IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics

Issue 5 • Sept.-Oct. 1992

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Simultaneous stabilization and decoupling of constrained robotic systems with minimal inputs

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):945 - 952
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)

    Simultaneous stabilization and disturbance decoupling of constrained robotic systems with minimal inputs are addressed. The robotic system must be decoupled into disjoint manifolds of motion and constraint, and the small motion of the system in the respective tangential hyperplanes must be stable. The problem arises in rolling and gliding types of probing manipulation. Necessary conditions for blo... View full abstract»

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  • Construction of a model formulation consultant: the AEROBA experience

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1220 - 1232
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB)

    Typically, most of the current decision support systems (DSSs) do not possess a module to help users formulate mathematical programming models. This observation has led researchers to offer different approaches to the design of formulation consultants. Generally, these approaches emphasize the automation of formulation tasks with a predetermined (static) control or guidance strategy. A new approac... View full abstract»

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  • Consensus diagnosis: a simulation study

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):916 - 928
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1212 KB)

    Consensus diagnoses arise when several experts contribute their opinions about the relative merits of a series of competing hypothesis, and a single decision maker combines their responses and makes a decision without further discussion among the contributors. Consensus diagnoses were simulated by allowing an oracle to generate `opinions' based on universal background knowledge and all available i... View full abstract»

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  • The constrained control of force and position by multilink manipulators

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1214 - 1219
    Cited by:  Papers (86)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)

    The efficiency of a manipulator with actuators in each single joint can be improved considerably (up to a factor of 2) by adding actuators that act over more than a single joint. Even though this creates redundancy the efficient control of force and position of the manipulator end point induces a constraint that eliminates (part of) the redundancy. It is demonstrated that an efficient control requ... View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to kinematic control of simple manipulators

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1116 - 1124
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (580 KB)

    A new approach for solving inverse kinematics problems is presented. An iteration algorithm based on the global Newton's method finds staircase-like solutions of the joint variables that pass through temporary fixed points on a virtual straight line connecting the starting point to a target point of a manipulator. The intervals between fixed points are chosen so that convergence of the iteration i... View full abstract»

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  • Browsing in hypertext: a cognitive study

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):865 - 884
    Cited by:  Papers (78)  |  Patents (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (2012 KB)

    Several dimensions of browsing are examined to find out: what browsing is and what cognitive processes are associated with it; whether there is a browsing strategy and, if so, whether there are any differences between how subject-area experts and novices browse; and how this knowledge can be applied to improve the design of hypertext systems. Two groups of students, subject-area experts and novice... View full abstract»

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  • Deterrence and the design of treaty verification systems

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):903 - 915
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    Centered around the notion of deterrence, a framework for analyzing the performance of systems for verifying compliance with arms-control treaty constraints is developed. Using the same models, it is also shown how to evaluate the desirability of the treaty constraints themselves. This analysis forms a relatively unified treatment of both topics, one that permits the joint optimization of both tre... View full abstract»

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  • Representing organizational changes in distributed problem solving environments

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1168 - 1177
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    To model organizational changes in cooperative but distributed problem solving environments, it is necessary to represent not only activities and knowledge concerning particular agents, but also the constraints for successful collaboration among agents, concerning mainly the availability of common knowledge and cooperative task accomplishment. The usability of such models mostly depends on their a... View full abstract»

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  • COSIMO: A cognitive simulation model of human decision making and behavior in accident management of complex plants

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1058 - 1074
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1524 KB)

    A cognitive simulation model (COSIMO) which simulates the behavior of an operator controlling a complex system during the management of accidents is described. Particular attention is paid to the theoretical foundations of the model, to its computational implementation, and to a number of simulations of man-machine system interactions. The approach followed in COSIMO is to build a structure for th... View full abstract»

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  • Error surfaces for multilayer perceptrons

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1152 - 1161
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (840 KB)

    Characteristics of error surfaces for the multilayer perceptron neural network that help explain why learning techniques that use hill-climbing methods are so slow in these networks and also provide insights into techniques to speed learning are examined. First, the surface has a stair-step appearance with many very flat and very steep regions. When the number of training samples is small there is... View full abstract»

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  • System identification and control using genetic algorithms

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1033 - 1046
    Cited by:  Papers (300)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    It is shown how genetic algorithms can be applied for system identification of both continuous and discrete time systems. It is shown that they are effective in both domains and are able to directly identify physical parameters or poles and zeros. This can be useful because changing one physical parameter might affect every parameter of a system transfer function. The estimates of poles and zeros ... View full abstract»

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  • Causality and robotic contact tasks problem

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1210 - 1214
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)

    A formal approach is used to postulate a model of a manipulator in contact with a rigid environment, and a control problem encountered in robotic contact tasks is defined. The model is obtained using elementary causal representation of mechanical elements; springs and dampers are connected between the end-point of the manipulator and the rigid environment. The control problem is stated as the stab... View full abstract»

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  • Analogical problem solving in an expert system

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1138 - 1144
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)

    An expert system designed to investigate the application of artificial intelligence to the area of computer-based testing is presented. This system is a prototype that will be used to collect the data necessary to determine the feasibility of intelligent computer tests. The type of test to be used is an analogy test on which each question will consist of a sequence of three geometrical shapes. The... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic construction of process plans from solid model representations

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1097 - 1115
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1720 KB)

    Methods and an implemented system for automatic generation of process plans from the CAD boundary representation of a part are presented. Two problems are addressed: one is the machine understanding of the shape of a part from its low-level boundary representation, and the other is developing a plan based on this semantic information. The architecture of the system at the highest level consists of... View full abstract»

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  • Network-based management of subjective judgements: a proposal accepting cyclic dependencies

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1008 - 1023
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1412 KB)

    The architecture of an uncertainty manager (UM) based on belief revision concepts is proposed. It automatically maintains the consistency of related propositions according to a given theory of uncertainty. Facts are represented as nodes of a network, whose links stand for inferential dependencies among the connected nodes. Each node is associated to a measure of the confidence the UM has in it. Th... View full abstract»

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  • Cartesian-based learning control for robots in discrete-time formulation

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1198 - 1204
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)

    Classical and adaptive control of robot manipulators can be either joint-based or Cartesian-based. The formulation schemes of learning control of manipulators subject to repetitive operation described in the literature are apparently all based on the joint space. A new discrete-time formulation of Cartesian-based iterative learning control is developed in which partial knowledge of the robot dynam... View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and critiquing the confirmation bias in human reasoning

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):972 - 982
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)

    In trying to solve even small problems, humans often form wrong hypotheses by looking only at the most salient factors and by ignoring contrary evidence. Once they form their initial beliefs, they exhibit a strong tendency to seek only additional confirming evidence. This type of behavior is the confirmation bias. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that computers can interact with humans b... View full abstract»

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  • A divide-and-conquer approach with heuristics of motion planning for a Cartesian manipulator

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):929 - 944
    Cited by:  Patents (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1268 KB)

    An efficient method for planning a safe trajectory for a Cartesian manipulator doing pick-and-place motion is described. A 3D grid model is used to represent the workspace of the manipulator. An algorithm, called the critical configuration algorithm, is introduced to support the path searching process in an environment cluttered with obstacles. The algorithm decomposes the movement of the manipula... View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy command grammars for intelligent interface design

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1124 - 1131
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)

    Human-computer interactions involve an input language with which users input their commands and a command language that is anticipated and recognized by the system. In general, the input language is a function of the command language, while the command language can be any language defined by the system designer. The relationship between these languages is modeled using fuzzy set theory, and a fuzz... View full abstract»

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  • Systems engineering and information technology: catalysts for total quality in industry and education

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):833 - 864
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (3396 KB)

    A broad, somewhat personal view of the role of systems engineering and systems management is provided, with major support from information technology products and services, as catalysts for needed changes now and in the 21st century. The focus is on quality improvement and productivity, especially productivity through systems engineering. US industrial productivity needs are discussed, with specia... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic construction of networks of concepts characterizing document databases

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):885 - 902
    Cited by:  Papers (93)  |  Patents (51)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1636 KB)

    Two East-bloc computing knowledge bases, both based on a semantic network structure, were created automatically from large, operational textual databases using two statistical algorithms. The knowledge bases were evaluated in detail in a concept-association experiment based on recall and recognition tests. In the experiment, one of the knowledge bases, which exhibited the asymmetric link property,... View full abstract»

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  • The prediction of human performance safety with event trees

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1178 - 1182
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)

    The extent to which event trees can be used to predict human errors made by operators in following written procedures and what consequences may result from these errors was studied. The problems that may occur were analyzed by means of a field study in which the startup of an actual installation was examined. The difference between analyzing single and sequences of human errors was studied as well... View full abstract»

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  • Identification of model structure via qualitative simulation

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1075 - 1086
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)

    Different approaches and programs for qualitative simulation are briefly reviewed to illustrate the characteristic features of QUALSIM, an object-oriented package for supporting the identification of the structure of dynamic systems. The package is based on a qualitative interface and a stochastic calculus using variables' ranges defined in the real number space. The intuitive way of defining vari... View full abstract»

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  • A semantic network representation of personal construct systems

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1161 - 1168
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    A method is presented for transforming and combining heuristic knowledge gathered from multiple domain experts into a common semantic network representation. Domain expert knowledge is gathered with an interviewing tool based on personal construct theory. The problem of expressing and using a large body of knowledge is fundamental to artificial intelligence and its application to knowledge-based o... View full abstract»

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  • Maneuver option manager: automated simplification of complex air traffic control problems

    Publication Year: 1992, Page(s):1047 - 1057
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    Maneuver option manager (MOM) is part of an air traffic control automation project, sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in which the computer for the first time assumes responsibility for separation assurance between en route aircraft. MOM's purpose is to detect and simplify certain complex air traffic control problems, identified here as sets of interrelated potential pairwise... View full abstract»

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