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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Introduction to the Focused Section on Smart Mechatronic Systems and Embedded Design

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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    The 11 papers in this focused section examine smart mechatronic systems and embedded design. View full abstract»

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  • Learning of Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for the Optical Data Storage Device

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hybrid track-seeking fuzzy controller for an optical disk drive (ODD) is proposed in this paper. The proposed hybrid fuzzy controller (HFC) smoothes the voltage applied to the sled motor and improves the track-seeking efficiency. The HFC consists of two subsystems including an intelligent time switch and a driving force controller. Both subsystems are designed based on fuzzy logic inferences. The main functions of the proposed HFC are to drive the optical head unit (OHU) to the target track neighborhood as fast as possible and smoothly park the OHU in the least time in the target track neighborhood. An automatic learning approach based on genetic algorithms (GAs) is proposed for learning the fuzzy rules for both the intelligent time switch and driving force controller. Modulated orthogonal membership functions are utilized in both fuzzy controllers to improve the GA learning efficiency. The number of parameters needed to parameterize the fuzzy rule base is greatly reduced with the modulated orthogonal membership functions. Compared to the conventional track-seeking controller currently utilized in most ODDs that employ a speed profile as the reference signal for the track-seeking feedback control system, the proposed HFC outperforms the conventional track-seeking control schemes. Experiments are performed to justify the performance comparison. View full abstract»

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  • System-Based and Concurrent Design of a Smart Mechatronic System Using the Concept of Mechatronic Design Quotient (MDQ)

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 14 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB)  

    A mechatronic system needs an integrated, concurrent, and system-based design approach due to the existence of interactions among its subsystems, and also the existence of interactions between the criteria involved in a realistic evaluation of a mechatronic product. This paper presents a systematic methodology for a detailed mechatronic design based on a mechatronic design quotient (MDQ). MDQ is a multicriteria index, reflecting a system-based evaluation of a mechatronic design, which is calculated using soft computing techniques, thereby accommodating interactions between criteria and human experience. A niching genetic algorithm is utilized to explore the huge search space raised due to concurrent and integrated design approach, with the aim to find the elite representatives of different possible configurations. To demonstrate the method, it is applied to an industrial fish cutting machine called the Iron Butcher-an electromechanical system that falls into the class of mixed or multidomain systems. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Experiments for a Class of Fuzzy Controlled Servo Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 22 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1515 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new fuzzy control solution employing 2-DOF proportional-integral-fuzzy controllers dedicated to a class of servo systems. The controlled plants in these systems, widely used in mechatronics applications, can be characterized by second-order dynamics with integral type. The original design method suggested here starts with linear design results in terms of the extended symmetrical optimum method accompanied by an iterative feedback tuning (IFT) algorithm. Next, these results are transferred to the fuzzy case by the modal equivalence principle. The convergence of the IFT algorithm is guaranteed by the derivation of sufficient global asymptotic stability conditions based on Krasovskii-LaSalle's invariant set theorem with quadratic Lyapunov function candidate. Real-time experimental results corresponding to a low-cost fuzzy controlled servo system validate the theoretical approaches. View full abstract»

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  • A Real-Time Scheduler Design for a Class of Embedded Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 36 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider here the design aspect of a real-time scheduler for a class of embedded systems. For this purpose, we design a feedback controller for a reservation-based CPU scheduler for soft real-time systems. The execution time of soft real-time systems, such as multimedia systems, portable MP3 players, personal digital assistants, cellular phones, and embedded Web servers is highly variable. Hence, it is crucial to assign an adequate amount of CPU resources for the running tasks to guarantee the quality of service. On the other hand, it is also important not to allocate the large amount of resources to avoid waste. The purpose of this paper is to attain the aforementioned crucial objectives for a class of embedded systems under real-time computing constraints. Specifically, we provide an analytical model for a real-time scheduler in terms of a switched system with time-varying uncertainty. Moreover, by using Lyapunov stability in a linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) framework, we design a state feedback controller that stabilizes the switched system. This, in fact, achieves the regulation of scheduling errors caused by time-varying uncertainty to a desired level. We extend an LMI-framework-based control scheme to a relatively new control application domain, i.e., a soft realtime scheduling domain. We provide performance analysis under scheduler simulation environments and implement a feedback bandwidth server scheduler under a real-time kernel simulator. In the simulation studies, the advantages of the controller design scheme are clearly highlighted in comparison with some conventional existing open-loop systems. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Scaled Vehicle With Longitudinal Dynamics of an HMMWV for an ITS Testbed

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 46 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1142 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper applies Buckingham's pi theorem to the problem of building a scaled car whose longitudinal and power-train dynamics are similar to those of a full-size high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The scaled vehicle uses hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to capture some of the scaled HMMWV dynamics physically, and simulates the remaining dynamics onboard in real time. This is performed with the ultimate goal of testing cooperative collision avoidance algorithms on a testbed comprising a number of these scaled vehicles. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this HIL-based scaling approach. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Identification of a Piezoelectrically Actuated Microcantilever Sensor

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanomechanical cantilever sensors (NMCSs) have recently emerged as an effective means for label-free chemical and biological species detection. They operate through the adsorption of species on the functionalized surface of mechanical cantilevers. Through this functionalization, molecular recognition is directly transduced into a micromechanical response. In order to effectively utilize these sensors in practice and correctly relate the micromechanical response to the associated adsorbed species, the chief technical issues related to modeling must be resolved. Along these lines, this paper presents a general nonlinear-comprehensive modeling framework for piezoelectrically actuated microcantilevers and validates it experimentally. The proposed model considers both longitudinal and flexural vibrations and their coupling in addition to the ever-present geometric and material nonlinearities. Utilizing Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and employing the inextensibility conditions, the coupled longitudinal-flexural equations of motion are reduced to one nonlinear partial differential equation describing the flexural vibrations of the sensor. Using a Galerkian expansion, the resulting equation is discretized into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method of multiple scales is then implemented to analytically construct the nonlinear response of the sensor near the first modal frequency (primary resonance of the first vibration mode). These solutions are compared to experimental results demonstrating that the sensor exhibits a softening-type nonlinear response. Such behavior can be attributed to the presence of quadratic material nonlinearities in the piezoelectric layer. This observation is critical, as it suggests that unlike macrocantilevers where the geometric hardening nonlinearities dominate the response behavior, material nonlinearities dominate the response of microcantilevers yielding a softening-type response. This behavior should be accounted for wh- en designing and employing such sensors for practical applications. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Calibration of a Biologically Inspired 7 DOF Cable-Driven Robotic Arm

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 66 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the self-calibration of a novel biologically inspired 7 DOF cable-driven robotic arm. Similar to the human arm, the proposed robotic arm consists of three sequentially connected modules, i.e., a 3 DOF shoulder module, a 1 DOF elbow module, and a 3 DOF wrist module. Due to factors like manufacturing defects, assembly misalignments, compliance, and wear of connecting mechanisms, errors in the geometric model parameters always exist. Hence, the identification of such errors is critical for path planning and motion control tasks. Self-calibration models of the various modules in the robotic arm are formulated based on the differential change in the cable end-point distances. Due to the linear nature of these self-calibration models, an iterative least-squares algorithm is employed to identify the errors in the geometric model parameters. The calibration does not require any external pose measurement devices, because it utilizes the cable length data obtained from the redundant actuation scheme of the cable-driven arm. Computer simulations and experimental studies were carried out on both the 3 DOF and 1 DOF modules, to verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed self-calibration algorithm. From the experimental studies, errors in the geometric model parameters were precisely recovered after a minimum number of pose measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Sensor Referenced Real-Time Videolization of Atomic Force Microscopy for Nanomanipulations

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 76 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main problem of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomanipulation is the lack of real-time visual feedback. Although this problem has been partially solved by virtual reality technology, the faulty display caused by random drift and modeling errors in the virtual reality interface are still limiting the efficiency of the AFM-based nanomanipulation. Random drift aroused from an uncontrolled manipulation environment generates a position error between the manipulation coordinate and the true environment. Modeling errors due to the uncertainties of the nanoenvironment often result in displaying a wrong position of the object. Since there is no feedback to check the validity of the display, the faulty display cannot be detected in real time and leads to a failed manipulation. In this paper, a real-time fault detection and correction (RFDC) method is proposed to solve these problems by using the AFM tip as an end effector as well as a force sensor during manipulation. Based on the interaction force measured from the AFM tip, the validity of the visual feedback is monitored in real time by the developed Kalman filter. Once the faulty display is detected, it can be corrected online through a quick local scan without interrupting manipulation. In this way, the visual feedback keeps consistent with the true environment changes during manipulation, which makes it possible for several operations to finish without an image scan in between. The theoretical study and the implementation of the RFDC method are elaborated. Experiments of manipulating nanomaterials including nanoparticles and nanorods have been carried out to demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Model-Based Intelligent Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Mating Electric Connectors in Robotic Wiring Harness Assembly Systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 86 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (730 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mating a pair of electric connectors is one of the most important steps in a robotic wiring harness assembly system. A class of piecewise linear force models is proposed to describe both the successful and the faulty mating processes of connectors via an elaborate analysis of forces during different phases. The corresponding parameter estimation method of this model is also presented by adapting regular least-square estimation methods. A hierarchical fuzzy pattern matching multidensity classifier is proposed to realize fault detection and diagnosis for the mating process. This classifier shows good performance in diagnosis. A typical type of connectors is investigated in this paper. The results can easily be extended to other types. The effectiveness of proposed methods is finally confirmed through experiments. View full abstract»

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  • A Piezo-Sensor-Based “Smart Tire” System for Mobile Robots and Vehicles

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 95 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1011 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the development of a tire rubber deformation sensing system that provides the critical information for understanding and estimation of wheel/ground interactions for mobile robots and vehicles. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based sensors are designed and fabricated to embed on the inner tread surface to measure the tire rubber tread deformation. Analytical models of the PVDF-based sensing system are presented to capture the wheel/ground contact information and friction characteristics. The sensed deformation measurements are integrated with the onboard control system through a wireless data transmission module. Experimental results on a skid-steered mobile robot are presented to show the feasibility and estimation of wheel/ground friction characteristics using the developed sensing system. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Sensing Actuation With Adaptive Control in Applications With Switching Trajectory

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 104 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the application of self-sensing actuation (SSA) to facilitate the implementation of piezoelectric actuator in an intelligent mechatronic system. SSA is a technique to employ smart materials, such as piezoelectric materials, simultaneously as a sensor and an actuator; thereby increasing the level of integration of the system. The piezoelectric actuator is equipped with an exclusive adaptive controller amidst its nonlinearities and system's disturbance. The application area to be discussed is a microdispensing system, which is an example of a micromanufacturing process, combining a fluidic system and a positioning system. View full abstract»

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  • FPGA-Based Compensator of Hysteretic Actuator Nonlinearities for Highly Dynamic Applications

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 112 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and construction of an inverse controller for the compensation of hysteretic actuator characteristics. The approach is based on the so-called modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii method. The field-programmable-gate-array-based hardware solution allows hysteresis-free actuator operation at signal frequencies up to 1 kHz. Finally, the effect of hysteresis compensation is presented for an example involving a magnetostrictive actuator. View full abstract»

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  • Wound Roll Dielectric Elastomer Actuators: Fabrication, Analysis, and Experiments

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 117 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wound roll electroactive polymer actuators fabricated with dielectric elastomer (DE) materials provide high bandwidth actuation for robots, minipumps, loudspeakers, valves, and prosthetic devices. In this paper, we develop a DE wound roll actuator fabrication process that produces high strain (12%), reliable (3480 cycles at maximum strain), and stiff (144 N/m) actuators. An axisymmetric Unite element model with electrostatic and radial bulk modulus nonlinearity predicts actuator displacement and stress. The maximum compressive radial stress occurs at the center of the innermost active layer. This layer also has the thinnest material, indicating the most likely failure point. The nonlinear model predicts actuator displacement in response to applied voltage and load, matching experiments to within 1 mm. View full abstract»

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  • Soft-Computing-Based Embedded Design of an Intelligent Wall/Lane-Following Vehicle

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 125 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Soft computing techniques are generally well suited for vehicular control systems that are usually modeled by highly nonlinear differential equations and working in unstructured environments. To demonstrate their applicability in real-world applications, two intelligent controllers based on fuzzy logic and artificial neural network are designed for performing a wall-following task. Based on performance and flexibility considerations, the two controllers are implemented onto a reconfigurable hardware platform, namely a field-programmable gate array. As comparative studies of these two embedded hardware controllers designed for the same vehicular application are limited in literature, this research also presents an evaluation of the two controllers, comparing them in terms of hardware resource requirements, operational speeds, and trajectory tracking errors in following different predefined trajectories. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Characterization and Compensation for a Compliant Mechanism Haptic Device

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 136 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compliant mechanisms and voice coil motors can be used in haptic device designs to eliminate bearings and achieve smooth friction-free motion. The accompanying return-to-center behavior can be compensated using feedforward control if a suitable multidimensional stiffness model is available. In this paper we introduce a method for automatic self-characterization and compensation, and apply it to a planar haptic interface that features a five-bar compliant mechanism. We show how actuators and position sensors already native to typical impedance-type haptic devices can readily accommodate stiffness compensation. Although a portion of the motor torque is consumed in compensation, the device achieves smooth friction-free articulation with simple, low tolerance, and economic components. Empirical models built on self-characterization data are compared to standard empirical and analytical models. We produce a model by self-characterization that requires no inversion and is directly useable for compensation. Although our prototype compliant mechanism, which we fabricated in plastic using fused deposition modeling, exhibited hysteresis (which we did not compensate), the return-to-center behavior was reliably reduced by over 95% with feedforward compensation based on the self-characterized model. View full abstract»

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  • Precision Positioning of Hard Disk Drives Using Piezoelectric Actuators With Passive Damping

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 147 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Positioning precision is crucial to today's increasingly high-speed, high-capacity, high-data-density, and miniaturized hard disk drives (HDDs). The demand for higher bandwidth servo systems that can quickly and precisely position the read/write head on a high track density becomes more pressing. The idea of applying dual-stage actuators to track servo systems has been studied. However, the current dual-stage actuator design uses only piezoelectric patches without passive damping. In this paper, we propose a dual-stage servo system using enhanced active-passive hybrid piezoelectric actuators. The proposed actuators will improve the existing dual-stage actuators for higher precision and shock resistance, due to the incorporation of passive damping in the design. We aim to develop this hybrid servo system not only to increase the speed of track seeking but also to improve the precision of track following servos in HDDs. New piezoelectrically actuated suspensions with passive damping have been designed and fabricated. In order to evaluate positioning and track following performances for the dual-stage track servo systems, experimental efforts are carried out to investigate the damping abilities and transmissibilities of the microactuators and to implement the synthesized active-passive suspension structure using a composite nonlinear feedback controller. View full abstract»

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  • List of Reviewers for 2007

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 152
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr