By Topic

Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1980

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (941 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Need for a National Technological Policy

    Page(s): 593 - 594
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1884 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Economic Considerations of Power Transformer Selection and Operation

    Page(s): 595 - 599
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1317 KB)  

    The increased emphasis on energy conservation and the rising cost of electric energy have forced users of power transformers to consider the cost of transformer losses. Most of the commonly encountered factors used in transformer selection are reviewed, and a guideline is presented which will assist users in both selecting and operating power transformers more efficiently. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Motor Behavior Through Power System Disturbances

    Page(s): 600 - 605
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2104 KB)  

    Most process plants employ automatic switching schemes to maintain operation through power system disturbances. An understanding of motor behavior through such disturbances is helpful in the application of selective fault clearing, fast bus transfer, and delayed bus transfer schemes. Results and conclusions of computer aided transient studies of major industrial plants performed over the past eight years are presented. Numerous computer printouts are plotted to illustrate the transient behavior of large synchronous and induction motors, large groups of smaller motors, and the power systems that serve them. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Impact of Solid-State Technology on Molded Case Circuit Breakers

    Page(s): 605 - 611
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4323 KB)  

    Molded case circuit breakers with solid-state trip units have been widely applied in industrial power systems for more than a decade. Today's Underwriters Laboratories (UL) listed molded case circuit breakers offer the application engineer many versatile features for systems selectivity such as high short-circuit interruption, high short-time ratings, integral ground fault protection, stored energy mechanisms, versatile mounting arrangements, manual or electrical operation, zone selective interlocking, and fault indicators. The development and application of solid-state technology in molded case circuit breakers are briefly traced, explaining the features and how they can be used. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Overcurrent Devices and the 1978 NEC

    Page(s): 612 - 616
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2901 KB)  

    Obsolescence in existing overcurrent protection devices in industrial plants is due to the possibility of higher available MVA, lower percent impedance transformers, and omission of future growth potential in present designs. Preventative design measures and solution of the present problem with simple retrofits are described. Some important articles of the National Electrical Code are addressed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Harmonic Pollution on Power Systems - A Change in Philosophy

    Page(s): 617 - 623
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5693 KB)  

    Static power converters have increased in number and uses in the past decade, and there has been an increased use of static power capacitors for improving power factor. These two trends have set, the stage for possibly uncontrolled harmonic resonances on industrial power systems. Some example of some problems are given and some practices are recommended, in line with a new IEEE standard, that will minimize the chance of harmful resonant conditions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Assessment of Energy Cost Trends on Electrical Equipment Selection for the Petrochemical Industry

    Page(s): 624 - 632
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1828 KB)  

    The historical relationship of energy and equipment costs and their impact on decisionmaking are presented. From this base, projections of energy costs and equipment costs are presented and the decisionmaking is re-examined with regard to alternative solutions. Sensitivity analyses are developed around variations in forecasted data and in economic parameters. Electric motor and transformer examples are used to present salient points in the analysis. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Pipeline Characteristics and Economic Consideration of Electric Pump Drives

    Page(s): 633 - 640
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2013 KB)  

    Important hydraulic characteristics of liquid pipelines and pumps that are necessary to assist the power engineer in evaluating optimum drive characteristics are reviewed. Typical pipeline pumping stations are developed with characteristic curves at each station for different grades of crude oil. Engineering and economic evaluations are made for various station configurations including constant-speed pumps with throttling, multiunit pump stations, and adjustable-speed drive pumps. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electric Heating - Take Another Look

    Page(s): 641 - 648
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3888 KB)  

    The advantages and disadvantages of electric heating methods are described and compared to other common methods of process heating. Brief descriptions of many electric heating methods are given, with references for the engineer who wishes to pursue any method in depth. Common process requirements, such as drying, melting, etc., are linked to the types of electric heating that are most applicable. For those unfamiliar with many types of electric heating, a guide to areas worthy of further study is provided. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Mathematical Models for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Page(s): 648 - 654
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6515 KB)  

    Mathematical models have been determined for mercury and high-pressure sodium electric discharge lamps. The models consist of a set of nonlinear differential equations. They reproduce the electrical characteristics of the lamps from dc to the high audio frequencies with good accuracy. They permit computer simulation of electronic or reactive ballasting circuits. Also, they yield a better qualitative understanding of the properties of a discharge lamp as an electric circuit element. The methods by which these models were determined are described, and the pertinent lamp properties are measured. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Light Rail/Rapid Transit: New Approaches for the Evaluation of Energy Savings, Part I - Life-Cycle Cost from Synthetic Routes/Operational Models

    Page(s): 655 - 665
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3040 KB)  

    The energy-saving benefits of new traction technologies for light rail/rapid transit systems must be evaluated on the basis of life-cycle cost, which includes both purchase cost and energy consumption. Rigorous energy consumption evaluations previously have not been possible because of the lack of 1) a practical basis for comparing the energy consumption of different transit car/traction systems and 2) information concerning the receptivity of transit systems to available regenerative braking energy. New approaches are described that will provide a practical basis for energy consumption comparisons. Techniques for solving the complex computational problems of the receptivity of large systems are described in a companion paper [16]. Overall, a systematic approach for comparing the energy consumption of different traction systems on the basis of equal work performed (operational model) is presented. The techniques described will allow a total cost figure based on purchase price plus energy consumption to be calculated for each type of transit car on a given property basis. The concept of a synthetic route, the energy equivalent of specific transit routes under study, is introduced for comparing energy consumption values during the bidding stage, prior to system selection. This concept, which significantly simplifies the computation task, was used in predicting the annual traction energy consumption of the Toronto Transit Commission's (TTC) Presidents' Conference Committee (PCC) streetcar fleet. The computations indicated that retrofitting the fleet with fully regenerative chopper systems would reduce energy consumption by more than 50 percent. A more generalized approach, utilizing an operational model, offers additional advantages in power flow studies of transit systems to optimize substation design, feeder requirements, and fleet traction system mixtures. An evaluation using this approach predicted that the peak rush-hour power demand for the TTC fleet would be r- - educed by 48 percent if the streetcars were converted to regenerative chopper systems, or by a larger amount if the conversion was to idealized flywheel traction systems. Power distribution loss data also were derived for the traction systems studied. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Light Rail/Rapid Transit: New Approaches for the Evaluation of Energy Savings, Part II - On the Receptivity of a Transit System

    Page(s): 665 - 678
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3367 KB)  

    New approaches are presented for the determination and evaluation of regeneration in large transit systems. A specific definition of the receptivity of transit systems to available regenerative braking energy is presented, and the analytical base for receptivity evaluations is developed. The construction of a transit system operational model also is described. This operational model is the mechanism by which the values required for the receptivity analysis are generated. The resulting analytical method provides efficient computation by identifying characteristics peculiar to transit system operation and making use of random sample rather than real time techniques. The analysis also uses a simplified network for the transit system (referred to as a single-thread model) that is error-biased to give a worst-case calculation of receptivity so that a lower-than-actual limit always is predicted. The operational model can be used with the synthetic routes described in the companion paper [21] to determine energy consumption values and, thus, life-cycle cost benefits. Through the use of these analytical tools and simulations, a complete evaluation of potential energy savings can be performed at a reasonable computing cost. A complete receptivity analysis, including parameter sensitivity scans for the Toronto Transit Commission's large streetcar fleet, is presented. The analysis predicted that the weighted average receptivity of the streetcar fleet will be in excess of 97 percent with a voltage window of 110 V or more, and that this result is essentially insensitive to the per-car auxiliary power and to moderate variations in the power distribution system resistances. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • ABC's of Regulator Maintenance

    Page(s): 679 - 685
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1726 KB)  

    A practical approach to the maintenance of electrical and electronic regulators is presented. It is possible to identify and record critical points which define regulator performance. This simplifies maintenance routines on complex networks and permits ready comparison with previously recorded data for evaluation and troubleshooting, thereby reducing training and diagnostic time. Examples of actual systems are given. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Suboptimal Control of a Static Scherbius Induction Motor System Using a Microprocessor

    Page(s): 686 - 699
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2816 KB)  

    A theoretical and experimental application of modern control theory and the microprocessor to the speed control of a static Scherbius induction motor system are described. When the microprocessor is used as a controller for such a system, and where motion is fast, the processing time of the microprocessor cannot be neglected since it may well be comparable to a tenth of the time constant of the induction motor. This processing time should be taken into account as an input dead-time for the controlled object. Moreover, the range of variation of the controlling angle of the cycloconverter must be limited to within a certain value to maintain normal commutation of the thyristors. This represents an input variable constraint. In order to consider these physical restrictions and at the same time keep almost zero steady-state errors under various operating conditions, a suboptimal control design method which has been obtained by improving the original optimal regulator theory is used. Using an Intel 8080A microprocessor system, several experiments have been conducted and satisfactory results were obtained. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Bias Voltage Controlled Three-Phase Converter with High Power Factor

    Page(s): 700 - 706
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2224 KB)  

    In rectifier systems, the compensation of reactive power accompanied with conventional line commutation is a significant problem. The most desirable and effective technique for realizing reactive power compensation is not the addition of more reactive compensators but the improvement of the converter circuit in itself. The new three-phase converter using the latter technique is proposed and discussed. It consists of a combination of the bias voltage control and the conventional phase control. The original scheme of this was presented in [1] for the single-phase type. The new three-phase converter scheme, its operation, characteristics such as power factor, harmonic contents of line current, design indexes, and experimental results are described. The new converter proposed will be suitable for large power systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Characterization of Programmed-Waveform Pulsewidth Modulation

    Page(s): 707 - 715
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1788 KB)  

    Programmed-waveform pulsewidth modulated (PWM) waveforms, applicable to ac-dc/dc-ac converters, are synthesized and analyzed in terms of several structural parameters. By invoking sensitivity studies and heuristics, optimal PWM structures are identified and contrasted. The results show total harmonic performance as a function of switching levels, waveform types, commutations per cycle, and filter bandpass. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Testing and Start-Up of Programmable Controller Systems

    Page(s): 716 - 723
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2341 KB)  

    Testing of a programmable controller system before shipment to the field can save money and time during checkout and start-up of a project. A method of testing a programmable-controller system that checks the designed system for logic operation, equipment problems, design errors, and programmable controller wiring errors is described. The testing program also provides an early opportunity to determine if the system meets the plant operational requirements. Comparisons are made between actual systems that were tested and systems that were not tested before installation in the field. A step-by-step example is provided that illustrates the test method. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Prebreakdown Process in Freon-Nitrogen Mixtures at Low Gas Pressures

    Page(s): 724 - 727
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB)  

    Steady-state prebreakdown currents were measured under a uniform field in freon-nitrogen mixtures over the range 110¿ E/p¿240 (E = electric field in V.cm -1torr -1, and p = gas pressure in torr) and at pressures ranging from 1-20 torr for different concentrations of freon. From the measured currents, the values of ionization and attachment coefficients and the ratio of diffusion coefficients to mobility for electrons (mean energy), were determined. The addition of a small concentration of freon (¿10 percent) to nitrogen at high E/p values is found to increase the ionization rate considerably with a corresponding reduction in sparking potentials. A peak in the value of mean energy for electrons was also observed under this condition. This is attributed to a significant difference in the ionization potentials of freon and nitrogen molecules, which is capable of ionizing molecules. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurements of Pulsed Corona in Coaxial Electrode Structures

    Page(s): 727 - 735
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3375 KB)  

    A low-inductance pulse generator is used to deliver a high-voltage short-duration pulse to an air-filled coaxial electrode configuration. When the voltage is below the sparkover value, the pulse energy is delivered to a diffuse corona which visually appears to fill the Interelectrode region. Energy transfer, current distribution, and pulse shape are measured for variations in electrode diameters, air temperature, and voltage. Over a range of voltages up to sparkover, the entire stored energy is delivered to the corona. Pulse rise times are approximately 0.2 ¿s, the maximum peak voltage is 92 kV, peak currents equal approximately 400 A, and pulse energies range up to 1.6 J. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Invitation To Membership

    Page(s): 736
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (119 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlton E. Speck