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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1986

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): c1 - 781
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): c2
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  • The Electric Process Heating Committee - Some Perspectives

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 782 - 783
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  • A High-Frequency Variable-Voltage-Fed Inverter

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 784 - 789
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A half-bridge inverter circuit capable of providing a wide range of ac output voltages and frequencies is presented. The inverter uses asymmetrical thyristors (ASCR's), which have the advantages of high-power handling capability, small turn-on and turn-off times, and exhibit the same ruggedness associated with conventional thyristors in regards to surge current and gating requirements. By using ASCR's for the main and auxiliary devices, the inverter offers other advantages such as low snubber-power loss, low commutation loss, simple protection circuits, and the ability to operate at high frequencies with different types of loads. Output voltage control is obtained by feeding the inverter from a variable dc source. Two fixed-value auxiliary dc sources are used to obtain a constant-current interruption capability. The performance of the inverter is evaluated both analytically and experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • New Method for Reducing Harmonics Involved in Input and Output of Rectifier with Interphase Transformer

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 790 - 797
    Cited by:  Papers (82)
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    A new effective method for reducing harmonics involved in input ac line currents or output dc voltage of the thyristor rectifier apparatus with an interphase transformer is proposed. This method is based on the sophisticated utilization of several thyristors inserted in parallel between several taps equipped symmetrically for the midpoint of the interphase transformer and the terminal of the dc output circuit. The key point of this method can be understood easily when compared with conventional use of the interphase transformer, where the dc output circuit is taken from the midpoint of the interphase transformer directly. The features of this method are very simple and very economical in circuit construction. Their presentation will take the following form: 1) fundamental theory of the method; 2) analysis of waveforms of input ac line currents under optimum operation; 3) checking the validity of the theory by experiment using the six-phase 12-pulse thyristor polyphase rectifier apparatus; 4) various modifications of this method. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast-Acting Current Limit for a DC Motor Drive

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 798 - 804
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    The two basic methods of providing current-limit protection for a variable-speed dc motor drive are examined. The most common method, the current regulator, is a two-loop scheme consisting of a current-regulating loop enclosed within a speed-control loop. The alternate method is the interventionist system, which normally operates in the speed-control mode, the current limiter taking control only after the armature current has exceeded a threshold value. The paper reviews the existing literature on the topic and goes on to describe a new interventionist-type system. The speed of response is extremely high: with a typical, fully controlled three-phase bridge rectifier the current is limited with high accuracy within one-sixth of a cycle. Experimental results for a 50-hp machine are given. View full abstract»

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  • A Microprocessor-Based Current Controller with an Internal Current-Rate Loop for Motor Drives

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 805 - 811
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    A new current-control method that is suitable for microprocessor-based speed regulation of motor drives is described. The method achieves fast-response and high-accuracy performance by using a major current loop and an internal current rate loop. The former loop is used to control precisely the mean value of the motor current by employing a current feedback signal obtained from a smoothing filter of the rippled current. The latter loop is used to stabilize the major loop with a high gain and to limit the variation rate of the motor current by employing the current feedback signal obtained from the instantaneous current without time delay. A current controller using a microprocessor was trail-manufactured and tested with a thyristor-converter-driven dc motor. It was found that fast-controlled current response can be obtained, even with a relatively long sampling period. View full abstract»

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  • Microprocessor-Controlled AC-Servo Drives with Synchronous or Induction Motors: Which is Preferable?

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 812 - 819
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
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    With the recent advances of power transistors and microprocessors it has become possible to design high-dynamic-performance ac-servo drives free of moving contacts using synchronous or asynchronous motors. Both schemes have their particular strengths. A general control principle, based on field or rotor orientation, is described which has been realized with a state-of-the-art microcomputer, where all the signal processing, including modulation of the inverter, is performed by software. Extensive tests have been carried out with different motors to compare the characteristics of the various types of drives. View full abstract»

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  • A New Quick-Response and High-Efficiency Control Strategy of an Induction Motor

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 820 - 827
    Cited by:  Papers (1090)  |  Patents (11)
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    New quick-response and high-efficiency control of an induction motor, which is quite different from that of the field-oriented control is proposed. The most obvious differences between the two are as follows. 1) The proposed scheme is based on limit cycle control of both flux and torque using optimum PWM output voltage; a switching table is employed for selecting the optimum inverter output voltage vectors so as to attain as fast a torque response, as low an inverter switching frequency, and as low harmonic losses as possible. 2) The efficiency optimization in the steady-state operation is also considered; it can be achieved by controlling the amplitude of the flux in accordance with the torque command. To verify the feasibility of this scheme, experimentation, simulation, and comparison with field-oriented control are carried out. The results prove the excellent characteristics for torque response and efficiency, which confirm the validity of this control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum PWM Waveforms of an Inverter for Decreasing Acoustic Noise of an Induction Motor

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 828 - 834
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
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    Pulsewidth modulation (PWM) waveforms for decreasing the acoustic noise of an induction motor are presented and relate to earlier work concerning the loss of minimum PWM waveforms. The proposed control scheme combines merits of PWM control with those of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) control to achieve silent operation of the induction motor. Calculation of the optimum PWM waveforms is complicated because the function representing the PWM wave contains many variables to converge and many modes in initial values. For example, when the pulse number of the PWM wave is 225, the number of variables is 112 and the initial values would be about 4 x 1023. Therefore, to get the optimum PWM wave, the convergence calculation of 112 variables using steepest-hill-gradient procedure must be tried with every mode of the waveforms. It is shown how to solve such difficult problems, and examples are presented of solved PWM waveforms. Through use of experimental means, acoustic noise is measured and better noise reduction of 10-15 dB can be achieved, compared with the noise of PAM operation. View full abstract»

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  • An Equivalent-Circuit Model for Phase-Back Voltage Control of AC Machines

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 835 - 841
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
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    The use of a simple series reactance model to represent the fundamental-component behavior of phase-back silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) or silicon bidirectional thyristor (Triac) switches controlling an ac machine is explored. A conceptual model of the phase-back switch as a harmonic power converter is developed to explain the reactance model and its limitations. Several sample applications, which are compared to ``exact'' state space computer solutions, are presented to illustrate the accuracy and limitations of the method. The ratio of harmonic power to fundamental-component VA at the switch is used to develop an impedance ratio criterion to determine the applicability of the model to specific cases. View full abstract»

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  • AC Drives in Traction Applications

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 842 - 846
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    DC motors and drives have previously been the choice for traction applications. The desire to use an induction motor in similar applications has been unfulfilled due to the absence of a suitable ac drive controller that could fully exploit the economical, rugged, and simple ac induction motor. AC drives using vector-control techniques are available to gain the high-performance operation in precise-torque and four-quadrant applications. This paper describes the use of such a drive for locomotion of large coal-handling equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Speed Drive of PWM-VSI-Fed Brushless Self-Excited Synchronous Motor

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 847 - 852
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The brushless self-excited synchronous motor with halfwave rectified field circuits has been invented already by Nonaka. For the low-speed drive of the motor a new method of the voltage supply which superimposes a higher-order harmonic component on sinusoidal low-frequency voltage by a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) GTO inverter is presented. The amplitude and frequency of the fundamental component and those of the harmonic component are controlled independently by a microcomputer-based PWM strategy. It is confirmed from the experimental results that controllable brushless self-excitation and smooth low-speed operation without torque pulsation are achieved by the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Instability in Electrical Machines

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 853 - 864
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (1)
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    While there exist numerous studies of electromechanical instabilities of specific electrical machines in constant or periodic speed operation, a broader perspective is not commonly offered. In contrast, a general machine model is used here to present essential and common features of these stability analyses. Fundamental issues are illuminated at this level of generality before specialization to the details of a specific machine. To begin, Park-transformable machines in constant-speed operation are considered. The local dynamics of these machines are linear and time-invariant. For such machines it is shown that instability may be analyzed in a useful way via systematically obtained reduced-order models. This is illustrated by significantly expanding an earlier study of a hybrid stepping motor. The more general situation in which the linearized models that govern local behavior are periodically varying is considered next. Classical Floquet theory is reviewed to provide the tools needed for stability analysis in this situation. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Linear Induction Drives by Field Analysis and Finite-Element Techniques

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 865 - 873
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
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    Two-dimensional field and finite-element analyses are complementary in evaluating the performance of single-sided linear induction machines, and can be used to develop a machine design for a given drive application. Electromagnetic analysis leads to an equivalent circuit of the machine with speed-and frequency-dependent parameters, in which top cap geometry, core hysteresis and saturation, skin effect, eddy current reaction, and both transverse-edge and longitudinal-end effects can be included. Finite-element analysis provides detailed information on the magnetic field distribution to aid in machine design. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion of ``The Effect of Back Corona in a Laboratory Scale Electrostatic Precipitator''

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 874
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  • A Mathematical Analysis of the Glow and Dark Space Regions in Positive Corona

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 875 - 879
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The authors present a mathematical analysis of the electric field, current density, and charge density in the entire airgap in positive dc corona in cylindrical geometry. The currents are found using the Townsend breakdown theory and the Sarma empirical equation for the ionization coefficient in air. Since the ionization coefficient is a function of the local field intensity and the electric field distribution depends on the ionization process, an iterative numerical method was used. White-head's empirical formula describing the conductor surface onset field intensity as a function of the conductor radius was used to establish the field intensity at the point in the gap where the ionization process begins. The results show good agreement with available experimental data on particle-charging. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Tuft Corona and Electrohydrodynamics

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 880 - 885
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    The importance of high-voltage and low-current operation in the wire-duct precipitator has focused attention on collecting high-resistivity dust. The local current density of individual tufts is considerably higher even at a low average current level and therefore could contribute to both the formation of back corona in the collected-dust layer and the generation of the secondary flow. Numerical simulation for three-dimensional tuft corona is, successfully solved. The electrical characteristics of the tuft corona is investigated and the structure and role of the three-dimensional secondary flow and electrohydrodynamics in relation to transport of the fine particles is described. View full abstract»

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  • High-Efficiency Ozonizer Using Traveling Wave Pulse Voltage

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 886 - 891
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
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    The energy yield of ozone generation can be raised substantially by using a fast-rising narrow pulse voltage in combination with a transmission-line type ozonizer. The pulse voltage proceeds in the form of a traveling wave to produce very active coronas. Both wire-to-cylinder type ozonizers and parallel-strip-line-with-insulator type ozonizers are tested. The former produces streamer coronas along the wire and indicates a high ozonizer-based energy yield Yo but its volume yield Yu is very low. The latter produces pulse-induced intense-glow coronas, and indicates very high Yo and Yu. However, the energy yield based on the stored energy of the pulse-forming condenser Yc still remains low, because of poor coupling of the pulse energy with the ozonizers. The plate-type ozonizer, comprising zigzag-shaped strip-line electrodes on the insulator plates, represents one of the practical embodiments of the stripline ozonizer. The pulse-peaking method provides a possibility of enhancing the level of Yo. An improvement of the coupling method is likely to improve the level of Yc. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Instability of Evaporating Charged Liquid Drops

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 892 - 896
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    The Rayleigh stability limit for charged liquid droplets was recently analyzed by Roth and Kelly for a multisibling breakup based upon the condition of system energy balance. In the present study a further mathematical model for a single-sibling disintegration has been developed to predict the final state for a given drop charged to the Rayleigh limit with known surface tension and initial size. The model involves scanning all possible radii of the sibling droplets and ensuring that the solutions satisfy conservation-of-energy and Rayleigh-limit criteria. Values obtained with the further condition of minimum final energy state show very good agreement with the experimental observations of Abbas and Latham. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Electrode Organic-Type G.M. Counter Design and Performance

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 897 - 900
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The sensitivity of the organic-type G.M. tube is increased by introducing a third electrode (grid) between the cylindrical steel cathode and a concentric tungsten wire anode and applying positive potential to that grid. The optimum position of the grid inside the cathode corresponding to the minimum capacitance of the counter is determined by using the simulation technique. Plateau curves of this tube are obtained for different grid positions. It is justified that the best performance of the tube is determined with the optimum grid position. Plateau curves of the three-electrode G. M. tube are also reported, with optimum grid position, for different values of grid potential. It is found that the sensitivity of the counter can be controlled by variation of the grid potential. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Power Supply and Controls for a Remotely Operated Glass Melter for Nuclear Waste

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 901 - 905
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    An electrical power supply and the controls and instruments used for a joule-heated glass melter for nuclear waste are discussed. Remotely replaceable interconnection wiring assemblies for the power, controls, and instruments are also described. View full abstract»

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  • A New and Accurate Modeling Technique for Glass Resistance in Multiphase Multielectrode Glass Furnaces

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 906 - 911
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    One of the design elements involved in sizing the electrical power equipment for glass furnaces is the determination of the glass resistances between the operating electrodes. All methods used for this purpose to date are approximate and are based on a simple model considering the resistance between only two electrodes at the time. This paper presents a technique to develop a resistance model for any general configuration of electrodes and supply voltages in glass furnaces. The technique is based on relating the glass conductivity as represented by Ohm's law to the electrostatic property as represented by Gauss's law. The resistance model is then derived in a matrix form using the bus admittance frame of reference. A digital computer program has been developed to implement the proposed technique and example results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model for Flow and Heat Transfer in Electrical Glass Furnaces

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 912 - 921
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    A three-dimensional mathematical model was developed for calculating joule heat release, glass flow, and heat transfer in electric glass furnaces. The model developed here allows for multiple electrodes, multiphase firing, and for the feeding and withdrawal of molten glass. The model is fairly general with respect to the arrangement of the electrodes, the firing pattern, and the choice of the boundary conditions, and it allows for the temperature dependence of the glass properties. The model was used to calculate electric potential, rate of heat release, flow pattern, and temperature distribution in the melting of flint and amber glasses in an all-electric melter with side-entering electrodes. The calculations were performed for the industrial conditions of pull, power, and the electric firing scheme. The bulk glass temperature was found to be very uniform with large temperature gradients near the boundaries. The calculated flow pattern was, in general, quite complex with several circulation loops. The temperature and the maximum velocity for the amber glass were found to be higher than the corresponding values for flint glass. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Circulation and Heat Transfer in an Electrically Boosted Glass Melting Tank

    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 922 - 933
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    A three-dimensional numerical methodology to simulate the effect of electric boosting on glassmelt circulation and heat transfer in a glass melting furnace is presented. Due to a small, characteristic Hartmann number, the ponderomotive forces in the momentum equation were neglected. The voltage and electric current fields within the melt were determined by solving real and imaginary parts of the electric potential. The Joulean heat dissipation was determined and coupled to the energy equation of the melt. Other relevant processes, such as batch-melting and heat transfer from combustion space, were integrated into a system model. Merits of electric boosting were examined by obtaining some representative results and comparing model predictions with and without electric boosting. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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Carlton E. Speck