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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Group

    Page(s): c2
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  • The Solid-State Lithium Battery: A New Improved Chemical Power Source for Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers

    Page(s): 317 - 324
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    A new solid-state battery, designed for implantable prosthetics is described. Single cell voltage is 2.8 V. The anode is metallic lithium. The cathode is a proprietary iodide. The electrolyte is a crystal, lithium iodide. Cell impedance at 37°C for a typical pacemaker battery is under 1000¿ at beginning of life (BOL) and 16 000 ¿ at end of life (EOL). The simple chemistry of the cell precludes hydrogen gas generation and thus, for the first time, permits hermetic sealing of a battery and/or pacemaker in a welded stainless-steel enclosure which may be used as the indifferent anode electrode in a monopolar system. View full abstract»

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  • Telemetry in a Large Hospital-A Look at the Future

    Page(s): 325 - 329
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    The present value of telemetry in clinical care is limited. In ten years, however, it is possible that 40 patients will be under surveillance by telemetry at any one time in a 1000 bed hospital, with at least three channels of information associated with each patient. The technological base for broad medical use of telemetry exists already except for the serious lack of practical transducers. The real problems in implementing a telemetry program are electromagnetic interference, standardization, maintenance, security of components, location of patients, and reliability of day-to-day operation. It is urged that preferential consideration be given to manufacturers who recognize these problems and offer realistic proposals for their solution. View full abstract»

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  • An Optimally Controlled Respirator

    Page(s): 330 - 338
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    An optimally controlled respirator was developed. It has three main features: 1) ventilation is controlled by the patient's metabolic rate from continuously measured C02 output, 2) physiologic dead space approximated as a linear function of tidal volume is used to estimate alveolar ventilation, and 3) respiratory rate is computed to minimize ventilatory work. View full abstract»

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  • Spontaneous Voltage Fluctuations in Glass Microelectrodes

    Page(s): 339 - 351
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    The spontaneous fluctuations of voltage across a glass microelectrode have been studied as a function of the average difference in voltage (V) across the electrode and the concentration of internal (n2) and external (n1) salt solutions. A stationary fluctuation was observed, with a mean square value many times greater than that calculated from the Nyquist formula for noise due to the thermal agitation of charge, for all states of the electrode except n2=n1, V=0. Here the fluctuations equal the Johnson level. The spectral density of the fluctuation and its dependence on (n1, n2, V) are given in the range 3-0.003 MKCl and V = ±200 mV. The dependence on the species of cation (potassium and sodium) was also determined. The work has practical implications for users of microelectrodes who wish to minimize noise. It also serves as a model for studying noise generated when ions move through a micropore. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of a Tuned Ferrite Core Transcutaneous Transformer

    Page(s): 352 - 359
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    The development of a practical power transmission system for a rechargeable artificial heart requires not only a means of efficiently coupling the required electromagnetic energy across the skin, but also a charge regulator, a primary cooling loop, and a suspension system for aligning the cores. This paper describes a tuned transcutaneous transformer which utilizes ferrite pot cores with Litz windings. Typically, the transformer operates over a frequency range from 12 to 20 kHz. Power levels of 150 W into a 16-¿ load have been demonstrated in vivo. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Method for Testing for Change in Digitized Cardiotachometer Data

    Page(s): 360 - 365
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    An adaptive method for detecting change in digitized cardiotachometer recordings has been developed which takes into account the nonstationary statistical structure of the data. The digitized data are smoothed to reduce the variance at high frequencies caused by discontinuities inherent in cardiotachometer output. Based on a first-order autoregression, which has been shown to be appropriate for heart rate data, the adaptive procedure uses estimates of the parameters which are most influenced by the recent observations. Decreasing weight is given to past prestimulus data, and the estimates are updated with each stimulus. A test for change is then applied to the poststimulus regions at each time point, yielding a t statistic. The t2's can then be averaged to give a test for change over an interval. View full abstract»

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  • An Analysis of Frequency Modulation Circuit Using p-n Junction Varactors

    Page(s): 366 - 375
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    Simple circuits performing oscillation-frequency modulation functions using one active device and p-n junction type varactors are studied. The performance of the common circuit is analyzed. Equations are derived to determine signal-to-frequency deviation, transducer gain, frequency deviation, input impedance, distortion, maximum signal, noise and signal sensitivity, dynamic range, and maximum resolution. The upper or lower bounds of these quantities are given as functions of the varactor parameters and circuit constants. View full abstract»

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  • System for the Measurement of Velocity of Microscopic Particles in Liquids

    Page(s): 376 - 377
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    A system for the measurement of velocity of particles suspended in liquids was developed, based on the on-line computation of the time to maximum cross correlation between the optical signatures made by particles, as their image traverses two adjacent photo-detectors aligned in the direction of flow. Cross correlation computation is performed with a commercially available computer, and the time to maximum cross correlation is detected by digital pulse circuitry. The system is particularly suited for measurements of blood flow in vivo and in vitro. Frequency response is linear to 1 Hz where the phase lag is 30°. View full abstract»

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  • An Instrument for the Accurate Measurement of MEFV Parameters

    Page(s): 378 - 379
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    An instrument which measures maximally forced expiratory airflow directly, computes its integral (lung volume decrement ), and interrupts the storage oscilloscope display of this flow-volume trajectory at fixed but adjustable intervals of time is described. This new device is portable and does not involve bellows or a water-filled canister. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of Phase Characteristics of Alpha Waves in the Electroencephalogram

    Page(s): 379 - 382
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    A method of obtaining a continuous record of the average center frequency of the EEG and the instantaneous phase fluctuations about that average is described. A phase-locked loop with a wide range phase detector has been implemented on a hybrid computer for this purpose. This new technique provides another way to extract information from the EEG and tends to emphasize the time-varying features of such recordings. View full abstract»

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  • A Self-Centering Respiration Monitor for Small Animal Research

    Page(s): 382 - 383
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    It is necessary to monitor the physiological state of small animals being maintained under anesthetic. One parameter that may be observed is the respiratory pattern which is particularly important when using anesthetics known to depress respiratory function. A respiration monitor is described which indicates nasal air flow and which has a self-centering feature to eliminate drift. This feature enables the sensitivity of the unit to be increased to allow monitoring from animals with very low tidal volumes. The monitor is small and is battery operated to eliminate line frequency interference of sensitive recording equipment. It gives a meter indication of the respiratory pattern and provides an output suitable for driving a recorder. An audible tone is sounded at each inspiration. View full abstract»

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  • A Universal Biological Interval Timer

    Page(s): 383 - 386
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    A circuit for the measurement of biological time intervals from 0.1 ms to 10 s is described. This device accepts biopotentials, stimuli, or transducer signals to produce an instantaneous dc voltage readout proportional to the time between two successive input signals. Digital preconditioning and analog integration are used to simplify the design. View full abstract»

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  • Keyword Abstracts

    Page(s): 387 - 388
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  • IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering Statement of Editorial Policy

    Page(s): 388-a
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  • Institutional listings

    Page(s): 388b
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering contains basic and applied papers dealing with biomedical engineering. Papers range from engineering development in methods and techniques with biomedical applications to experimental and clinical investigations with engineering contributions.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering