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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1981

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): c2
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  • Analytical Method for Coordination of Surge Arresters with Current-Limiting Fuses

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 445 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1699 KB)  

    Many industrial power systems have lightning exposure, requiring surge (lightning) arresters; dry-type transformers, requiring low protective levels; and high available fault currents, making the use of current-limiting fuses desirable. On occasion, current-limiting fuse arc voltages have resulted in destruction of low characteristic arresters. A traditional guideline has been to select arrester types and ratings that will not spark over on current limiting fuse maximum arc voltage¿an approach that may not be entirely viable for industrial systems. A step-by-step analytical approach to the selection of surge arresters for use with current-limiting fuses is presented. The method presumes arrester sparkover and is based on determination of system energy, fuse arc voltage and arrester back voltage characteristics, and arrester energy capability. View full abstract»

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  • Discussion of Analytical Method for Coordination of Surge Arresters with Current-Limiting Fuses

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 451 - 453
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  • NEMA Nominal Efficiency-What Is It and Why

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 454 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    With the continuing escalation of the cost of electrical energy, motor manufacturers and appliers are increasingly concerned with the energy conservation available from high efficiency electrical motors. The revised NEMA Standard on Motor Efficiency is described, as well as its use by motor manufacturers and users and the several years of work invested in preparing and validating the standard. View full abstract»

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  • Should I Select a Service Factor Motor?

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 458 - 462
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    The selection of a motor having a 1.15 service factor to a 1.0-service factor motor of the next larger horsepower is compared. This comparison includes first cost, losses, temperature distribution, efficiency, torque performance, and expected life of the alternate selections. In most cases, the larger 1.0-service factor machine is shown to be the preferred selection. View full abstract»

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  • Silicone Transformer Liquid: Use, Maintenance, and Safety

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 463 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Silicone transformer liquid has been in use in over 10 000 small and medium power transformers in the United States since 1972. In this time, the reliability and performance of silicone liquid has been proven. Silicone liquid is chemically inert and thermally stable. These characteristics will allow for a long and useful life and ease of reclaiming contaminated liquid. Similar procedures are used to process and test silicone liquid and mineral oil. Transformer designs have been modified in only minor ways to accommodate the differences between silicone, mineral oil, and askarel. The coefficient of expansion, the heat transfer characteristics, and the dielectric properties have all been thoroughly investigated. Silicone fluid has been used in new and retrofilled transformers without any unusual or premium design features. In a monitoring program, no water contamination, leaking, overheating or any other operational problem were experienced in over three million documented hours of service in all kinds of environments. The safety of silicone liquid has been established through thorough testing and field experience. The very low heat release rates and unique burning characteristics combine to make silicone a very safe material for use in power transformers. In addition, silicone liquids are among the least toxic of all commercial chemicals. This, and their ecological compatibility, make silicone a safe environmental choice in replacing askarel. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple Levels and Classifications of Emergency Electrical Power Systems

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 469 - 472
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Today, designers are faced with the challenge of ensuring that all important facility functions are protected from power failures both externally and internally by providing one or more backup supply to the primary source (typically utility service). Each application has its own unique requirements of the Emergency Electrical Power Systems (EEPS) for performance, reliability, and speed to assume the load, and the length of time it must be able to provide emergency power. Lack of industry-wide definitions and standards are severely limiting the availability of equipment and services from which the users can make the best choice for his particular needs. To solve these problems, organizations such as IEEE, EMA, UL and NFPA are now, through representatives of users, the insurance industries, consulting engineers, inspectors, and manufacturers, engaged in an effort to develop definitions and guidelines. Some of the basic problems are explored, the rationale behind the present industry efforts to find a solution is given, and an approach using multiple levels and classifications of Emergency Electrical Power System is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis Techniques in AC/DC Power Systems

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 473 - 480
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2136 KB)  

    Many present-day industrial power systems have combined ac/dc power distribution systems. A typical example is a coal mine power system, where ac is used for running the mining equipment and dc is used for track haulage, etc. Also, the topology of the dc network is constantly changing due to the movement of locomotives along the track. Methods are described that can be used to carry out load-flow and short-circuit analyses of such a system. View full abstract»

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  • Production Operation of Submersible Pumps with Closed-Loop Adjustable Speed Control

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 481 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Submersible pump performance in a given installation is determined by the intersections of the pumping load line with the pump capability curves. With fixed pump speed, the operating point on the head-capacity curve moves as the well productivity changes, and operation may be then outside the desired range. Efficiency and reliability are thereby reduced. With adjustable speed pumping, the operating point may be held within the desired range at high efficiency, while production is changed to match the well capability. Cycling or throttling may be avoided. Production is optimized if the well fluid level is held as low as possible, while avoiding pump-off, cavitation or gas-lock conditions. This may be achieved by using closed-loop control of pump speed with the feedback of either downhole pressure or motor current data or both. Practical experience has demonstrated the reliability of these techniques and the resulting ability to confidently operate with a lower fluid level, which is maintained constant through changing productivity. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of Optimum Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Electrical Equipment

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 490 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    Formulas to calculate the optimum interval of preventive maintenance and the optimum interval of diagnostic testing of electrical equipment are presented. Each user can calculate his own custom intervals using the formulas which are based on least total annual costs. The user must have his own data base of equipment failures similar to the example presented. Using 10000 failures of electric utility control and monitoring equipment as a sample, it was found that 25 percent of the failures could have been prevented by preventive maintenance, 65 percent could have been caught by diagnostic testing, and less than 10 percent have failed in the operative mode and could not have been maintained against or caught beforehand. One factor in the formula, which determines the shape of the equipment failure curve, remains to be proven after the next five years of data are collected. View full abstract»

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  • New Trends in Electrostatic Precipitation: Wide Duct Spacing, Precharging, Pulse Energization

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 496 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
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    Increased research in electrostatic precipitation has resulted in the emergence of promising new technologies. In a new design concept already widely used in Japan, the precipitator duct spacing is increased from the traditional 200-300 mm up to 400-600 mm, and the precipitator voltage is raised correspondingly, with precipitator performance remaining almost unchanged for the same precipitator volume and the same gas flow. For suitable applications, this design results in reduced installation costs and easier maintenance. Various devices for precharging of high resistivity dust now under development improve particle charging and thereby enhance precipitator performance. Pulse energization improves the performance of precipitators collecting high resistivity dust by improving particle charging and current distribution and allowing regulation of the precipitator current independent of precipitator voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Model Calculations of the Interaction Between an AC Corotron and a Moving Dielectric

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 502 - 506
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The dependence of the voltage on a moving dielectric exiting an ac corotron on such input variables as corotron frequency, process speed, ac current, dc current, position on the dielectric, and incoming potential are discussed. The voltage excursion occurring as the dielectric passes beneath the ac corotron are shown. The results demonstrate that surprisingly large voltage excursions can occur, with implications for the case where the dielectric is a real photoconductor. View full abstract»

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  • Metal Circulation in Two-Phase and Three-Phase In-Line Electrode Arc Furnaces

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 507 - 511
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The calculation of metal circulations in a three-phase in-line electrode arc furnace to obtain the most likely locations of refractory wear as a function of the phasing of supply currents is discussed. The approach is analytic, and the result of calculations indicate the directions and the expected magnitudes of circulations (curl) in the furnace at various locations. View full abstract»

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  • Glass Conductance Controlled Electric Forehearth

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 512 - 517
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    The heating currents flow longitudinally between transverse submerged electrodes. Their arrangement distributes heating current throughout the glass body without zone control interference while using a minimum number of electrodes. Conventional gas firing remains unchanged as an alternate mode of operation. Heating is controlled to an average glass electric conductance setting (as measured in the exit half of each zone). The basic electrode and holder design is briefly described. It does not require forced cooling. The operator's control panel is explained in addition to the all solid-state measuring, calculating, and controlling system with glass level compensation. A muffled cooling system improvement is also outlined. View full abstract»

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  • A New Neutral-Point-Clamped PWM Inverter

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 518 - 523
    Cited by:  Papers (1454)  |  Patents (19)
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    A new neutral-point-clamped pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter composed of main switching devices which operate as switches for PWM and auxiliary switching devices to clamp the output terminal potential to the neutral point potential has been developed. This inverter output contains less harmonic content as compared with that of a conventional type. Two inverters are compared analytically and experimentally. In addition, a new PWM technique suitable for an ac drive system is applied to this inverter. The neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter adopting the new PWM technique shows an excellent drive system efficiency, including motor efficiency, and is appropriate for a wide-range variable-speed drive system. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Six-Step and Twelve-Step Current-Source Inverters with DC Side Commutation and Energy Rebound

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 524 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (2)
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    Novel six-step and twelve-step current-source inverters (CSI) with dc side commutation and energy rebound capability are presented with detailed explanation of the circuit operation. The proposed inverters can operate in a very wide range of frequency and load variation by employing dc side commutation. Also, the energy rebound makes the use of low voltage silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) possible and increases the inverter efficiency. Unlike the dual current-source inverter, one auxiliary inverter with a power requirement of about one-half that of the main inverter is simply added to the six-step CSI in order to obtain a twelve-step CSI. Motor operation is possible in four quadrants in both six-and twelve-step inverters. The advantages of the proposed CSI's over conventional ones are described, and experimental results are given in oscillograms. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of Linear Synchronous Motor Drive Cycloconverter for Maglev Vehicle ML-500 at Miyazaki Test Track

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 533 - 543
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Maglev vehicle ML-500 in Japan attained a speed of 517 km/h on December 21, 1979. The linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive cycloconverter fabricated and submitted to the track test has a capacity of approximately 12 000 kVA in a continuously variable frequency range of 0-34 Hz with a sinusoidal current waveform. The current can be arbitrarily controlled in a range of 200-1300 A. Despite the rigorous power conversion and control, excellent current control characteristics were obtained: less than 4 percent in deviation of current peak value, about 4 ° in leading phase deviation and approximately 1.2 ms in zero current interval. Some observations about the LSM driving system are made, and an outline of the design and the data obtained from the super-high-speed running tests on Miyazaki test track are given. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 544
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  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 544-a
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  • Information for authors

    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 544b
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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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Carlton E. Speck