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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Stability Considerations for Industrial Power System

    Page(s): 107 - 115
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    Transient stability is assuming increasing importance in the design and operation of industrial power systems as trends toward large synchronous process drives and in-plant generation continue. Stability is the ability of a power system with multiple synchronous machines to survive disturbances such as faults, switching, and impact loading without losing synchronism. The stability of a system under specified disturbances can be examined by computerized transient stability studies, and various methods exist to improve stability levels if necessary. View full abstract»

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  • Cable Tray Installation for Process Plants

    Page(s): 115 - 119
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    The function of a tray system in a process plant is to provide an efficient wiring method for power, lighting, instrumentation, communications, and grounding. This paper reviews tray system design, material selection, installation, and problem areas. The presentation is based on experience in the design and installation of complete tray systems for oil refineries, chemical plants, and power plants. View full abstract»

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  • The Economical Loading of Distribution Transformers

    Page(s): 120 - 124
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    In the past, the annual cost to own method has been used to determine the economical loading zone for distribution transformers. This method is reviewed, and the sensitivity of the loading zone to the various variables is discussed. A method of relating the voltage drop in a distribution transformer and the secondary system to the selection of the most economical transformer is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Cost Allocation Considerations and Methods for Electric Rate Analysis and Design for Rural Distribution Systems

    Page(s): 124 - 130
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    The continuing increase in the cost of wholesale and retail electric rates has caused both consumer and regulatory attention to focus on the reasonableness of the rates being charged by utilities. Rate increases generally precipitate concern over discriminatory pricing questions. Because the resolution of rate discrimination issues in part involves a cost allocation study, it is important for the rural electric system to be aware of the general considerations involved in the development of a cost of service study. A complete allocation of electric service costs is not an exact procedure, and any cost allocation effort must also involve an analysis of the assumptions that are a part of the cost of service study, particularly if comprehensive customer demand data are not available. The general considerations involved in developing a cost of service study are outlined to define a technique to evaluate the impact of the assumptions that are a part of the allocation of demand related costs. View full abstract»

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  • Skin Effect Current Tracing

    Page(s): 130 - 133
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    A comparison of installed costs for resistance, impedance, and skin effect current tracing systems for a 20-in 4-mi long line shows a definite advantage for the skin effect system. This system depends on the fact that alternating current flowing longitudinally in a steel tube can be caused to concentrate near the inner wall by including the return conductor within the tube. With proper design there will be an absence of voltage on the outer tube surface, which can, therefore, be welded to a pipeline without disturbance of the ac circuit. The heat generated by the current flow in the steel tube will readily transfer to the pipe through the welds. Suitable parameter selection will result in economically practical voltage and current values, and will allow long lengths of pipeline to be heated from a single electrical power feed connection. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Limiting Electrical Heat Tracing: New Solution to Old Problems

    Page(s): 134 - 138
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    Electrical heat tracing is clearly competitive with steam tracing for most applications on the basis of relative economics. Electrical heat tracing systems can be easier than steam tracing to engineer, less expensive to install, and less expensive to operate and maintain. Self-limiting electrical systems have a special feature of safety for hazardous (classified) areas wherein their surface temperatures cannot exceed certain relatively low limits, and thus cannot act as an ignition source even under exceptional circumstances of misapplication or abuse. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Flux and Torque Regulation in a PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive

    Page(s): 139 - 146
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    A dc motor drive is controlled by varying the armature current and field current. The field is a measure of flux, and the armature current times field current is a measure of torque. Various approximate means of estimating the flux and torque levels in an induction motor exist. Most of these methods are sensitive to motor parameter value changes and do not work well near zero speed. Also, the harmonics in the motor voltage and current due to the nonsinusoidal inverter waveform cause errors in the estimated torque. A practical method has been developed to measure the flux level in an induction motor in the actual operating environment. Using the flux signals and stator current, the actual electromagnetic torque can be obtained. This torque signal responds correctly to motor saturation and inverter voltage waveform harmonics. The motor can be designed to operate without the customarily required flux margin, since the flux level is accurately controlled. The control strategy for use with these feedback signals does not require the use of a tachometer. View full abstract»

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  • One Year Operating Experience of Large Electrochemical SCR Rectifiers

    Page(s): 147 - 153
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    After more than one year of successful operation, the design and performance of a 52.5 MW thyristor controlled rectifier installation in a chlor-alkali plant are reviewed. Procedures for final checkout of the installation before plant startup as well as field modifications made to the equipment are discussed. Maintenance procedures are outlined and advantages of thyristor controlled rectifiers are detailed. Power factor and harmonic considerations are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Industry Applications Society Constitution and Bylaws January 1977

    Page(s): i - viii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Criterion for Performance Comparison Between High Power Inverter Circuits

    Page(s): 154 - 160
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    The efficiency and economics of inverter circuits with high power ratings tend to be determined largely by the size of the passive elements required in the commutation circuit and, to a lesser extent, by the combined current-voltage requirements of the semiconductors. In order to facilitate comparative evaluation of inverter circuits of different configurations which are all candidates for the same application, an analytical expression representative of the total kVA rating of the passive components can be derived for each circuit from the data defining the application. Combining this with a similar expression reflecting the volt-ampere requirements of the active devices, an overall circuit figure of merit can be generated. In certain paper studies, a comparison between such figures of merit can provide a useful, if not infallible, tool for appraising several candidate circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Load Sharing of Dual Motor Grinding Mill Drives

    Page(s): 161 - 168
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    Relatively small slowly varying shaft position and velocity variations superimposed on the normal running speed of dual drive grinding mill motors can cause individual motor torque variations which disturb load sharing. The magnitude of load or torque unbalance is a function of the magnitude of the mechanical variation, the type of motors used, i.e., induction or synchronous, the number of motor poles, and the ratio of the gear connecting the motors to the load. When the magnitude is large enough to be of concern, it can be compensated for through motor secondary or field controls. How the causative factors relate, how dual drive motors should be specified for purchase are discussed, and a compensating load sharing controller for dual drive synchronous motors is described. View full abstract»

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  • Charge to Mass Distributions in Electrostatic Sprays

    Page(s): 168 - 177
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    The dependence of the charge to mass ratio or specific charge of the spray stream on fluid and automization parameters in electrostatic spraying of various solvents and paints has been investigated. In addition, atomized paint particle sizes have been analyzed. It has been found that an optimum value of fluid conductivity exists at 2 ¿ho/cm where the specific charge of the spray stream exhibits a maximum. From the particle size distribution and from the dependence of the specific charge of the spray stream on conductivity it has been concluded that the basic spray droplet charging mechanism is due to the breakup of a charged liquid surface, while corona discharge does not appear to play a significant role in the charging of the particles. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Charge Buildup During Electrostatic Spraying

    Page(s): 177 - 183
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    In industrial electrostatic spray coating operations, liquid paint is applied to substrates of varying electrical characteristics. In many cases a metal substrate is chemically pretreated and/or primed prior to electrostatic spraying. A previously rejected part may have already received a number of thoroughly cured topcoats prior to the final spray application. Typical primers and topcoats have large surface resistivities (108 to 1010 ohm.cm-2) and exhibit slow surface potential decay rates. A surface potential measurement system has been developed to determine the time dependent electrical properties of various substrates when coated with commercial water base and organic paint systems. It has been observed that during some electrostatic recoat operations, the charged paint particles appear to be repelled from the surface to be coated. It is found that this phenomenon can be predicted when conditions are such that adequate charge leakage paths to ground are not available due to high surface and bulk resistivities of the film resulting in a repelling charge and potential buildup on the surface. It has been found that the charge removal process cannot be described as a simple exponential decay, but as a superposition of three exponential decay processes each with its own decay constant ¿. View full abstract»

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  • A Field-Limited Theory of Cascade Development

    Page(s): 183 - 187
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    Recently reported model experiments of Knapp [1] on electroded cascade development provide an excellent set. of data for testing presumptive development models since so many of the experimental parameters are available. A development model is presented that is based on the assumption that in the dynamic process of cascade development the instantaneous force binding a toner to a carrier is proportional to q, the charge on the toner, rather than to q2. This is in contrast to the q2 force dependence observed in equilibrated mixtures. The mechanism of toner detachment is impact-assisted electric-field stripping. Statistical distributions for toner radius, surface charge density, and impact velocity are introduced. The results are compared with Knapp's experiments and with a recent theoretical model of Maitra, Scher, and Knapp (MSK). In contrast to MSK, although the specific form of the distributions is important for the conclusions, the particular parameters of the distributions have little effect. The statistics do not smear the physics. View full abstract»

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  • An Adjustable-Threshold Electronic Motor Starting System

    Page(s): 188 - 193
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    One phase of an ongoing program aimed at developing an all-electronic control system for a home appliance is described. The shortcomings of conventional electromechanical motor-starting systems and problems in the early design stages of a replacement electronic system are discussed. A circuit which automatically adjusts itself to compensate for changing conditions so that it always provides the correct motor starting action is presented. Broader applications of the unique circuit are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Membership Application IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Page(s): 194
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

Full Aims & Scope

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Editor-in-Chief
Carlton E. Speck