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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1 - 225
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (43 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (37 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 226
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (17 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Estimating the Effective Sample Size to Select Independent Measurements in a Reverberation Chamber

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 227 - 236
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In reverberation chambers (RCs), measurements are usually performed by changing the boundary conditions using a mode stirrer. The major difficulty is to select uncorrelated samples in order to make a statistical analysis of the data. Furthermore, the knowledge of the number of independent samples is of crucial importance to assess the measurement accuracy. To evaluate whether measured data are independent, the conventional method compares the autocorrelation function (ACF) with the critical value 0.37. However, this criterion is generally not appropriate because the ACF probability density function (pdf) depends strongly on the sample size. For a measurement series of length N, the effective sample size (ESS) is defined as the number N' < N of independent samples, which would provide the same information as the N-size sample. This paper aims to provide a new method based on autoregressive (AR) models and the central limit theorem (CLT) in the case of dependent data, for estimating the ESS. The proposed method is easy to implement since it requires only the knowledge of simple statistical parameters. Moreover, it provides useful guidelines to assess the maximum number of independent samples available with the mode stirrer. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical models, either for the electric field or the received power. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison Between Different Criteria for Evaluating Reverberation Chamber Functioning Using a 3-D FDTD Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 237 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is devoted to the comparison between different criteria used to evaluate the functioning of a mechanically stirred reverberation chamber. Usual criteria based on power or electric fields are considered, and we also propose a criterion based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, called in this paper ldquosuccess ratio to Kolmogorov-Smirnov testrdquo (SRKS). The SRKS represents the acceptation ratio of this test applied at several points of the working volume, when considering a field component and its associated theoretical distribution. After a presentation of the criteria and of the studied chamber, data issued from 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulations and measurements are used to analyze the chamber functioning by the use of these criteria. This study is performed on a large frequency band, in the lossless case as well as with a lossy chamber, and for several stirrer shapes, to emphasize the influence of these parameters. The comparison of the usual criteria with the SRKS shows the SKRS is an accurate test to estimate the lowest usable frequency of a given reverberation chamber. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of the Reverberation Chamber Method for Determining the Shielding Properties of a Coaxial Cable

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 246 - 251
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (525 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper considers the reverberation chamber (RC) method for the measurement of the shielding effectiveness (SE) of coaxial cables with braided shields. In particular, the voltage at the cable termination is numerically computed and compared to that measured in an RC. The RC field is represented by a finite summation of random plane waves, and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is used to calculate the outer shield current induced by the RC field. The knowledge of the shield current distribution allows the determination of the voltage at the cable termination's internal circuit after a proper numerical averaging. It is then compared to the measured voltage averaged over stirrer rotations. The method is applied to a commercially available cable model RG58, and using the nominal value for the transfer impedance of this cable type gives results in a satisfactory agreement with the measurements. Finally, the possibility of recovering the transfer impedance from the measured SE of the RC is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Targeted Resonance Control in a TEM Cell

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 252 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (911 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate extending the upper frequency limit of an asymmetric ldquoCrawford-style'' transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell with targeted resonance control. Focusing on the fundamental TE cavity resonance, an active feedback cancellation system is applied with the aim of reducing the resonant field amplitude without affecting the desired TEM mode. A half loop J-dot current probe is positioned with a vertical polarization on one wall of the TEM cell to measure the wall currents generated from the TE resonance. An identical probe is placed on the facing wall that is connected to the first through a negative feedback chain. The second loop's purpose is to excite a field that has the appropriate magnitude and phase to attenuate the TE resonance amplitude. Experimental application achieved a 17-dB reduction in the amplitude of the resonance field. The method is also outlined with respect to the TE resonance. This system is planned for full-scale implementation into a hybrid reverberation/TEM whole-aircraft electromagnetic vulnerability testing facility. View full abstract»

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  • A Real-Time Time-Domain EMI Measurement System for Full-Compliance Measurements According to CISPR 16-1-1

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 259 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time-domain electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurement systems allow measurement time to be reduced by several orders of magnitude. In this paper, a novel real-time operating time-domain EMI measurement system is presented. By the use of several analog-to-digital converters, the dynamic range requested by international electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards is achieved. A real-time operating digital signal processing unit is presented. The frequency band that is investigated is subdivided into several subbands. The EMI signal of the complete frequency band is digitized. By a digital down converter, each subband is shifted toward its baseband and low-pass filtered. The low-pass filtered signal is down sampled. The down-sampled signal is processed by a short-time fast Fourier transform. The obtained spectrogram is processed by a parallel implementation of peak, average, and quasi-peak detectors. The dynamic range of the system has been investigated. A comparison of the digital signal processing to the analog signal processing of an EMI receiver is shown. Measurements have been performed in the frequency range 30 MHz to 1 GHz. Such a system can fulfill the international EMC standard CISPR 16-1-1. By the parallel simulation of several thousand EMI receivers, the measurement at several thousand frequency bins can be performed simultaneously. Due to this benefit, the measurement time can be reduced, and further investigations on a device under test can be performed. These investigations are full characterizations, as well as full scans in the final detector mode, which is especially of benefit for highly unstationary emitting devices. View full abstract»

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  • Susceptibility Scanning as a Failure Analysis Tool for System-Level Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Problems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 268 - 276
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1077 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Susceptibility scanning is an increasingly adopted method for root cause analysis of system-level immunity sensitivities. It allows localizing affected nets and integrated circuits (ICs). Further, it can be used to compare the immunity of functionally identical or similar ICs or circuit boards. This paper explains the methodology as applied to electrostatic discharge and provides examples of scan maps and signals probed during immunity scanning. Limitations of present immunity analysis methods are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of the Electromagnetic Interference Threat Posed by a Wireless Network Inside a Passenger Aircraft

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 277 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent years have witnessed an incisive push to allow the use of wireless networks inside passenger aircraft. Research was recently conducted to investigate the internal electromagnetic (EM) environment excited by a wireless network inside a passenger aircraft to provide quantification of the ensuing EM interference threat. An airbus A319 EM model was developed and validated using experimental data and analytical techniques. The validated model was applied to the investigation of an 800 MHz cellular network. The peak electric field strength inside each of the A319 EM models examined was much less than the most severe RTCA/DO-160D radiated susceptibility test levels. The current coupled to a cable running along the length of the fuselage was much less than the minimum operating parameters of an extremely sensitive avionic system (e.g., strain sensor). The results obtained help to quantify and reinforce the conclusion of the major research efforts that the likelihood of interference with flight critical systems is low. The model presented herein can be easily adapted to study EM propagation for various types of wireless network and aircraft configurations, and the modeling approach employed could be of potential use in modeling other large, complex structures. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization and Modeling of the Susceptibility of Integrated Circuits to Conducted Electromagnetic Disturbances Up to 1 GHz

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 285 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the characterization, as well as the modeling, of the susceptibility of integrated circuits (ICs) to conducted electromagnetic disturbances such as a continuous-wave disturbance. Based on accurate measurement results, a robust mathematical model to predict the susceptibility of a CMOS inverter is developed. This model is based on a neural network approach and is validated up to 1 GHz for different test criteria. A good agreement between measurements and simulated results is reported. The mathematical model is implemented in a software tool such as Advanced Design System in order to facilitate its operation in the evaluation of the susceptibility of ICs. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient MoM Formulation for the Evaluation of the Shielding Effectiveness of Rectangular Enclosures With Thin and Thick Apertures

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 294 - 304
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (845 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A detailed analysis of the effects of finite-thickness apertures on the shielding properties of a rectangular metallic box is carried out through an efficient full-wave code based on the method of moments in the spatial domain. An incident plane wave having arbitrary polarization and incidence angle is assumed as a field source. The evaluation of the cavity Green function is accelerated by an application of the Ewald sum technique with a novel Ewald splitting parameter valid for high frequencies, and a recently proposed integral-equation-based approximate model of the aperture thickness is also applied. Numerical results are validated by comparisons with those obtained by means of commercial codes based on different numerical approaches and show rigorously that the effects of a finite thickness can usually be neglected (at least, at sufficiently low frequencies), with the noticeable exception of long slots. The effects of common limiting assumptions adopted in the study of enclosures with zero-thickness apertures are also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of Shielding Effectiveness of Gaskets by Means of the Modified Bethe's Coupling Theory

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 305 - 315
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1021 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates estimates for the shielding effectiveness (SE) of finger stock gaskets. Valuable insight into the nature of the openings principally responsible for coupling between gasket and mating surfaces are gained via a dipole characterization. It is shown that through visualization of the real contact area, the overall length of the engaged active contact region between fingers and their mating surfaces is generally smaller than the finger's width, thus leading to an additional ldquoellipse-like'' shape opening between two adjacent fingertips, which is much greater than the spacing slot. As a consequence, the dipole moment exhibited by the elliptic aperture is dominant and is responsible for the radiated fields into or from a shielding enclosure. Modified Bethe's coupling theory for small apertures is applied to derive these fields and assess the SE of the gaskets. The validity and accuracy of the analysis become obvious in view of the good correlation with measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Electromagnetics: Complex Cavities

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 316 - 324
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choices of variables and constraints, and some mathematical flaws are identified and possibly corrected. The commonly accepted probability distribution for the electromagnetic field has, therefore, to be considered as a hypothesis, which has not been contradicted by experiments. The alternative promising random coupling model is discussed as well. Ideas on future research are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Computation of Statistical Variations in Electromagnetic Problems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 325 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a computationally efficient approach to performing electromagnetic simulations in the presence of statistically defined uncertainties caused by either material in- homogeneities, or fabrication and placement tolerances. Comparisons are made with results from Monte Carlo simulations and a sequence of higher order approximation extensions to the technique. It is shown that accurate results are possible within practical computational limits for the case of small parameter variations. View full abstract»

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  • Role of Steel Frames of Buildings for Mitigation of Lightning-Induced Magnetic Fields

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 333 - 339
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Induced magnetic fields inside of a directly stricken building by lightning may cause faults, malfunctions, or data loss in electronic systems. In IEC 62305-4, the space to be protected is divided into several levels of lightning protection zones (LPZs). Steel frames of a building form a lightning protection system (LPS), and the space inside of it is LPZ1. LPZ1 is defined as the space where lightning cannot enter directly and the electric and magnetic fields inside of it can be reduced. In this paper, the contribution of lightning current in each part of the steel frames to the induced magnetic fields is discussed. Furthermore, a measure for a rational design of LPS is proposed aiming at further reduction of the induced magnetic fields inside of it. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Transient Response of GaAs FETs Under Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI)

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 340 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transient thermal responses of GaAs field-effect transistors (FETs) in the presence of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) are investigated in this paper. The numerical methodology employed is an efficient nonlinear finite-element method (FEM) that combines the element-by-element FEM and the preconditioned conjugate gradient technique. Parametric studies are carried out to show different pulse parameters on the transient thermal responses as well as maximum channel temperatures of some typical GaAs FETs, with silicon FETs also taken into account for comparison. It is numerically proven that the thermal impact caused by medium EMP will be the most serious compared with fast EMP or ultra-wideband pulse, and the captured maximum channel temperature is proportional to the input power density, approximately of the EMP injected. This research can serve as a base for taking further protection measures to prevent on-chip device from breakdown by the attack of an EMP. View full abstract»

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  • On the Choice Between Transmission Line Equations and Full-Wave Maxwell's Equations for Transient Analysis of Buried Wires

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 347 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (429 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we evaluate the validity of transmission line (TL) solutions in the study of interaction of lightning transients with buried wires. The considered transients have frequencies between a few kilohertz to a few megahertz with risetimes 0.1-10 mus. Comparative simulations using TL equations and full- wave Maxwell's equations are carried out in the paper, and the solutions to both the equations are based on the finite-difference time-domain method. It is found that TL solutions are sufficiently accurate for lightning transient analysis of buried wires. It is also claimed that the TL approach remains valid for all transients having frequencies lower than those of lightning. TL solutions are computationally efficient, particularly when dealing with distributed power and railway systems. The TL approach is valid as long as the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) is dominant. However, other modes of propagation, classified as antenna modes, might be present depending upon the type of excitation source, its location, frequency, and the associated media. A possible approximate formula for the frequency above which the validity of TL solutions for buried systems is questionable is proposed based on the concept of penetration depth of fields into the soil. Discussions presented in the paper could motivate the application of TL solutions for electromagnetic transient analyses of the buried conductors of power, railway, and telecommunication systems. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Independent Towers and Transmission Lines on Lightning Return Stroke Current and Associated Fields

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 358 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of elevated objects, when they are hit by lightning, on the measured lightning currents and associated fields is studied. For the present study, an electromagnetic model of return strokes with the help of NEC-4 is employed. Cases of strokes to ground, to independent towers, and to a transmission line are compared and the validity of comparison is discussed. The influence of the independent tower of 70 m in height, which simulates Berger's tower, on the peaks of currents is negligible even for the fast-rising current, which corresponds to a subsequent return-stroke current. The shape of the lightning current at the top of a transmission line is less influenced than that at the top of an independent tower of the same height. Elevated objects significantly decrease the amplitude of vertical electric fields in a close range. If the ground conductivity is infinite, the peak amplitude of electromagnetic field at a distant range will be significantly increased by the presence of an elevated object. In actual cases of finitely conducting ground, however, the increase of the peak field is limited due to the propagation effect. View full abstract»

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  • The Body-of-Revolution Hybrid Implicit–Explicit Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method With Large Time Step Size

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 369 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel body-of-revolution finite-difference time- domain method (BOR-FDTD) based on the hybrid implicit-explicit (HIE) difference is presented in this paper. The time step in this method is independent of mode number to. It is only determined by the spatial increments Deltar and Deltaz. Compared with the conventional BOR-FDTD method, this novel BOR-FDTD method has larger time step size, especially when the value of to is large. This novel BOR-FDTD method does not require the solution of tridiagonal matrices, and all the updates in this method are explicit. The stability condition of the proposed BOR-FDTD method is presented analytically, and the numerical performance is demonstrated through numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • Simplified Macromodel of MTLs With Incident Fields (SiMMIF)

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 375 - 389
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis of high-speed designs has become imperative due to rapidly increasing radio-frequency interference and emerging technological trends such as higher operating frequencies, denser layouts, and multifunction convergent products. In this paper, a simplified macromodel of multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs) exposed to incident fields is presented. The proposed formulation can also handle frequency dependence of resistance, capacitance, conductance, and inductance (RLGC) line parameters. The method employs the recently developed delay-extraction-based compact and passive MTL macromodel, while developing closed-form expressions for incident field analysis. An error bound for the proposed macromodel is also presented. The macromodel is simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) compatible and overcomes the mixed frequency/time simulation difficulties usually encountered during transient analysis, while guaranteeing the stability of the global transient simulation. The algorithm provides higher accuracy as well as significant speed gains for EMC analysis of transmission line networks as compared to the existing techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance Expressions for Unloaded and Loaded Power Ground Planes

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 390 - 398
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New, computationally efficient expressions are developed for input and transfer impedance for cylindrical ports on rectangular power ground planes. The expressions show directly the low-frequency characteristics of the planes. This low-frequency behavior is exploited to obtain computationally efficient expressions for impedance parameters of the capacitor-loaded planes that show directly the characteristics of poles caused by the interactions of the loading capacitors and the planes. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Current Distribution on Multilayer Printed Circuit Board by Near-Field Measurement

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 399 - 405
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method of estimating the current distribution on a microstrip transmission line of a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) by measuring the near-field distribution is proposed. The microstrip transmission line on the PCB is divided into electrically small segments. An electric field integral equation (EFIE) is established to relate the near field to the current on these segments. The current is estimated by measuring the near field, evaluating the mutual impedance between the current segments, and solving the EFIE. The measurement parameters for near-field measurement are optimized by numerical analysis. Experimental results are presented and compared with the numerical results, confirming the validity of this method. View full abstract»

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  • On the Impact of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) on Macrocell Downlink of UMTS and CDMA-450 Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 406 - 412
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Results of the analytical analysis to assess the effect of the ultra-wideband (UWB) emissions on the [universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) and code division multiple access systems (CDMA-450)] are presented. The (UMTS and CDMA- 450 systems) normalized range and normalized capacity degradation are evaluated. A free-space propagation model is used to calculate the UWB signal power that interferes with both mobile systems. It is shown that, for the case of a single UWB transmitter, the UMTS can easily tolerate UWB interference when the UWB equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) is -92.5 dBm/MHz or less for a distance between the UWB transmitter and the UMTS mobile of 1 m or higher. Also, it is shown that, for the case of multi-UWB transmitters, the UMTS can easily tolerate the UWB interference when the UWB EIRP is -94.5 dBm/MHz. For the single UWB transmitter case, the CDMA-450 downlink can tolerate UWB interference when the UWB power density is in the order of -106 dBm/MHz. For the case of multi-UWB transmitters, the power density that can be tolerated by the downlink of the CDMA- 450 system is in the order of -108 dBm/MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Offset Difference Measure Enhancement for the Feature-Selective Validation Method

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 413 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (175 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The feature-selective validation (FSV) method is proving itself to be a robust and helpful technique to quantify visually complex measurement sets, such as those resulting from computational electromagnetic validation exercises or experimental repeatability studies. This paper reports on an enhancement to this technique that includes data related to the level of dc difference (i.e., offset) between two sets of results, hitherto disregarded within the method. This offset difference measure (ODM) contributes to the amplitude difference measure (ADM) and ensures that the ADM and global difference measure values reflect the level of disagreement between the two traces even if this is the only difference between the two. The paper describes the background to this development and provides details of the selection and implementation of the ODM measure. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch