By Topic

Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2008

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1 - C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (48 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (41 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The beginnings of this Transactions

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 565 - 567
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (943 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A New Analytical Method for Robust Extraction of the Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit for SiGe HBTs Operating at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 568 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1467 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new analytical direct parameter-extraction methodology for obtaining the small-signal equivalent circuit of HBTs. It is applied to cryogenically operated SiGe HBTs as a means to allow circuit design of SiGe HBT low-noise amplifiers for cooled radio astronomy applications. We split the transistor into an intrinsic transistor (IT) piece modeled as a Pi-topology, and the quasi-intrinsic transistor (QIT), obtained from the IT after that the base resistance (Rb) has been removed. The relations between Z-Y-parameters of the IT and QIT are then established, allowing us to propose a new methodology for determining Rb. The present extraction method differs from previous studies in that each of the model elements are obtained from exact equations that do not require any approximations, numerical optimization, or post-processing. The validity of this new extraction methodology is demonstrated by applying it to third-generation SiGe HBTs operating at liquid-nitrogen temperature (77 K) across the frequency range of 2-22 GHz. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Closed-Form Formulas for Predicting the Nonlinear Behavior of All-Pole Bandpass Filters

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 575 - 586
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1010 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The nonlinear behavior of the all-pole passive bandpass filters close to their center frequency is studied using first-order approximations. The focus of this study is on approximate calculation of third-order intermodulations through an iterative process, and it is shown that it can be generalized to higher order effects. Nonlinearities in both resonators and inverters are considered. Simple formulas are given to calculate the effect of individual elements in the overall response in lossless and lossy filters. It is shown that the presence of loss will increase the third-order intermodulation intercept point of the filter, while it usually decreases the output third-order intercept point. In comparison to the nonlinear resonators, the relative effect of nonlinear inverters is larger; however, the losses of the inverters are found to have a smaller effect on the nonlinear response. Finally, simple formulas are given to predict the changes in the center frequency due to the reactive effects of the nonlinearities. In all cases, the analytical results are verified through comparison with harmonic balance simulations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 7-dB 43-GHz CMOS Distributed Amplifier on High-Resistivity SOI Substrates

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 587 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents designs and measurements of distributed amplifiers (DAs) processed on a 130-nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology on either standard-resistivity (10 Omegamiddotcm) or high-resistivity (>1 kOmegamiddotcm) substrates, and with either body-contacted (BC) or floating-body (FB) MOSFETs. Investigations have been carried out to assess the impact of active device performance and transmission line losses on circuit design by means of simulations, analytical calculations, and comparisons of the small-signal equivalent-circuit parameters. On standard-resistivity substrates, DAs with FB devices and lossy microstrip lines on thin film exhibit a measured gain of 7.1 dB and a unity-gain bandwidth (UGB) of 27 GHz for a dc power consumption of 57 mW. With the introduction of high-resistivity substrates, other DAs, with the same architecture and using lower loss coplanar waveguide lines, show a UGB of 51 GHz with FB devices and 47 GHz with BC devices. To the authors' knowledge, the designs presented in this paper achieve the best tradeoffs in terms of gain, bandwidth, and power consumption for CMOS-based circuits with comparable architecture. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 1-V 45-GHz Balanced Amplifier With 21.5-dB Gain Using 0.18- \mu{\hbox {m}} CMOS Technology

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 599 - 603
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fully integrated balanced amplifier was realized in a standard 0.18-mum CMOS technology. From the measured-parameters, a gain up to 21.5 dB was achieved at 45.4 GHz under a supply voltage of only 1 V and a total power consumption of 89 mW. An effective technique, i.e., pi-type parallel resonance, was proposed to enhance the device and circuit frequency response. In addition, the semicoaxial line structure was used to reduce the signal loss and physical size of the Lange couplers in the amplifier. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the proposed balanced amplifier demonstrated the highest operation frequency and the lowest operation voltage among the published millimeter-wave amplifiers using a similar technology. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High-Efficiency Broadband Parallel-Circuit Class E RF Power Amplifier With Reactance-Compensation Technique

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 604 - 612
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Class E amplifier offers high efficiency approaching 100% for an ideal case. This paper introduces a first practical implementation of a novel broadband class E power amplifier design combining a parallel-circuit load network with a reactance compensation technique. The novel broadband parallel-circuit class E load network using reactance compensation technique has been discussed based on theory and its experimental verification. A proper guidelines method of designing a high-efficiency broadband class E power amplifier with an LDMOS transistor until the final prototype measurement and optimization will be discussed. In the measurement level, the drain efficiency of 74% at an operating power of 8 W and power flatness of 0.7 dB are achieved across a bandwidth of 136-174 MHz. The efficiency result is the highest result for VHF broadband frequency to date with a low supply voltage of 7.2 V. Simulations of the efficiency, output power, drain voltage waveform, and load angle (impedance) were verified by measurements and good agreements were obtained. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A High Conversion-Gain Q -Band InP DHBT Subharmonic Mixer Using LO Frequency Doubler

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 613 - 619
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1314 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents analysis and design of a Q-band subharmonic mixer (SHM) with high conversion gain. The SHM consists of a local oscillator (LO) frequency doubler, RF pre-amplifier, and single-ended mixer. The SHM has been fabricated in a high-speed InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology using coplanar waveguide structures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an SHM using InP DHBT technology at millimeter-wave frequencies. The measured results demonstrate a conversion gain of 10.3 dB at 45 GHz with an LO power of only 1 mW. The fundamental mixing product is suppressed by more than 24 dB and the output is around . The mixer is broadband with a conversion gain above 7 dB from 40 to 50 GHz. The conversion gain for the fabricated SHM is believed to be among the best ever reported for millimeter-wave SHMs. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 0.8-mW 55-GHz Dual-Injection-Locked CMOS Frequency Divider

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 620 - 625
    Cited by:  Papers (47)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the dual-injection-locking technique to enhance the locking range of resonator-based frequency dividers. By fully utilizing the voltage and current injection of the input signal, the divider locking range is extended significantly. The 0.8-mW dual-injection-locked frequency divider was developed in 90-nm digital CMOS technology. The total chip size is 0.77 mm times 0.5 mm. Without any varactor or inductor tuning, the input signal frequency coverage of the divider is from 35.7 to 54.9 GHz. Combined with the excellent locking range and sub-milliwatt power consumption, the figure-of-merit of this work surpasses those of the previous resonator-based dividers by more than one order. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A New RF CMOS Gilbert Mixer With Improved Noise Figure and Linearity

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 626 - 631
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The noise figure of an RF CMOS mixer is strongly affected by flicker noise. The noise figure can be improved using pMOS switch circuits, which insert current at the on/off crossing instants of the local oscillator switch stage because the circuits reduce the flicker noise injection. When it is applied to a conventional Gilbert mixer, the injection efficiency and linearity are degraded by the nonlinear parasitic capacitances of the pMOS switch circuits and the leakage through the parasitic path. We propose the pMOS switch circuits with an inductor, which tunes out the parasitic components at 2fo and closes out the leakage path. The mixer fabricated in 0.13-mum CMOS at 2.4-GHz center frequency has provided improved characteristics for linearity and noise figure. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Monostatic Reflectivity and Transmittance of Radar Absorbing Materials at 650 GHz

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 632 - 637
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (881 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmittance and monostatic reflectivity of different radar absorbing materials at 650 GHz are presented. The reflectivity was measured in plane-wave conditions in a radar cross-section (RCS) range with vertical polarization. The lowest reflectivity level (-70 dB) was achieved with commercial absorbers TK THz RAM and Firam-500 with oblique incidence angles. Floor carpets were also studied, and the reflectivity level of those was found to be sufficiently low (from -50 to -60 dB) for use in antenna test ranges. Results agree with earlier studies and indicate the applicability of the RCS method in reflectivity measurements also at 650 GHz. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Multiconductor Transmission Lines in Inhomogeneous Bi-Anisotropic Media

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 638 - 653
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (991 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An analysis method for multiconductor transmission lines embedded in inhomogeneous bi-anisotropic media is presented. The Maxwell-Boffi equations, accompanied by the Maxwell-Minkowski ones, are expressed as Taylor series of the operating frequency where the zeroth- and first-order terms are retained. The reduced problem is solved using the potential formulation through the static 2-D free-space Green's function. The method of moments is employed to numerically solve the set of quasi-TEM integral equations, to produce the Telegrapher's equations, and to derive the circuit parameters in matrix form. The procedure is augmented by providing in closed form the field-coupling integrals. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A New 3-D Transmission Line Matrix Scheme for the Combined SchrÖdinger–Maxwell Problem in the Electronic/Electromagnetic Characterization of Nanodevices

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 654 - 662
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (979 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a novel technique in which Maxwell equations, discretized by the transmission line matrix method in a 3-D domain, are coupled to the Schrodinger equation and simultaneously solved. The aim is to develop a method that accounts for deterministic electromagnetic field dynamics together with the quantum phenomena, which are typical of nanodevices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • CAD-Oriented Model of a Coplanar Line on a Silicon Substrate Including Eddy-Current Effects and Skin Effect

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 663 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Silicon technologies are now widely used for RF applications. Due to the substrate and conductor conductivity, losses and magnetic coupling affect the signal propagation in transmission lines. We propose an equivalent scheme for a transmission line taking these phenomena into account. All the parameters are analytically extracted from measurements. The magnetic coupling, including eddy currents, are described as series elements. They are affected by skin effects. The electric losses are described as parallel elements. They depend on the different layers that the electric field lines meet. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ultra-Wide Suppression Band of Surface Waves Using Periodic Microstrip-Based Structures

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 671 - 683
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose the use of microstrip-based elements: spiral inductors and interdigital capacitors connected through transmission lines to provide a higher order wide surface wave suppression band. Design, modeling, and realization of optimum values for spiral inductors and interdigital capacitors are studied in detail. A grid of 77 2-D unit cells consisting of these designed interdigital capacitors and spiral inductors is manufactured and tested experimentally. The excitation of surface waves using different schemes are addressed and compared. Also, for comparative purposes, two reference cases of copper surface and dielectric backed copper are studied. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of this structure to be used as a very wideband suppressor. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Optimum Design Methodology for Planar-Type Coaxial Probes Applicable to Broad Temperature Permittivity Measurements

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 684 - 692
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1429 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A planar-type coaxial probe applicable to wide temperature and frequency range has been developed. The probe employs a dielectric with a low coefficient of thermal expansion to minimize the effect of thermal deformation for broad temperature measurements. Additionally, a detailed design methodology has been developed to optimize the probe apertures in an effort to minimize the measurement uncertainty while maximizing the operating bandwidth. For this purpose, thorough sensitivity analysis has been employed to correlate the probe structures and dimensions to the individual sensitivity parameters. The analysis has been validated by parametric experiments. By using the dielectric with a low coefficient of thermal expansion and optimizing the probe dimensions, accurate permittivity measurements have been demonstrated from 30 C to 75 C with 40-GHz bandwidth. With the application of the error-correction method, the measurement temperature range has been further extended all the way up to the boiling temperature of water C). Furthermore, the complex permittivities of methanol have been measured from 30 C to 50 C and the dispersion parameters and full interpolation formulas have been extracted. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Novel Calibration Algorithm for a Special Class of Multiport Vector Network Analyzers

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 693 - 699
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new error model for a special class of multiport vector network analyzers (VNAs) is presented in this paper. This model can be applied to multiport network analyzers with noncomplete reflectometers, i.e., when the measurement of the incident waves at each port is not always available. The method used to compute the error coefficients proposed here is based on a compact and easy formulation. This method is an extension of the already existing general theory for complete reflectometer multiport network analyzers. Furthermore, the new error model generalizes the theory for three-sampler two-port VNAs. The proposed model has been tested against the complete reflectometer one and exhibits the same accuracy level. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Application of Millimeter-Wave Radiometry for Remote Chemical Detection

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 700 - 709
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1993 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Passive millimeter-wave systems have been used in the past to remotely map solid targets and to measure low-pressure spectral lines of stratospheric and interstellar gases; however, its application to pressure-broadened spectral line detection of industrial emissions is new. We developed a radiative transfer model to determine feasibility and system requirements for passive millimeter-wave spectral detection of terrestrial gases. We designed and built a Dicke-switched multispectral radiometer in the 146-154-GHz band to detect nitric oxide (NO), a prototypical gas of nuclear fuel processing operations. We first tested the spectral detection capability of the radiometer in the laboratory using a gas cell and then field tested it at the Nevada test site at a distance of 600 m from a stack that released hot plumes of NO and air. With features such as Dicke-switched integration, frequent online calibration, and spectral baseline subtraction, we demonstrated the feasibility of remote detection of terrestrial gases by a ground-based radiometer. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dispersion Limitations of Ultra-Wideband Wireless Links and Their Compensation Via Photonically Enabled Arbitrary Waveform Generation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 710 - 719
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (713 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we present compression of ultra-wideband RF waveforms via photonic synthesis of phase pre-compensated waveforms. By exciting a dispersive wireless link (employing Archimedean spiral antennas) with variable-bandwidth excitation waveforms, we first demonstrate that such links exhibit a dispersion-limited output pulse duration. Subsequently, we utilize the RF spectral phase extracted from the impulse response of the link to create signals designed to negate the nonuniform phase response of the spiral antennas utilized in the link. Such waveforms remove the dispersion limitation and enable bandwidth-limited operation. We achieve compression to within a factor of two of the bandwidth limit for signals with bandwidths of 1-10 GHz at a center frequency of ~6 GHz. To our knowledge, this represents the first demonstration of dispersion pre-compensation for signals with fractional bandwidths exceeding 100%. Our technique is reprogrammable and may be extended to larger bandwidths and higher operational frequencies, making it an enabler for future radar and communication systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • G -Band Distributed Microelectromechanical Components Based on CMOS Compatible Fabrication

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 720 - 728
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1110 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has been used for realizing G-band (140-220 GHz) distributed MEMS transmission line components. Novel dielectric-less MEMS components, as well as switched MEMS capacitors, have been fabricated with CMOS compatible surface micromachining, and experimental results are presented up to 220 GHz. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Two-Pole Lumped-Element Programmable Filter With MEMS Pseudodigital Capacitor Banks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 729 - 735
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1666 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel two-pole reconfigurable bandpass filter on alumina substrate for applications in X- and S-bands. An analytical approach was followed for synthesis of multiple filtering characteristics. A microstrip network on alumina was then optimized to implement a set of switched filtering functions. Finally a reconfigurable filter was fabricated and tested in order to validate the proposed approach. This filter exploits five 3-bit capacitor banks controlled with microelectromechanical systems ohmic switches to achieve 12 states with 37.5% tuning range between 1.51-2.26 GHz. Several tuning mechanisms are demonstrated including frequency, bandwidth tuning, and frequency + bandwidth tuning. Good agreement with theoretical results has been obtained. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 736
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (21 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on RFID Hardwave and Integration Technologies

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 737
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Have you visited lately? www.ieee.org [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 738
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org