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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3  Part I • Date May 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Editorial Note Concerning Guest Feature Articles

    Page(s): 305
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Rural Electric Power

    Page(s): 306 - 308
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Xerographic Development of Residual Voltage Variations

    Page(s): 312 - 317
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    Ideally, photoreceptor voltages are discharged to a low residual in background regions of the document being copied. However, large fluctuations of photoreceptor potential caused by charge nonuniformity, photoreceptor defects, or imperfect cleaning can be tolerated if the perturbations are spatially small. A linearized model of electroded development systems is used to develop a methodology to determine the relationship between the spatial frequency of photoreceptor voltage and developed mass. The results are used to derive a realistic specification on allowable photoreceptor fluctuations. View full abstract»

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  • A New Electrostatic Separator and Sizer for Small Particles

    Page(s): 318 - 323
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    Experimental results are obtained with a new apparatus developed at The University of Western Ontario, Canada, for the separation and sizing of particles in the 90-700-¿m diameter range. The apparatus consists of two plane electrodes set at an angle and mounted on a vibratory feeder. Experiments were carried out both with specially prepared small particle mixtures and with fly ash containing unburned carbon particles as collected from electrostatic precipitators in power plants. The upper electrode was maintained at a high voltage ac potential of various frequencies from 10 to 200 Hz. The results show that by optimizing the voltage and the frequency of the ac electric field, one can effectively separate and/or size small particles. As a typical example, starting with a synthetic mixture of copper particles consisting of approximately 50 percent by weight small particles (90-120 ¿m) and approximately 50 percent by weight large particles (594-700 ¿m), in a separated fraction containing 40 percent of the mass, one finds 83 percent of all the particles in the range of 594-700- ¿m diameter. The experiments with fly ash show an effective separation of carbon-rich fractions containing as high as 60 percent carbon. View full abstract»

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  • Power FET Controlled Dimmer for Incandescent Lamps

    Page(s): 323 - 327
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    V-shaped metal-oxide-semiconductor (VMOS) dimmers in direct and inverse phase control schemes are analyzed and compared with conventional thyristorized ones. The absence of turn-off circuits and bulky radio frequency interference (RFI) filtering circuitry are the main advantages of the method. A 1-kW prototype with closed-loop overcurrent protection in an inverse-phase-control version is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Update: Fluorescent Lighting Economics

    Page(s): 328 - 334
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    Since the energy crunch, many new energy-saving fluorescent lamps, ballasts, and luminaires have been developed. Various new controls, system components, and technologies have become available. New lighting concepts are being employed for recehktly developed open plan environments. However, these components, devices, and their combinations tend to confuse the end users for either new or retrofit applications. The state of the art of energy-saving fluorescent lighting is reviewed, and a systematic approach for assisting the designers in making a logical selection is presented. A look ahead at future developments in fluorescent general lighting is also provided. View full abstract»

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  • Development of PWM Inverter Employing GTO

    Page(s): 335 - 342
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    Application techniques of a gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) to a pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter are presented. The switching characteristics of a GTO greatly depend on those peripheral circuits, so that it is very important to establish the application techniques to design the gate circuit and the main circuit of the GTO. For the gate circuit, the relations of the GTO's turn-off characteristics to impedance elements of an off-gate circuit and to the circuit system are described. For an on-gate circuit, a new narrow-pulse method is developed which can keep the conduction of the GTO in spite of the performance state of an inverter depending on the power factor of a load. Using this new on-gate circuit, the power dissipation of the gate circuit is reduced to one-fourth compared with a commonly used wide-pulse method. The transmitting section of a control signal is evaluated for disturbance of a PWM inverter, caused by switching operations. It is concluded that the gate circuit which is provided with separate power supplies used to turn the device on and off would be most advantageous. For the main circuit, the effects of the snubber capacitor's capacitance and wiring inductance on GTO turn-off characteristics are considered. Also discussed is a protection method for the GTO at the occurrence of a short-circuit fault, which utilizes its self-extinguishing capability. Some practical examples of the PWM inverter employing the GTO for driving induction motors (IM) are presented. These inverters have been made smaller in volume or much higher in performance. View full abstract»

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  • GTO Inverter for AC Traction Drives

    Page(s): 343 - 348
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    A 600-kVA capacity GTO inverter for traction drives has been developed using 2500-V/1000-A gate turn-off (GTO) thyristors, and running tests have been carried out. To utilize the advantages of GTO thyristors, circuit inductance of both main loops and snubber loops were minimized in order to decrease overvoltage applied to GTO thyristors after turn-off. Appropriate protection systems for the GTO inverter against commutation failure and overcurrent in traction motors were developed. Running tests for an electric car driven by the GTO inverter showed good control characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • High Performance Torque-Controlled Induction Motor Drives

    Page(s): 349 - 355
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    The way in which a practical control method using derived torque feedback signal has made it possible to obtain the same high bandwidth torque control with standard cage induction motors as can be achieved with dc motors is demonstrated. In contrast with previous torque control systems, this method does not require the angular position of a motor field vector to be determined for control purposes. The versatility of this torque controller is illustrated with measured torque responses obtained from a transitorized servo drive, a cycloconvertor, and a current source inverter. View full abstract»

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  • Control Methods for Good Dynamic Performance Induction Motor Drives Based on Current and Voltage as Measured Quantities

    Page(s): 356 - 363
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    A family of schemes for the control of torque and speed of the induction machine is described. It has been developed with the intention of closing the gap between high dynamic performance drives, requiring measurement of the rotor position or the field, and the simpler schemes with poor dynamic performance. Dynamic behavior and a static accuracy have been achieved which promise a broad range of applications. This is due also to the relative simplicity of the equipment and insensitivity to changes in resistance parameters. Implementation with a voltage source inverter and a current source inverter are shown. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparison of PWM Strategies for Inverter-Fed Induction Motors

    Page(s): 363 - 369
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    Several sophisticated or "optimum" modulation strategies have been suggested for voltage source pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverters for ac motor control. These modulation strategies may suppress specific low-order harmonics or minimize total harmonic content and have been successfully implemented in practical drive systems. The effectiveness of these PWM techniques in minimizing harmonic losses and reducing torque pulsations is investigated analytically, and their performance is compared with that of the usual sinusoidal or subharmonic PWM approach. The influence of skin effect on rotor 12R copper loss is taken into consideration, and harmonic core losses are compared. Peak current is also an. important factor in inverter design, and the various modulation strategies are again compared on this basis. Fourier analysis techniques are used in order to allow skin effect phenomena to be taken into consideration, and performance criteria are developed to allow comparisons of waveform quality in respect of harmonic copper and iron losses. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Angle-Controlled Current Source Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drive

    Page(s): 370 - 378
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    The current source inverter-fed induction motor drive (hereafter referred to as CSIM drive) is one of the widely used drives in the industry. Of the many strategies employed for the control of CSIM drive, angle control is the simplest scheme to incorporate the aspect of "frequency compensation," thus paving the way for a fast response CSIM drive. A step-by-step design of the angle-controlled CSIM drive is described. A systematic design of inner current loop, slip speed loop, outer speed loop, and frequency compensation loop is given. The design incorporates a linear relationship between the reference input and output of electromagnetic torque and a strategy to obtain maximum torque per ampere. The commutation delay in the current source inverter is taken care of in the design of the frequency compensator. Experimental results are given in support of the design procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System

    Page(s): 379 - 387
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    The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested, and the results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Braking of DC Machines: A Mathematical Approach

    Page(s): 388 - 392
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    Under the assumption of dominant viscous friction, a set of second-order equations is presented to describe electrically and mechanically a dc motor in the dynamic braking mode of operation. A reduction to first-order equations is then demonstrated under the constraint of negligible armature inductance. Potential applications are proposed, including open loop positioning systems. Finally, a test circuit and experimental data are included for verifying the mathematics. View full abstract»

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  • A DC-AC Power Conversion Technique Using Twin Resonant High-Frequency Links

    Page(s): 393 - 400
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    The advantages of load commUtated high-frequency (HF) sinusoidal inverters as link stiiges in power conversion are well-known. An inverter configuration that employs parallel connection of the load to the resonating capacitor can be employed to realize the high- frequency link. A technique of dc to low-frequency ac power conversion using two, such high-fre4uency links is presented. The frequencies of the two links differ by twice the required output frequency. The difference between the two link voltages is then a high- frequency ac voltage whose envelope is a low-frequency ac wave at the required output frequency. The frequency of the envelope wave is decided by the difference between the two link frequencies while the amplitude depends on the amplitude of the individual voltages. Thus the output voltage can be regulated by varying the link frequencies, and so long as the frequency difference remains constant, the output (envelope) frequency is not affected. The output voltage can be obtained from the difference of the two link voltages by appropriate rectification/inversion. This process can be regarded as a form of cycloconversion in which the modulation process is incorporated in the input voltage instead of the switching. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of Optimum Gain Functions for Static Power Converters

    Page(s): 401 - 408
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    The optimization of transfer characteristics of static power converters has been largely based on converter definition in terms of its circuit configuration. Since converter circuits lack mathematical definition, this approach has failed to produce a comprehensive optimization procedure. Instead, it has led to several unwieldy optimization schemes with limited range of application. A different approach, which employs a more effective converter definition, is discussed. With this, approach, the converter is defined in terms of its ideal gain function, which has an exact mathematical definition. An optimization procedure transforms the ideal gain function into an " optimum" gain function compatible with the switching characteristics of static converters. This procedure is subsequently employed with various classes of static converters to obtain their respective optimum gain functions. A thorough analysis of the resulting converter characteristics demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach. In particular, converters with optimum gain functions are clearly shown to generate the minimum possible (for switching converters) harmonic distortion. View full abstract»

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  • A Digital Pulsewidth Modulator Employing Advanced Modulation Techniques

    Page(s): 409 - 414
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    Advanced pulsewidth modulation (PWM) techniques for inverters allow the use of high-efficiency ac drives with low torque and speed pulsations and with reduced losses. A digital control scheme for a thyristor inverter is presented, where firing patterns satisfying given requirements like harmonic elimination or loss minimization have been calculated and stored in programmable read-only memory (PROM). Moreover, such a tontrol permits a continuous variation of output voltage over the modulation range for full inverter utilization. Evaluation using a 22-kW induction motor drive verified that the control provides a clean frequency spectrum over the operating range of the drive (0¿100 Hz). View full abstract»

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  • An Optimal Control Method Applied for the Compensation of the Fundamental VAR Fluctuations in the Arc Furnace

    Page(s): 414 - 423
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    An optimal feedback control scheme is suggested and investigated analytically in order to suppress the stochastic voltampere reactive (VAR) fluctuations in the arc furnaces. It has been verified that this control scheme is effective and efficient compared with the proportional, integral, and differential (PID) feedforward control scheme through several simulation studies. View full abstract»

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  • UL 13 Power-Limited Circuit Cables - Types and Applications

    Page(s): 424 - 429
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    The National Electrical Code (NEC) permits the use of lower voltage cables on power-limited circuits as defined in Article 725 of the NEC. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) developed Subject 13 to define the cable constructions and the physical and electrical requirements for cables intended for use on power-limited circuits. Optional protective coverings are also included. A reference is provided to the engineer on the various cable types available, the UL requirements for each, and the NEC requirements for various installations and environments. View full abstract»

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  • Gas/Vapor-Tight Cables for Class I Hazardous Locations

    Page(s): 430 - 433
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    The National Electrical Code (NEC) provides for reduced sealing requirements on-multiconductor cables in Class I hazardous locations when the cable has a gas/vapor-tight continuous sheath and will not transmit gases or vapors through the cable core. The new cables that comply with this requirement are discussed, together with the reduced sealing requirements and the testing procedure to verify compliance of the cable with the gas/vapor blocking requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Cable Surface Temperature to Detect High-Resistance Splices

    Page(s): 434 - 439
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    Mine power trailing cables are subject to considerable abuse and are quite often damaged severely enough to require a repair splice. Although recently developed splice materials provide a splice that is initially sound both mechanically and electrically, continual flexing of the cable can rapidly cause the splice connectors to loosen, resulting in a significant increase in electrical resistance. Although the added splice resistance does not affect the delivery of power through the cable, it can cause extreme local heating. If heavy current is drawn for several minutes, the splice can catch fire or rupture. Such a failure disrupts production and can be dangerous. Since the added resistance of the splice does not significantly alter the overall cable resistance, it cannot be detected by any measurement of the bulk properties of the cable. A method is suggested for determining splice resistance from a small number of temperature measurements made on the cable jacket while the cable is in use. The advantage of the method is that it requires no knowledge of cable current flow or other electrical parameters but only the cable size and its temperature profile. A theoretical analysis of cable splice heating is presented, relating the results to laboratory experimental data. Data are also presented from several cables in the field, including one which experienced a splice fire shortly after the data were taken. Results are encouraging, suggesting that the method can be developed into a practical periodic check of cable splice characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • A Pneumatic Sampling Fire Detection System in an Underground Haulageway

    Page(s): 440 - 444
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    A multipoint fast response fire detection system for underground haulageways, the concept of which was developed by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM), has been designed and fabricated by Brunswick Corporation and is undergoing field testing at Plateau Mine in Price, UT. The system is composed of a centrally located sampling station which draws air from various haulageway locations through tubing where the sample is analyzed by a smoke detector. Any generated alarm signal, as well as system performance data, is transmitted to an aboveground monitoring station from the smoke detector. The system description, basic design parameters used, the control system design, and the data retrieval system utilized are presented. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

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Editor-in-Chief
Carlton E. Speck