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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Front cover"

    Page(s): C1 - C2
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Administrative Committee

    Page(s): 1
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Elected Administrative Committee

    Page(s): 2
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  • Table of contents

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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Page(s): 515 - 519
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  • A multimedia example

    Page(s): 520
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  • 2008 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium - Final call for papers

    Page(s): 521 - 524
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  • Call for front-cover images for the Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control

    Page(s): 525
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  • Dynamic in-plane resonant characteristics of piezoceramic and piezolaminated composite plates

    Page(s): 526 - 537
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Piezolaminated composite plates have received considerable attention in various industrial applications due to their intelligent characteristics. In this investigation, two experimental measurement techniques are used to determine the in-plane resonant vibration of angle-ply laminated composites embedded with a piezoceramic layer (piezolaminated plates) for different stacking angles. The first method is a full-field optical technique, which is called the AF-ESPI (amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry). This is the major experimental method. The AF-ESPI method is used to determine the in-plane resonant frequency and corresponding mode shape of a single-layer piezoceramic plate and piezolaminated plates with five different stacking angles. The second experimental technique, the impedance analyzer, is employed to determine the in-plane resonant frequency. Finally, numerical computations based on the finite element analysis are presented for comparison of the two experimental results. Excellent agreement between the experimentally measured data and the numerically calculated results are found for in-plane resonant frequencies and mode shapes. This study indicates that the dynamic characteristics of in-plane resonant vibrations for piezolaminated plates with different stacking angles are quite different. View full abstract»

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  • Pyroelectric energy conversion: Optimization principles

    Page(s): 538 - 551
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    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2 = p2thetas0/(epsivthetas 33 CE), where p, thetas0, epsivthetas 33, Ce are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using lang111rang0.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key points of pyroelectric energy harvesting are presented showing that the different thermodynamic cycles are feasible and potentially effective, even compared to thermoelectric devices. View full abstract»

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  • Anomalous elastic properties of RF-sputtered amorphous TeO2+x thin film for temperature-stable SAW device applications

    Page(s): 552 - 558
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    The anomalous elastic properties of TeO2+x thin films deposited by rf diode sputtering on substrates at room temperature have been studied. The deposited films are amorphous, and IR spectroscopy reveals the formation of Te-O bond. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the variation in the stoichiometry of TeO2+x film from x = 0 to 1 with an increase in the oxygen percentage in processing gas composition. The elastic parameters of the films in comparison to the reported values for TeO2+x single crystal are found to be low. However, the temperature coefficients of elastic parameters of all deposited films exhibit anomalous behavior showing positive values for TC(C11) in the range (32.0 to 600.0) x 10-40 C-1 and TC(C11) = (35.0 to 645.5) x 10-4degC-1 against the negative values TC(Cn) = -2.7 x 10-4degC-1 and TC(C11) = -0.73 x 10-4degC-1 reported for TeO2 single crystal. The variation in the elastic parameters and their temperature coefficients is correlated with the change in the three-dimensional network of Te-O bonding. The anomalous elastic properties of the TeO2+x films grown in 100% O2 are useful for potential application in the design of temperature stable surface acoustic wave devices. View full abstract»

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  • Single-ensemble-based eigen-processing methods for color flow imaging - Part I. The Hankel-SVD filter

    Page(s): 559 - 572
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    Because of their adaptability to the slow-time signal contents, eigen-based filters have shown potential in improving the flow detection performance of color flow images. This paper proposes a new eigen-based filter called the Hankel-SVD filter that is intended to process each slow- time ensemble individually. The new filter is derived using the notion of principal Hankel component analysis, and it achieves clutter suppression by retaining only the principal components whose order is greater than the clutter eigen- space dimension estimated from a frequency-based analysis algorithm. To assess its efficacy, the Hankel-SVD filter was first applied to synthetic slow-time data (ensemble size: 10) simulated from two different sets of flow parameters that model: (1) arterial imaging (blood velocity: 0 to 38.5 cm/s, tissue motion: up to 2 mm/s, transmit frequency: 5 MHz, pulse repetition period: 0.4 ms) and 2) deep vessel imaging (blood velocity: 0 to 19.2 cm/s, tissue motion: up to 2 cm/s, transmit frequency: 2 MHz, pulse repetition period: 2.0 ms). In the simulation analysis, the post-filter clutter- to-blood signal ratio (CBR) was computed as a function of blood velocity. Results show that for the same effective stopband size (50 Hz), the Hankel-SVD filter has a narrower transition region in the post-filter CBR curve than that of another type of adaptive filter called the clutter- downmixing filter. The practical efficacy of the proposed filter was tested by application to in vivo color flow data obtained from the human carotid arteries (transmit frequency: 4 MHz, pulse repetition period: 0.333 ms, ensemble size: 10). The resulting power images show that the Hankel-SVD filter can better distinguish between blood and moving- tissue regions (about 9 dB separation in power) than the clutter-downmixing filter and a fixed-rank multi-ensemble- based eigen-filter (which showed a 2 to 3 dB separation). View full abstract»

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  • Single-ensemble-based eigen-processing methods for color flow imaging - Part II. The matrix pencil estimator

    Page(s): 573 - 587
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4474 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Parametric spectral estimators can potentially be used to obtain flow estimates directly from raw slow-time ensembles whose clutter has not been suppressed. We present a new eigen-based parametric flow estimation method called the matrix pencil, whose principles are based on a matrix form under the same name. The presented method models the slow-time signal as a sum of dominant complex sinusoids in the slow-time ensemble, and it computes the principal Doppler frequencies by using a generalized eigenvalue problem formulation and matrix rank reduction principles. Both fixed-rank (rank-one, rank-two) and adaptive-rank matrix pencil flow estimators are proposed, and their potential applicability to color flow signal processing is discussed. For the adaptive-rank estimator, the nominal rank was defined as the minimum eigen-structure rank that yields principal frequency estimates with a spread greater than a prescribed bandwidth. In our initial performance evaluation, the fixed-rank matrix pencil estimators were applied to raw color flow data (transmit frequency: 5 MHz; pulse repetition period: 0.175 ms; ensemble size: 14) acquired from a steady flow phantom (70 cm/s at centerline) that was surrounded by rigid-tissue-mimicking material. These fixed-rank estimators produced velocity maps that are well correlated with the theoretical flow profile (correlation coefficient: 0.964 to 0.975). To facilitate further evaluation, the matrix pencil estimators were applied to synthetic slow-time data (transmit frequency: 5 MHz; pulse repetition period: 1.0 ms; ensemble size: 10) modeling flow scenarios without and with tissue motion (up to 1 cm/s). The bias and root-mean-squared error of the estimators were computed as a function of blood-signal-to-noise ratio and blood velocity. The matrix pencil flow estimators showed that they are comparatively less biased than most of the existing frequency-based flow estimators like the lag-one autocorrelator. View full abstract»

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  • The cross algorithm for phase-aberration correction in medical ultrasound images formed with two-dimensional arrays

    Page(s): 588 - 601
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    Common-midpoint signals in the near-field signal-redundancy (NFSR) algorithm for one-dimensional arrays are acquired using three consecutive transducer elements. An all-row-plus-two-column algorithm has been proposed to implement the one-dimensional NFSR algorithm on two-dimensional arrays. The disadvantage of this method is that its ambiguity profile is not linear and a time- consuming iterative method has to be used to linearize the ambiguity profile. An all-row-plus-two-column-and-a- diagonal algorithm has also been proposed. Its ambiguity profile is linear, but it is very sensitive to noise and cannot be used. In this paper, a novel cross algorithm is proposed to implement the NFSR algorithm on two-dimensional arrays. In this algorithm, common-midpoint signals are acquired using four adjacent transducer elements, which is not available in one-dimensional arrays. Its advantage includes a linear ambiguity profile and a higher measurement signal-to-noise ratio. The performance of the cross algorithm is evaluated theoretically. The region of redundancy is analyzed. The procedure for deriving the phase- aberration profile from peak positions of cross-correlation functions between common-midpoint signals is discussed. This algorithm is tested with a simulated data set acquired with a two-dimensional array, and the result shows that the cross algorithm performs better than the all-row-plus-two- column NFSR algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • The acoustic lens design and in vivo use of a multifunctional catheter combining intracardiac ultrasound imaging and electrophysiology sensing

    Page(s): 602 - 618
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    A multifunctional 9F intracardiac imaging and electrophysiology mapping catheter was developed and tested to help guide diagnostic and therapeutic intracardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures. The catheter tip includes a 7.25-MHz, 64-element, side-looking phased array for high resolution sector scanning. Multiple electrophysiology mapping sensors were mounted as ring electrodes near the array for electrocardiographic synchronization of ultrasound images. The catheter array elevation beam performance in particular was investigated. An acoustic lens for the distal tip array designed with a round cross section can produce an acceptable elevation beam shape; however, the velocity of sound in the lens material should be approximately 155 m/s slower than in tissue for the best beam shape and wide bandwidth performance. To help establish the catheter's unique ability for integration with electrophysiology interventional procedures, it was used in vivo in a porcine animal model, and demonstrated both useful intracardiac echocardiographic visualization and simultaneous 3- D positional information using integrated electroanatomical mapping techniques. The catheter also performed well in high frame rate imaging, color flow imaging, and strain rate imaging of atrial and ventricular structures. View full abstract»

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  • Capon beamforming in medical ultrasound imaging with focused beams

    Page(s): 619 - 628
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Medical ultrasound imaging is conventionally done by insonifying the imaged medium with focused beams. The backscattered echoes are beamformed using delay-and-sum operations that cannot completely eliminate the contribution of signals backscattered by structures off the imaging beam to the beamsum. It leads to images with limited resolution and contrast. This paper presents an adaptation of the Capon beam- former algorithm to ultrasound medical imaging with focused beams. The strategy is to apply data-dependent weight functions to the imaging aperture. These weights act as lateral spatial filters that filter out off-axis signals. The weights are computed for each point in the imaged medium, from the statistical analysis of the signals backscattered by that point to the different elements of the imaging probe when insonifying it with different focused beams. Phantom and in vivo images are presented to illustrate the benefits of the Capon algorithm over the conventional delay-and-sum approach. On heart sector images, the clutter in the heart chambers is decreased. The endocardium border is better defined. On abdominal linear array images, significant contrast and resolution enhancement are observed. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental validation of ultrasonic guided modes in electrical cables by optical interferometry

    Page(s): 629 - 636
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    In this work, the dispersion curves of elastic waves propagating in electrical cables and in bare copper wires are obtained theoretically and validated experimentally. The theoretical model, based on Gazis equations formulated according to the global matrix methodology, is resolved numerically. Viscoelasticity and attenuation are modeled theoretically using the Kelvin-Voigt model. Experimental tests are carried out using interferometry. There is good agreement between the simulations and the experiments despite the peculiarities of electrical cables. View full abstract»

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  • Blind detection of nonlinearities in multiple-echo ultrasonic signals

    Page(s): 637 - 647
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    In this paper, we propose and analyze by means of simulations the use of surrogate data algorithms for blind detection of nonlinearities in multiple-echo ultrasonic signals. We assume a blind scheme so that no information about the input (emitted ultrasonic pulse) can be used. The metrics and equations that model some nonlinear situations are carefully reviewed. Also, closed form equations of the third-order metrics from a simplified second-order Volterra kernel are derived. Computer simulations show that the surrogate data technique is a potentially powerful tool for blind detection of nonlinearities in multiple-echo ultrasonic signals if adequate metrics are chosen. They also reveal interesting trade-offs among parameters that model ultrasonic systems and detection percentages. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations of the torsional mode for two acoustic viscometers with preliminary experimental tests

    Page(s): 648 - 658
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    A rigorous analysis of the torsional modes in both a cylindrical wave guide and the associated static viscous fluid field has been conducted from the solid and the fluid wave equations and the coupled boundary conditions. As a result, two acoustic viscometer models, along with four independent equations connecting the density and the viscosity of the fluid with the attenuation and the phase velocity of the torsional wave in the wave guide, have been developed. The analysis shows that the product of the viscosity and the density of the fluid can be measured from the end reflection coefficient of the torsional wave in the wave guide and that both the viscosity and the density can be determined simultaneously from either the phase velocity or the attenuation of the torsional wave in a single cylindrical wave guide. For the simultaneous measurements of the viscosity and the density, the independent equations have to be solved numerically, for example, using Matlab (The MathWorks, Natick, MA), given either the attenuation or the phase velocity in the wave guide that is surrounded by the fluid. To demonstrate the technical feasibility, numerical simulations have been conducted to discern viscosity, phase velocity, and density, all versus attenuation, at different frequencies, and with variable dimension of a molybdenum rod, so that both the advantages and the disadvantages of the simultaneous measurements can be explored. In the end, to test the two models, preliminary experiments on two viscous standards were conducted at 23degC, and good agreements have been achieved between the viscosities measured from both models and for both standards. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of a new type of ultrasonic linear motor

    Page(s): 659 - 667
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    This paper presents the design, the properties, and the optimization study of a new type of ultrasonic linear motor. Numerical modeling has been carried out and simulations with software have been realized. To avoid performing a large number of simulations, sensitivity analysis has been carried out, in particular using design of experiments. The Doehlert method has been chosen in our study. The results found show that this preoptimization stage allows one to improve the deformation amplitude and to reduce the input parameter variation ranges. Finite element (FE) optimization is then carried out, and results show that the motion amplitudes can be increased compared to the initial design of the motor. Some experiments on prototypes show that the travel range of the motor has been increased while decreasing the applied voltage by a factor of 2. View full abstract»

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  • Adjusting the resonant frequency of a PVDF bimorph power harvester through a corrugation-shaped harvesting structure

    Page(s): 668 - 674
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a corrugated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) bimorph power harvester with the harvesting structure fixed at the two edges in the corrugation direction and free at the other edges. The resonant frequency of a corrugated PVDF bimorph is readily adjusted through changing either its geometrical configuration or the span length, which can keep the harvester operating at the optimal state in environments with different ambient vibrations. The governing equations of a PVDF bimorph with a corrugation shape, are derived from the transfer-matrix technique. Statistical results show that the adaptability of a harvester to the operating environment can be improved greatly by designing the harvesting structure with adjustable resonant frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of loading a plate with different liquids on the propagation of lamb-like waves studied by laser ultrasonics

    Page(s): 675 - 685
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    Three experimental laser ultrasonic configurations-line excitation with scanning detection, grating excitation with single point detection, and grating excitation with scanning probe beam- are shown to consistently reveal the modified propagation properties of Lamb waves on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film that is in contact with different liquids on its two sides. Theoretical predictions concerning the physical nature of different wave modes in symmetric and asymmetric film loading configurations (i.e., their existence, velocity, damping, and polarization) are confirmed by the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • 3-D electrostatic hybrid element model for SAW interdigital transducers

    Page(s): 686 - 695
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    In this work, the singular behavior of charges at corners and edges on the metallized areas in SAW transducers are investigated. In particular, it is demonstrated that a tensor product of the commonly used Tchebychev bases overestimates the singularities at corners, and, hence, it cannot be used in a proper boundary element method formulation. On the other hand, it is shown that a simple finite element method-like approach is impractical due to the enormous number of unknowns required to model the electrode's large length-to-width ratio. These considerations are then used for defining a hybrid element model, which combines Tchebychev and linear polynomials over differently meshed domains. Such an approach is shown to suitably account for charge singularities while greatly reducing the number of unknowns. Results are obtained for isotropic and anisotropic substrates for non-periodic configurations. View full abstract»

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  • Orthogonal frequency coded filters for use in ultra-wideband communication systems

    Page(s): 696 - 703
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    The use of ultra-short pulses, producing very wide bandwidths and low spectral power density, are the widely accepted approach for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems. This approach is simple and can be implemented with current digital signal processing technologies. However, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have the capability of producing complex signals with wide bandwidths and relatively high frequency operation. This approach, using SAW based correlators, eliminates many of the costly components that are needed in the IF block in the transmitter and receiver, and reduces many of the signal processing requirements. This work presents the development of SAW correlators using orthogonal frequency coding (OFC) for use in UWB spread spectrum communication systems. OFC and pseudo-noise (PN) coding provide a means for UWB spreading of data. The use of OFC spectrally spreads a PN sequence beyond that of code division multiple access (CDMA) because of the increased bandwidth providing an improvement in processing gain. The transceiver approach is still very similar to that of a CDMA but provides greater code diversity. Experimental results of a SAW filter designed with OFC transducers are presented. The SAW correlation filter was designed using seven contiguous chip frequencies within the transducer. SAW correlators with a 29% fractional bandwidth were fabricated on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) having a center frequency of 250 MHz. A coupling-of-modes (COM) model is used to predict the SAW filter response experimentally and is compared to the measured data. Good correlation between the predicted COM responses and the measured device data is obtained. Discussion of the design, analysis, and measurements are presented. The experimental matched filter results are shown for the OFC device and are compared to the ideal correlation. The results demonstrate the OFC SAW device concept for UWB communication transceivers. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of bulk acoustic wave devices built on piezoelectric stack structures: Impedance matrix analysis and network representation

    Page(s): 704 - 716
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fundamental electro-acoustic properties of a solid layer are deduced in terms of its impedance matrix (Z) and represented by a network for modeling the bulk acoustic wave devices built on piezoelectric stacked structures. A piezoelectric layer is described by a three-port equivalent network, a nonpiezoelectric layer, and a short- or open-circuit piezoelectric layer by a two-port one. Electrical input impedance of the resonator is derived in terms of the Z-matrix of both the piezoelectric layer and an external load, the unique expression applies whether the resonator is a mono- or electroded-layer or a solidly mounted resonator (SMR). The loading effects of AZ-electrodes on the resonating frequencies of the piezoelectric ZnO-layer are analyzed. Transmission and reflection properties of Bragg mirrors are investigated along with the bulk radiation in SMR. As a synthesizing example, a coupled resonator filter (CR.F) is analyzed using the associated two-port equivalent network and by calculating the power transmission to a 50 Omega-load. The stacked crystal filter is naturally included in the model as a special case of CRF. Combining a comprehensive matrix analysis and an instructive network representation and setting the problem with a full vectorial formalism are peculiar features of the presented approach. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk