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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 3 • Date March 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 373 - 374
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  • The Not So Digital Future of Digital Signal Processing [Point of View]

    Page(s): 375 - 377
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  • Multimodality Biomolecular Imaging

    Page(s): 378 - 381
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  • Elucidating Structure and Function In Vivo With Hybrid Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Page(s): 382 - 396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (930 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While the mathematics, physics, and technology behind magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence image formation are distinctively different, the two modalities have significant complementary features to impart strong preclinical and clinical application synergies. Traditionally, hybrid MR and fluorescence imaging implied the use of a system where optical and MR signals can be concurrently acquired. In this case, the common geometry allows for the superposition of fluorescence images of cellular and subcellular processes onto anatomical and functional MR images. More recently, a different hybrid imaging paradigm is strongly evolving by utilizing hybrid MR-fluorescence nanoparticles. This approach offers a second paradigm of hybrid visualization where the common underlying contrast enables the coregistration of MR and fluorescence images acquired under different geometries. We review herein progress with the evolving field of multimodality MR and fluorescence imaging and discuss how these strategies offer a highly promising outlook in established and in novel preclinical and clinical applications. View full abstract»

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  • Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles for Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapeutics

    Page(s): 397 - 415
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Molecular imaging is a novel tool that has allowed noninvasive diagnostic imaging to transition from gross anatomical description to identification of specific tissue epitopes and observation of biological processes at the cellular level. Until recently, this technique was confined to the field of nuclear imaging; however, advances in nanotechnology have extended this research to include magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and ultrasound (US), among others. The application of nanotechnology to MR, SPECT, and US molecular imaging has generated several candidate contrast agents. We discuss the application of one multimodality platform, a targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle. Our results show that it is useful for noninvasive detection with all three imaging modalities and may additionally be used for local drug delivery. View full abstract»

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  • The Integration of Positron Emission Tomography With Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Page(s): 416 - 438
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1842 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A number of laboratories and companies are currently exploring the development of integrated imaging systems for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Scanners for both preclinical and human research applications are being pursued. In contrast to the widely distributed and now quite mature PET/computed tomography technology, most PET/MRI designs allow for simultaneous rather than sequential acquisition of PET and MRI data. While this offers the possibility of novel imaging strategies, it also creates considerable challenges for acquiring artifact-free images from both modalities. This paper discusses the motivation for developing combined PET/MRI technology, outlines the obstacles in realizing such an integrated instrument, and presents recent progress in the development of both the instrumentation and of novel imaging agents for combined PET/MRI studies. The performance of the first-generation PET/MRI systems is described. Finally, a range of possible biomedical applications for PET/MRI are outlined. View full abstract»

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  • New Imaging Technologies to Enhance the Molecular Sensitivity of Positron Emission Tomography

    Page(s): 439 - 467
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study certain molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders and guide the discovery and development of new treatments. New PET molecular probes and associated small animal imaging assays are under development to target, visualize, and quantify subtle molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions in signal transduction pathways, cancer cell trafficking, therapeutic stem cells and their progeny, interaction of the immune system and tumor cells, and gene delivery and expression in living animals. These next-generation PET molecular imaging assays require an order of magnitude increase in PET's ability to detect, visualize, and quantify low concentrations of probe interacting with its target, which we will refer to as molecular sensitivity , in order to study the subtle signatures associated with these molecular processes. The molecular sensitivity is determined by a combination of the probe and biological/physiological properties of the subject that determine its specificity for the target, and the performance capabilities of the imaging system that determine how well the resulting signal can be measured. This paper focuses on the second aspect: the challenges of advancing PET technology and some of the new imaging system technologies under investigation to substantially enhance PET's molecular sensitivity. If successful, these novel imaging system technology advances, together with new probe molecules that target specific molecular processes associated with disease, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Performance, and Applications of a Hybrid X-Ray/MR System for Interventional Guidance

    Page(s): 468 - 480
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Image-guided minimally invasive procedures have made a substantial impact in improving patient management, reducing the cost, morbidity, and mortality of treatments and making therapies available to patients who would otherwise have no option. X-ray fluoroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two powerful tools for guiding interventional procedures but with very different strengths and weaknesses. X-ray fluoroscopy offers very high spatial and temporal resolution and is excellent for guiding and deploying devices. MRI offers tomographic imaging with complete freedom of plane orientation, outstanding soft tissue discrimination, and the ability to portray physiological responses during treatment. We have shown that it is feasible to fully integrate an X-ray fluoroscopy system into the bore of an interventional MR scanner to provide a single congruent field of view, with integration requiring minor modifications to the flat-panel digital detector, and using a static-anode X-ray tube. Given the limited availability of the MR scanner platform (0.5T GE Signa SP magnet), and the X-ray fluence limitations of the static-anode X-ray tube, we are now investigating the technology developments required to place a rotating-anode digital flat-panel X-ray system immediately adjacent to a closed-bore MRI system. These types of hybrid systems could have enormous impact in the diagnosis and treatment of oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Molecular and Hypoxia Imaging of Brain Tumors In Vivo Using Spectroscopic Photoacoustic Tomography

    Page(s): 481 - 489
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (535 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Noninvasive molecular and functional imaging in vivo is promising for detecting and monitoring various physiological conditions in animals and ultimately humans. To this end, we present a novel noninvasive technology, spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography (SPAT), which offers both strong optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic spatial resolution. Optical contrast allows spectroscopic separation of signal contributions from multiple optical absorbers (e.g., oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and a molecular contrast agent), thus enabling simultaneous molecular and functional imaging. SPAT successfully imaged with high resolution the distribution of a molecular contrast agent targeting integrin overexpressed in human U87 glioblastomas in nude mouse brains. Simultaneously, SPAT also imaged the hemoglobin oxygen saturation and the total hemoglobin concentration of the vasculature, which revealed hypoxia in tumor neovasculature. Therefore, SPAT can potentially lead to better understanding of the interrelationships between hemodynamics and specific biomarkers associated with tumor progression. View full abstract»

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  • Potential of MRI and Ultrasound Radiation Force in Elastography: Applications to Diagnosis and Therapy

    Page(s): 490 - 499
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Elastography has many exciting new areas of application in the domains of diagnosis and therapy. We present in this overview the current gold standard given by MR elastography, which uses a full three-dimensional approach to solve locally for the unknown complex shear modulus at one frequency. Clinical results for benign and malignant breast lesions are shown. Less rigorous in terms of data completeness, but significantly faster and easier to apply, we introduce the ultrasound-based supersonic shear imaging technique, which uses acoustic radiation force to generate inside the medium planar shear waves. Subsequent ultrafast imaging of the propagating shear wave allows one to recuperate detailed time-of-flight maps of in-vivo breast lesions. Lastly, we present initial results for using magnetic resonance imaging and acoustic radiation force together for high-intensity focused ultrasound interventions. View full abstract»

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  • A Task-Based Approach to Adaptive and Multimodality Imaging

    Page(s): 500 - 511
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (501 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multimodality imaging is becoming increasingly important in medical imaging. Since the motivation for combining multiple imaging modalities is generally to improve diagnostic or prognostic accuracy, the benefits of multimodality imaging cannot be assessed through the display of example images. Instead, we must use objective, task-based measures of image quality to draw valid conclusions about system performance. In this paper, we will present a general framework for utilizing objective, task-based measures of image quality in assessing multimodality and adaptive imaging systems. We introduce a classification scheme for multimodality and adaptive imaging systems and provide a mathematical description of the imaging chain along with block diagrams to provide a visual illustration. We show that the task-based methodology developed for evaluating single-modality imaging can be applied, with minor modifications, to multimodality and adaptive imaging. We discuss strategies for practical implementing of task-based methods to assess and optimize multimodality imaging systems. View full abstract»

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  • State of the Art in Information Extraction and Quantitative Analysis for Multimodality Biomolecular Imaging

    Page(s): 512 - 531
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (951 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rapid advances in optical instrumentation, high-speed cameras, and fluorescent probes have spurred tremendous growth in the volume of biomolecular imaging data. Various optical imaging modalities are used for probing biological systems in vivo and in vitro. These include traditional two-dimensional imaging, three-dimensional confocal imaging, time-lapse imaging, and multispectral imaging. Many applications require a combination of these imaging modalities, which gives rise to huge data sets. However, lack of powerful information extraction and quantitative analysis tools poses a major hindrance to exploiting the full potential of the information content of these data. In particular, automated extraction of semantic information from multimodality imaging data, crucial for understanding biological processes, poses unique challenges. Information extraction from large sets of biomolecular imaging data requires modeling at multiple levels of detail to allow not only quantitative analysis but also interpretation and extraction of high-level semantic information. In this paper, we survey the state of the art in the area of information extraction and automated analysis tools for in vivo and in vitro biomolecular imaging. The modeling and knowledge extraction for these data require sophisticated image processing and machine learning techniques, as well as formalisms for information extraction and knowledge management. Development of such tools has the potential to significantly improve biological discovery and drug development processes. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Lewis B. Stillwell

    Page(s): 532 - 535
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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Page(s): 536
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing

    Page(s): C3
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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University