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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society Industry Committee History

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 665 - 666
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Mining Industry Committee

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 667 - 670
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  • The Influence of Saturation on Induction Machine Drive Dynamics

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 671 - 681
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2868 KB)  

    A small signal model which employs two different magnetizing reactances to incorporate the effect of main flux saturation on induction machine dynamic response is presented. Three different types of experiments which confirm the improved accuracy of the saturated model are discussed, and the model is used to examine the effect of saturation on dynamic response in variable frequency applications. The results indicate that whereas saturation has a relatively small effect under normal operating conditions, it does have an important stabilizing effect when the damping is poor. It is also shown that neglecting saturation leads to significant errors in both pole and zero locations when the operating frequency is low. View full abstract»

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  • Modified Sequence-Control Technique for Improving the Performance of Regenerative Bridge Converters

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 682 - 689
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A modified sequence-control technique for series-connected regenerative bridge converters, for improving the performance at line and load terminals, is described. The reactive power is minimized by operating the fully controlled converters with the half-controlled characteristic, grading the input voltages to the bridge converters, and adopting the control strategies such that the converter with minimum input voltage operates over the full range of thyristor firing angles, whereas the firing angles of other converters are restricted to values corresponding to their ratings. Two control strategies are described. The comparative evaluation of the proposed technique with the existing techniques is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Microcomputer Control of a Current Source DC-DC Converter

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 690 - 698
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A microcomputer-based time optimal control algorithm for a current source dc-dc converter is presented. The optimal control strategy for our system is shown to be bang-bang or maximum effort. The closed-loop bang-bang control was tested on a 22.4-kW energy transfer system. This system was the prototype of'an inductor-converter bridge (ICB) at Argonne National Laboratory. The ICB is used for bidirectional (two-quadrant) energy transfer between two large superconducting coils. The system test setup and operation is presented in some detail. The test results of the control systein are presented. The difference between the ideal and actual test results is analyzed in terms of accuracy, noise effects, quantization error, and instrumentation dynamic response. The results of this analysis are used for a systematic component specification of a microcomputer based bang-bang control system to achieve a required accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Control Methods for Reducing the Inductance in the DC Link of Current Source Inverters

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 699 - 707
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    With regard to less expenditure, fewer losses, and less weight, the dc choke in the link of current source converters must be kept small. The performance of the dc link and special control methods for minimizing the link inductance are investigated. The converter is connected on the first side to a three-phase ac machine. On the second side, different types of line-side converters can be chosen for-operating at a dc supply as well as at a single- and a three-phase ac supply. According to the different performances in the dc link depending on the line-side converter, different control methods are presented to minimize the inductance. Thus considerable improvements can be achieved. Results of measurements of the test drives are given. View full abstract»

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  • Stability Analysis of Constant Margin-Angle Controlled Commutatorless Motor

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 708 - 716
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The constant margin-angle control is a triggering control scheme applied to a load commutated inverter to eliminate the commutation failure and to increase the system power factor. The instability of the commutatorless motor operated with this control scheme is analayzed. Basically, two types of instability are found: one due to the negative equivalent resistance and the other due to the angle feedback. The methods to prevent such instability are also proposed and discussed. The analysis results are confirmed by digital simulation and experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • 30-kVA Transistor Inverter Auxiliary Power Supply for People Mover, Part I-Power Circuit

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 717 - 724
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The design and performance of a people mover¿a 30- kVA 400-Hz transistor inverter which furnishes all loads, except propulsion power, on a small advanced urban transit vehicle¿is described in this first installment of a two part sequence of papers. With a nominal 750-V dc input, the inverter supplies 30 kVA at 0.8-lagging power factor, 200-V line-to-line root mean square (rms), and three- phase 400-Hz output. The design and performance of the power circuit is described in Part I, and the design and performance of the control is covered in Part II. View full abstract»

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  • 30-kVA Transistor Inverter Auxiliary Power Supply for People Mover, Part II-Control

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 725 - 735
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    The design and performance of a 30-kVA 400-Hz transistor inverter which furnishes all loads, except propulsion power, on a small advanced urban transit vehicle, a people mover, is described in this second half of a two part sequence of papers. With a nominal 750-V dc input, the inverter supplies 30 kVA at 0.8-lagging power factor, 200-V line-to-line root mean square (rms), and three-phase 400-Hz output. The power circuit is described in Part I, and the design and performance of the inverter control is discussed in Part II. View full abstract»

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  • High Response Control of Stator Watts and Vars for Large Wound Rotor Induction Motor Adjustable Speed Drives

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 736 - 743
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Extremely rapid control response (0.01 s) of stator watts and vars has been obtained on a 15 000-hp wound rotor induction machine with a cycloconverter controlled secondary by means of an orthogonal control scheme which linearizes the machine equations and combines both feedforward and feedback error signals. Leading and lagging power factor and positive or negative stator power flow can be smoothly and rapidly controlled over a speed range in excess of ±35 percent of the induction motor synchronous speed. This doubly fed drive may be termed a "Scherbiustat drive" because the wound rotor induction motor secondary power conversion equipment is the static equivalent of the Scherbius machine. This type of a drive does not employ a dc link in the motor secondary power conversion equipment. It should not be confused with a static Kraemer drive which employs a dc link in the frequency conversion process and was so named because of its similarity to the original Kraemer drive which uses a synchronous converter and a dc motor in the secondary power conversion process. Recently obtained field results have verified the original study results discussed herein. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Control Techniques for Extending High Frequency Operation of a CSI Induction Motor Drive

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 744 - 753
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2907 KB)  

    An investigation of the maximum speed capability of a current source inverter (CSI) drive in both a three-and a six-phase connection is presented. It is shown that a six-phase configuration has distinct advantages over a three-phase connection in high speed capability for the same peak motor spike voltages. In addition, with proper control of the firing pulses fed to the inverters supplying the six-phase machine, the speed range can be substantially extended beyond the maximum limit predicted using conventional control. Predicted analytical results are correlated with results obtained by a detailed hybrid computer simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of Electrostatic Spray Plumes

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 754 - 758
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1589 KB)  

    Electrostatic spray atomizers have proven beneficial in controlling the size distribution of the droplets in the spray. We analyze the self-dispersal properties of such charged-droplet sprays upon emerging from the spray atomizer. The droplets are grouped into fluid elements, and the Lagrangian equations of motion are solved numerically for the profile and internal density of the divergent plume. Comparison of the drag and electric forces in different parts of the spray is presented via analytic solutions to simplified equations. The application of adjustable parameters such as flow rate and droplet diameter to the control of spray characteristics is discussed with various examples. View full abstract»

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  • A Model to Describe Electrographic Development of Resistive One-Component Toner Systems

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 759 - 765
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A phenomenological model is presented which describes the electrographic development of very resistive one-component magnetic toners on a charged photoconductor surface. The model, based on field emission and space charge limited effects, gives a possible qualitative description of the physics involved in the developer nip region for one embodiment of the process described in Nelson's US Patent 4 121 931. The toners used for these machines are more resistive than many toners used in two-component toner systems. Because the toners are so resistive, a simple electrical induction process for toner development is inadequate in describing the physics of the process. Furttermore, a simple triboelectric mechanism for charging the toner is insufficient to describe the process. The basic model assumptions, along with pertinent supporting data, will be presented. Intrinsic toner properties, such as conductivity, flow characteristics, triboelectric characteristics, and magnetic characteristics also will be included, along with the effect of these properties on image density and image sharpness. View full abstract»

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  • Formation and Photographic Properties of Selenium-Tellurium Particle Migration Electrophotographic Film

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 766 - 770
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    The formation and photographic characteristics of a particle migration electrophotographic film are described, consisting of a monolayer of photosensitive Se-Te particles embedded just below the surface of a softenable matrix polymer coated on a conductive transparent substrate. Unlike a similar film using amorphous Se, known as Xerox0 dry microfilm (XDM), the Se-Te film is essentially panchromatic. The effects of applied field, method of development, and Te concentration on the photographic characteristics of the film are discussed. The film has an ASA speed as high as ~5, and the image is spectrally essentially neutral. Like Se-XDM, the new Se-Te XDM possesses excellent resolution, good contrast density (Dmax ¿Dmin) and gray scale, and essentially instantaneous and dry development; both fihms are potentially inexpensive, have excellent shelf life and image stability, can be read, duplicated, and printed using conventional equipment, and have add-an- image capability. Thus Se-Te XDM appears capable of a variety of photographic (including micrographic and graphic arts) applications, as well as digital information recording uses. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Disruption of Evaporating Charged Droplets

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 771 - 775
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1999 KB)  

    Charged droplets undergo periodic convulsive disruption during evaporation. This makes their behavior fundamentally different from that of uncharged droplets. During the disruption, a number of small "sibling" droplets (about 15¿m diameter) are released and carry 5 percent of the mass and about 25 percent of the charge. An analytical model of this process which is based on a "macroscopic" approach is presented. The model predicts characteristics of the final, postdisruption state (e. g., charge and mass ratios, number of droplets produced) which are in good agreement with experimental data for droplets having initial sizes less than about 100-pm diameter. A most interesting result of this analysis is the prediction that a limited number of sibling droplets (about seven) can be produced. View full abstract»

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  • The Optics of Reflectors for Illumination

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 776 - 788
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Although lens optics are a highly sophisticated and extremely advanced technology, nonimaging reflector optics for illumination only have been strangely neglected until very recently. The author's book The Optical Design of Reflectors that first appeared in 1974 is the only extant book covering this important subject comprehensively. In the past most reflector forms other than elementary parabolic or elliptical shapes have been produced by crude heuristic and empirical shop procedures, even by some of the most technically advanced American manufacturers. The mathematics of relatively simple reflector geometries of the types most commonly needed are presented. Simple examples illustrate the derivation of curves for circular reflectors designed to any beam specification, even for completely arbitrary beam shapes. Alternative ray-tracing and graphical integration methods are given. References provide sources from which complicated and highly sophisticated asymmetric reflector designs can be accomplished. Compensation for large or elongated light sources by means of the phantom light center is covered. Some visual background material is included to guide designers in matters of glare avoidance as well as other relevant physiology of the human eye. View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic Beneficiation of Coal Using a Cyclone-Tribocharger

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 789 - 793
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5736 KB)  

    A preliminary study is presented on a new method of separation of mineral inclusion from coal. The separation process involves triboelectrical charging of pulverized coal by a cyclone-tribocharger and electrostatic differential deflection of the coal. The separation tests for a pulverized Australian coal with 18.5 percent ash content using this separator yielded the following results: a cyclone with a copper wall gives the best separation performance; the percentage ash contents of particles collected on the anode and cathode of the separator are 26 percent and 11 percent, respectively; a coarse pulverized coal with 74-150 pm diameters showed a beneficiation rate better than that for a fine pulverized coal with diameters below 44 pim. In order to understand these results, the authors experimentally examined charging behavior of pure mineral particles fed to the cyclone-tribocharger with either copper or teflon walls and to a fluidization-charger. Avoidance of particle-to- particle collision and choice of cyclone wall material are important in raising the separation performance. On the basis of microscopic observation, the authors confirmed liberation of most mineral inclusion from coal crashed to particles of less than 70-¿m diameters. View full abstract»

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  • Machine Vision in Practice

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 794 - 801
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
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    A framework for understanding machine vision is developed by drawing a comparison between components of human vision and machine vision and also between factory uses of human and machine vision. Three major components of a machine vision system (camera, illumination, and process) are discussed, the last by use of several examples. View full abstract»

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  • The Interpretation of Train Rolling Resistance from Fundamental Mechanics

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 802 - 817
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Past efforts in railway improvement have focused on increased train stability and ride quality for safe and smooth operations at higher speed. The question of energy consumption has rarely been considered. In view of projections of higher fuel costs and increased rail traffic volume, energy effects caused by improved train resistance should be considered. First-order expressions for the rolling resistance of freight trains on level tangent track were derived from the basic principles of physics and engineering. The average power dissipated by the suspension system was obtained from a linear model of the track train system. Hysteresis in the soil is computed using basic principles of soil mechanics. Losses due to wheel rolling friction, imposed wheel sliding, and bearings were estimated from simple engineering and considerations. Rolling resistance as would be measured in coast down or drawbar pull tests on level tangent track is found to depend strongly on the quality of the track as well as weight and speed. On good track, most of the rolling resistance is due to bearing resistance, while on poor track, suspension losses predominate. Empirical expressions such as the Davis formula, which have been used in the past by the railroad industry, are unable to describe train rolling resistance adequately because of the way in which they are parameterized. Some of the parameter values obtained from fits to experimental data do not carry the physical meaning with which they were traditionally associated. View full abstract»

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  • Squirrel Cage Induction Motors - Performance Versus Efficiency

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 818 - 823
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The importance of operating motors at peak efficiency for maximum energy savings is discussed. Comparisons of standard motors and high-efficiency motors are shown. Optimum motor design requires a compromise between the various parameters. The effect of starting torque and locked rotor amperes on efficiency and power factor is demonstrated. Proper motor application can result in significant energy cost savings over the life of the motor. These savings can be greater than the initial cost of the motor. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Motor Braking

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 824 - 831
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4839 KB)  

    Electronic motor brakes (EMB's) can be applied to both new and existing machines to provide a rapid nonmechanical adjustable braking profile. They can also be used to supplement the braking torque of existing brake motors, forming a complete sequential braking system for demanding applications. The EMB stops without friction or wear. It also provides for an adjustable soft stop and can be mounted remotely from the motor. The new brake stops an ac induction motor by applying dc to the motor stator, thus providing braking torque within the ac motor. The EMB has two adjustments-braking current and braking time-which allow the selection of almost any braking profile. A positive lockout prevents the motor from being restarted during the braking phase. The typical electronic braking current is two to three times rated full-load current of the motor. Thus the heating effects upon the motor caused by the application of dc during the stopping function are minimal, particularly when compared to other electronic braking techniques such as plugging. The EMB becomes a part of the industry's only complete sequential braking package when combined with a motor-mounted friction disk brake which is spring-set and electrically releases to stop the load in the event of power failure and to provide a holding function. Together, the two types of brakes can offer an adjustable soft-stop profile with secure holding, as well as the ability to stop or slow down high inertia loads, yet stop them in the event of a power failure. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Testing Experience in a Large Motor Test Facility

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 832 - 835
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    New test facilities and testing capabilities are becoming increasingly important to verify the compliance of manufactured product to user needs. A discussion of the need for testing as well as the types and implications of various test methods is presented. A new facility is described and its ability to meet today's performance testing requirements is examined. View full abstract»

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  • Surge Protection for AC Motors-When Are Protective Devices Required?

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 836 - 843
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2188 KB)  

    AC motors require surge protection. However, rotating machinery arresters and capacitors are not required on the terminals of all ac motors. Often the distribution system parameters provide inherent surge protection. A simplified method is provided for determining when additional surge protection equipment is required at motor terminals. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

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