehensive theoretical models. We conclude with suggestions of future lines and trends in technology challenges and research areas such as new acquisition modes,, advanced signal processing techniques, and modelization. View full abstract»

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  • A device for in vivo measurements of quantitative ultrasound variables at the human proximal femur

    Page(s): 1197 - 1204
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    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus has similar power as a bone mineral density (BMD)- measurement using DXA for the prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. Ultrasound equipment is less expensive than DXA and free of ionizing radiation. As a mechanical wave, QUS has the potential of measuring different bone properties than dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA,) which depends on X-ray attenuation and might be developed into a tool of comprehensive assessment of bone strength. However, site- specific DXA at the proximal femur shows best performance in the prediction of hip fractures. To combine the potential of QUS with measurements directly at the femur, we developed a device for in vivo QUS measurements at this site. Methods comprise ultrasound transmission through the bone, reflection from the bone surface, and backscat- ter from the inner trabecular structure. The complete area of the proximal femur can be scanned except at the femoral head, which interferes with the ilium. To avoid edge artifacts, a subregion of the proximal femur in the trochanteric region was selected as measurement region. First, in vivo measurements demonstrate a good signal to noise ratio and proper depiction of the proximal femur on an attenuation image. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurements. Further improvements can be expected by refinement of the scanning technique and data evaluation method to enhance the potential of the new method for the estimation of bone strength. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasound simulation in bone

    Page(s): 1205 - 1218
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    The manner in which ultrasound interacts with bone is of key interest in therapy and diagnosis alike. These may include applications directly to bone, as, for example, in treatment to accelerate the healing of bone fractures and in assessment of bone density in osteoporosis, or indirectly in diagnostic imaging of soft tissue with interest in assessing exposure levels to nearby bone. Because of the lack of analytic solutions to virtually every "practical problem" encountered clinically, ultrasound simulation has become a widely used technique for evaluating ultrasound interactions in bone. This paper provides an overview of the use of ultrasound simulation in bone. A brief description of the mathematical model used to characterize ultrasound propagation in bone is first provided. A number of simulation examples are then presented that explain how simulation may be utilized in a variety of practical configurations. The focus of this paper in terms of examples presented is on diagnostic applications in bone, and, in particular, for assessment of osteoporosis. However, the use of simulation in other areas of interest can easily be extrapolated from the examples presented. In conclusion, this paper describes the use of ultrasound simulation in bone and demonstrates the power of computational methods for ultrasound research in general and tissue and bone applications in particular. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a numerical cancellous bone model for finite-difference time-domain simulations of ultrasound propagation

    Page(s): 1219 - 1233
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    The trabecular frame in cancellous bone has numerous porous spaces of various sizes and shapes. Their continual arrangement changes with position in the bone. Assuming that the complicated pore space is the aggregation of spherical pores, in this study, the trabecular structure was analyzed using a three-dimensional (3-D) X-ray microcomputed tomography (muCT) image. Analysis involved a 3-D cancellous bone model developed for numerical simulations of ultrasound propagation. In this model, the trabecular structure was simplified by regularly arranging spherical pores in a solid bone. Using a viscoelastic, finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) method with the simplified cancellous bone model, ultrasound pulse waveforms propagating through cancellous bone were simulated in two cases of the propagations parallel and perpendicular to the main trabecular orientation. The porosity dependences of the propagation properties, attenuation, and propagation speed were derived from the simulated waveforms. Comparisons with simulated results using the realistic cancellous bone model reconstructed from a 3-D muCT image, assisted to further validate this simplified model. View full abstract»

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  • The correlation between the SOS in trabecular bone and stiffness and density studied by finite-element analysis

    Page(s): 1234 - 1242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the clinical assessment of osteoporosis (i.e., a degenerative bone disease associated with increased fracture risk), ultrasound has been proposed as an alternative or supplement to the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) technique. However, the interaction of ultrasound waves with (trabecular) bone remains relatively poorly understood. The present study aimed to improve this understanding by simulating ultrasound wave propagation in 15 trabecular bone samples from the human lumbar spine, using microcomputed tomography-based finite-element modeling. The model included only the solid bone, without the bone marrow. Two structural parameters were calculated: the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the structural (apparent) elastic modulus (Es), and the ultrasound propagation parameter speed of sound (SOS). Relations between BV/TV and Es were similar to published experimental relations. At 1 MHz, correlations between SOS and the structural parameters BV/TV and Es were rather weak, but the results can be explained from the specific features of the trabecular structure and the intrinsic material elastic modulus Ei. In particular, the systematic differences between the three main directions provide information on the trabecular structure. In addition, at 1 MHz the correlation found between the simulated SOS values and those calculated from the simple bar equation was poor when the three directions are considered separately. Hence, under these conditions, the homogenization approach - including the bar equation - is not valid. However, at lower frequencies (50-300 kHz) this correlation significantly improved. It is concluded that detailed analysis of ultrasound wave propagation through the solid structure in various directions and with various frequencies, can yield much information on the structural and mechanical properties of trabecular bone. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonic monitoring of bone fracture healing

    Page(s): 1243 - 1255
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    Quantitative ultrasound has attracted significant interest in the evaluation of bone fracture healing. Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that the propagation velocity across fractured bones can be used as an indicator of healing. Researchers have recently employed computational methods for modeling wave propagation in bones, aiming to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of wave propagation and to further enhance the monitoring capabilities of ultrasound. In this paper, we review the relevant literature and present the current status of knowledge. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonography in dentistry

    Page(s): 1256 - 1266
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    This paper reviews diagnostic applications of ultrasound to dentistry, or dental ultrasonography, beginning with pioneering work of the 1960s up through present lines of research. Clinical, in vivo applications that are of direct interest to dental practice are reviewed here, including measurements of enamel thickness and periodontal pocket depth. In vitro research that involves destructive tooth preparation or procedures, such as sound speed measurements or scanning acoustic microscopy, also are included. Although dental ultrasonography has been studied for over 40 years, most methods are not quite ready for routine clinical use, and there remains much opportunity for diagnostic ultrasonography to significantly impact the practice of dentistry. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a method for ultrasound-guided placement of pedicle screws

    Page(s): 1267 - 1276
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    Many forms of spinal fusion involve the placement of long screws through the pedicles into the vertebral body. During the procedure, there is substantial risk of damage to vital neural and vascular structures due to the limited visibility of anatomic landmarks and high anatomic variability. As an alternative to current guidance systems, we have investigated the feasibility of performing ultrasound imaging through cancellous bone for the purpose of pedicle screw guidance. Quantitative ultrasonic characterization and A-mode imaging of seven defatted vertebral cancellous bone specimens was performed along the craniocaudal axis in water with unfocused, 1-MHz and 3.5- MHz broadband transducers. The center frequency attenuation increased considerably from 10.5 plusmn 4.6 dB/cm at 1 MHz to 24.1 plusmn 7.2 dB/cm at 3.5 MHz, while the speed of sound exhibited moderate positive dispersion, increasing from 1489 plusmn 4.7 m/s at 1 MHz to 1494 plusmn 4.2 m/s at 3.5 MHz. Despite the high attenuation and large specimen thickness (1.0-1.9 cm), A-mode imaging through cancellous bone to detect an aluminum reflector was possible in 83.2% and 70.1% of the cases at 1 MHz and 3.5 MHz, respectively. Specimen boundaries were identifiable with clinically sufficient average accuracy of 1.1 mm and 0.9 mm in the 1 MHz and 3.5 MHz A-mode images, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonic guided waves in bone

    Page(s): 1277 - 1286
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent progress in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has shown increasing interest toward measuring long bones by ultrasonic guided waves. This technology is widely used in the field of nondestructive testing and evaluation of different waveguide structures. Cortical bone provides such an elastic waveguide and its ability to sustain loading and resist fractures is known to be related to its mechanical properties at different length scales. Because guided waves could yield diverse characterizations of the bone's mechanical properties at the macroscopic level, the method of guided waves has a strong potential over the standardized bone densitometry as a tool for bone assessment. Despite this, development of guided wave methods is challenging, e.g., due to interferences and rnultiparametric inversion problems. This paper discusses the promises and challenges related to bone characterization by ultrasonic guided waves. View full abstract»

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  • Topography of acoustical properties of long bones: from biomechanical studies to bone health assessment

    Page(s): 1287 - 1297
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    The article presents a retrospective view on the assessment of long bones condition using topographical patterns of the acoustic properties. The application of ultrasonic point-contact transducers with exponential waveguides on a short acoustic base for detailed measurements in human long bones by the surface transmission was initiated during the 1980s in Latvia. The guided wave velocity was mapped on the surface of the long bones and the topographical patterns reflected the biomechanical peculiarities. Axial velocity profiles obtained in vivo by measurements along the medial surface of tibia varied due to aging, hypokinesia, and physical training. The method has been advanced at Artann Laboratories (West Trenton, NJ) by the introduction of multifrequency data acquisition and axial scanning. The model studies carried out on synthetic phantoms and in bone specimens confirmed the potential to evaluate separately changes of the bone material properties and of the cortical thickness by multifrequency acoustic measurements at the 0.1 to 1 MHz band. The bone ultrasonic scanner (BUSS) is an axial mode ultrasonometer developed to depict the acoustic profile of bone that will detect the onset of bone atrophy as a spatial process. Clinical trials demonstrated a high sensitivity of BUSS to osteoporosis and the capability to assess early stage of osteopenia. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution of hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation and ultrasonic wave velocity in ring-shaped cortical bone of bovine femur

    Page(s): 1298 - 1303
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    At the nanoscopic level, bone consists of calcium phosphate, which forms incomplete hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals. The preferred orientation of the c-axis of HAp crystallites induces anisotropy and inhomogeneity of elastic properties in bone. In this study, the effect of the preferred orientation of HAp crystallites on the spatial distribution of ultrasonic wave velocity was experimentally investigated, considering bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Three ring-shaped cortical bone samples were made from a 36-month-old bovine femur. Longitudinal wave velocity was measured by a conventional ultrasonic pulse system, using self-made polyvinylidene fluoride transducers. The integrated intensity of the (0002) peak obtained using X-ray diffraction was estimated to evaluate the amount of preferred orientation. The velocity distribution pattern was similar to the distribution of integrated intensity of (0002). The effect of the preferred orientation of HAp crystallites on velocity was clearly observed in the plexiform structure, despite the fact that the BMD value was almost independent of the preferred orientation of HAp crystallites. Velocity measurement of cortical bone can reveal information about HAp crystallite orientation. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based estimation of quantitative ultrasound variables at the proximal femur

    Page(s): 1304 - 1315
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    To improve the prediction of the osteoporotic fracture risk at the proximal femur we are developing a scanner for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements at this site. Due to multipath transmission in this complex shaped bone, conventional signal processing techniques developed for QUS measurements at peripheral sites frequently fail. Therefore, we propose a model-based estimation of the QUS variables and analyze the performance of the new algorithm. Applying the proposed method to QUS scans of excised proximal femurs increased the fraction of evaluable signals from approx. 60% (using conventional algorithms) to 97%. The correlation of the standard QUS variables broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) with the established variable bone mineral density (BMD) reported in previous studies is maintained (BUA/BMD: r2 = 0.69; SOS/BMD: r2= 0.71; SOS+BUA/BMD: r2 = 0.88). Additionally, different wave types could be clearly detected and characterized in the trochanteric region. The ability to separate superimposed signals with this approach opens up further diagnostic potential for evaluating waves of different sound paths and wave types through bone tissue. View full abstract»

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  • Noninvasive assessment of human jawbone using ultrasonic guided waves

    Page(s): 1316 - 1327
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    The problem of detecting defects in jawbones is an important problem. Existing methods based on X-rays are invasive and constrain the achievable image quality. They also may carry known risks of cancer generation or may be limited in accurate diagnosis scope. This work is motivated by the lack of current imaging modalities to accurately predict the mechanical properties and defects in jawbone. Ultrasonic guided waves are sensitive to changes in microstructural properties and thus have been widely used for noninvasive material characterization. Using these waves may provide means for early diagnosis of marrow ischemic disorders via detecting focal osteoporotic marrow defect, chronic nonsuppurative osteomyelitis, and cavitations in the mandible (jawbone). Guided waves propagating along the mandibles may exhibit dispersion behavior that depends on material properties, geometry, and embedded cavities. In this work, we present the first study in the theoretical and experimental analysis of guided wave propagation in jawbone. Semianalytical, finite-element (SAFE) method is used to analyze dispersion behavior of guided waves propagating in human mandibles. The geometry of the cross section is obtained by segmenting the computed tomography (CT) images of the jawbone. The cross section of the mandible is divided in two regions representing the cortical and trabecular bones. Each region is modeled as a linear Hookean material. The material properties for both regions are adopted from the literature. The experimental setup for the guided waves experiment is described. The results from both numerical analysis and guided waves experiment exhibit variations in the group velocity of the first arrival signal and in the dispersion behavior of healthy and defected mandibles. These results shall provide a means to noninvasively characterize the jawbone and accurately assess the bone mechanical properties. Our study is not aimed at characterizing the bone density in human mandibles. R- ther, it is aimed to assess bone mechanical properties and defects that cannot be diagnosed by X-ray or other imaging modalities. This work may pave the way to the development of inexpensive noninvasive devices to detect small defects in human mandibles. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk